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GCSE: USA 1919-1941

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  1. The New Deal

    Only the healthy banks were left open. Also, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) was formed by congress to insure deposits of up to $5000. Another feature of the New Deal was to provide work for the unemployed. Roosevelt formed the Civil Works Administration (CWA). This public work program gave the unemployed jobs building or repairing roads, parks, airports, etc. The CWA provided a psychological and physical boost for 4 million workers. Roosevelt also formed Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC). This environmental program put 2.5 million unmarried men to work maintaining and restoring forests and parks.

    • Word count: 2273
  2. The Boom in the US. There are many reasons why it was called the Roaring Twenties.

    This could have also been known as the turning point in music. There were many different people who changed music and the way people look at it. Apart from Jazz, there was a wide range of entertainment then, such as Radios, sports and Cinema. The 1920s saw the growth of the culture of consumerism--many Americans began to work fewer hours, earn higher salaries, invest in the stock market, and buy everything from washing machines to Model T Fords. The culture of consumerism of the 1920s changed the politics of American society and set the tone for American attitudes about money in coming decades.

    • Word count: 2706
  3. The Wall street crash

    Women soon came involved in speculation. Women speculators owned over 50% of the Pennsylvania Railroad, which became known as the ''petticoat line''. It was only individuals who speculated. Banks themselves participated in speculation they certainly didn't nothing to stop it. Banks lent $9 Billion for speculating in 1929. Through most of the 1920's the increase in share prices was quite stable. Unfortunately, there were downfalls, but, in 1928 speculation really took hold. As a result a demand for shares was at an all-time high, and prices were rising at an unknown rate.

    • Word count: 2111
  4. History evacuation of children

    Another reason is that, if children stayed in the major cities they were bound to witness various atrocities of war, this could leave them mentally and could potentially affect them in later life. Since World War One technology had been developed making attacks even more likely then they previously would have been, with this in mind the government evacuated children away from the places that were most likely to fall under attack. Probably the most important of all the reasons to evacuate children away from Britain's major cities in the early years of the war was that children were the future.

    • Word count: 2221
  5. New deal did it bring about the recovery of the American economy

    The War required people to build weapons, make resources, and join the armed forces and many more opportunities. The New Deal did not benefit certain groups of people in society which would mean that the New Deal did not bring about the recovery of the American Economy. For Example the NRA and Child Labour Laws meant that businessmen were unable to find cheap labour and as a result their profit margins narrowed. Another reason as to why the Policies of the New Deal did not bring about a recovery to the American Economy was that Roosevelt did little to sort out the problems that existed before 1929.

    • Word count: 2510
  6. Was The New Deal a Succes

    He also promised to provide relief for the sick and to get industry and agriculture back on their feet. They trusted that if he did win the election, he would introduce his New Deal. The people believed in him and were prepared to ditch Hoover who was referred to as the 'do nothing' President and it wasn't very hard for the people to elect him out of office. 2. Source B gives a positive description of the New Deal as it was seen ten years later while Source C gives an overly negative description. For example, while Source B first seeks to ask an objective question; what are the major achievements of the New Deal, and then goes on to answer the question posed; Source C is more partisan and is a direct attack upon the administration.

    • Word count: 2019
  7. Was The New Deal a Complete Success

    I shall now look at the key question - 'Was the New Deal a Complete Success.' There are many references that show us the amount of healing Roosevelt did during the depression period. This was mainly represented by the groups of people he helped. For example: Farmers - For some farmers, the New Deal was a success and Roosevelt helped them, mainly through the alphabet agencies, to a great extent. Using his agencies, he was able to set up the FCA - this leant loans to a fifth of ALL farmers in America, allowing them to keep their farms and ultimately the whole agricultural industry going.

    • Word count: 2095
  8. Explain The Main Features of the New Deal

    Finally reform was the strife to improve the American lifestyle to something even more magical than the boom in the 1920's before the depression. This would be done by introducing amendments to laws and lifestyles; for example pensions, unemployment benefits and help for the sick, disabled and poor. Roosevelt's aims and inspirations were greatly influenced by many elements relating to his everyday life. Roosevelt had his own disability and was therefore able to empathise with the people of America, and some could even say this was the biggest prompt to provoke the creation of the New Deal...

    • Word count: 2372
  9. prohibition of alcohol in america

    This means that people in America wanted alcohol. They wanted to drink but the law stopped them it took away something that they wanted so they did not like the law. The source is from an American history book published in 1979. This means the writer knows that prohibition was unsuccessful and so it may be biased. Source A disagrees with prohibitions as it tells us about the negative outcomes and consequences of prohibition rather than the positive, good things that could have happened if it was successful.

    • Word count: 2678
  10. Did the Wall Street Crash cause the depression?

    The reason for overconfidence is that during the 1920's the cycle of prosperity was taking place and this created a felling of confidence among the American people, which encouraged them to spend money on buying goods, and invest in shares. More and more shares were being bought and people were becoming rich quickly, this made them overconfident as they believed that these times were here to stay. Overconfidence led the Americans into making the decisions they made; like borrowing money they could not pay back and using it to buy shares, and overconfidence also led to the Government turning a blind eye on the blatant problems which were occurring all around them.

    • Word count: 2674
  11. To what extent can it be argued that the issuing of the Emancipation proclamation was purely a military expedient

    Therefore I do agree that the emancipation proclamation was purely a military expedient. By 1862 the northern army had lots of defeats bad communication poor supplies and very low morale. They were in trouble. Lincoln needed something to rally the troops, a idealistic view in the north was a 'war to end slavery' this would inspire the troops it would also inspire young radical men to join the war therefore giving more support to the north. Lincoln was worried as he did not want to be labelled as the man who let America be separated, 'he consistently stated that the Civil War was being fought solely for the purpose of restoring the Union.

    • Word count: 2437
  12. Life did get better for many Americans in the 1930's. How far was Roosevelt responsible for this or was it due to other factors?

    His aims were relief, reform and recovery which meant that he would do all he could do all he could to rebuild the country to the power that it was before and recover its economy which would lead to reviving the Americans way of life. Roosevelt also made a lot of new and important changes when he firstly came into power. This was known as the 'First 100 Days' and proved very important, as it was an example of how Roosevelt would run the USA and stayed in the citizen's minds.

    • Word count: 2837
  13. How useful are sources D and E in helping you to understand the effects of the depression upon people in Jarrow?

    He also says ''and then go up a dark bare wooden staircase''. This also backs up my theory that he is using his own opinions because he said ''dark'' and ''bare'', this is suggesting that this house is in poor condition. The author is implying that the living room is not what a living room looks like by saying ''at the top we enter the ''living-room'' of a two bedroomed house''. By putting the living-room in inverted commas we picture this living room in poor condition and not what a living room usually looks like.

    • Word count: 2137
  14. How far was Roosevelt responsible for his election victory in 1932? Explain your answer.

    He also ran a well-organised, energetic election backed by wealthy citizens who offered the USA hope. This showed his determination to put all of his energy and be full of enthusiasm in his campaign, which would show the American citizens how powerful he would be as President, as he would put all of his heart and soul into helping the USA. It also gave the Americans something to believe in, as he had wealthy backers, these made this factor and 'other' factor as Roosevelt was helped out and did not fully persuade the public on his own.

    • Word count: 2298
  15. Did Roosevelt's upbringing, background and character make it easy for him to understand the concerns and fears of ordinary Americans?

    They then looked towards the Government for help, to get them out of this dreadful economic situation. Roosevelt therefore needed to no their feelings to console and help them as they were concerned they would not survive without a job and any money as it had been lost to the banks, and unemployment was so low. First, Franklin Delano Roosevelt was born in Hyde Park, New York in 1882. His family owned a country estate and were very wealthy. However this did not help Roosevelt much when trying to strengthen the USA by understanding the Americans average citizen, as because of his wealth he had never been subjected to any suffering and was therefore seen as stuck up.

    • Word count: 2363
  16. Essay Explain why Roosevelt introduced the New Deal

    The US later more or less everybody rich had a car this lead to more and more work available. This was because buying cars meant more and more must be made and by having cars more and more roads has to be built. Also new traffic has to be made. The following quote was said by a politician campaigning in 1928 to show a lot of people were rich and had a car. "A car in every garage and a chicken in every pot? No, TWO cars in every garage and TWO chickens in every pot." The main features of the roaring twenties because of a large amount of people getting richer and richer were the popularity of jazz including the new music of fats Waller, Bessie Smith and others.

    • Word count: 2067
  17. Life got better for many Americans in the 1930s. How far was Roosevelt responsible for this, or was it due to other factors? Explain your

    Roosevelt's advisors also came up with a set of regulations which would prevent reckless speculation, which would prevent the situation that contributed to the Wall Street Crash. These were together called the Emergency Banking Act, and the Securities Exchange Commission. More was done during these one hundred days, and more laws were past, in American History. To keep ordinary Americans informed on what Roosevelt's plans were, he set up a radio show named the Fireside Chat. This helped boost the morale of many people as they weren't in the dark over the plans for their country.

    • Word count: 2035
  18. Was Prohibition bound to Fail

    Prohibition caused a big increase in gangsters, which means more crime and trouble. Although the sources agree with each other in certain aspects, they also disagree with each other or have a difference to a particular point. An example of this, would be the fact that they both agree with the fact that grain should be banned but for different reasons. Source A says, "preserve grain for food" but source B says, "wanted to ban the use of grain for either distilling or brewing." This tells us that that they didn't both want to preserve grain for food.

    • Word count: 2744
  19. The new deal was not a complete success." Explain how far you agree with this statement. The New Deal had three aims Relief, which was to help with unemployment

    From a member who was sacked from the government in 1936, Raymond Moley, explained that Roosevelt did not follow any particular policy after 1936, their own economy began to slide downhill and the unemployment once again began to increase, but he claims the democrats were not willing to admit, he continues to explain, he felt it was the War who saved the economy and that saved Roosevelt. Yet Harold Ickes who was a close supported or Roosevelt, in 1940 explained, it was their (them being the country)

    • Word count: 2008
  20. Roosevelt and The New Deal

    In 1932, 13 million people were out of work and evictions became more common. Hoover even told a newspaper reporter, "Nobody's actually starving." Many of the ordinary people were disgusted with the way that Hoover was running the country, so when Franklin D Roosevelt was introduced as a candidate, they were glad, as they saw him as someone who could help them out of this slump. This is nicely summed up by a quote "In 1932, a Chinaman or a monkey could have been elected against him [Hoover], no question about it."1 Roosevelt's attitude was very different to that of Hoover and the Republicans.

    • Word count: 2488
  21. To what extent did all Americans benefit from the economic improvements which took place between 1919 and 1930

    Now almost every body could buy a car and anybody who worked for Henry ford could buy a car with hire purchase. As a result to the boom in car manufacture, other industries also benefited. A large quantity of gas was need to fuel cars. 65% of US leather was used in the manufacture of car seats and interior. 80% of US rubber was used in the manufacture of car seats and interior. 75% of US glass was used in the manufacture of car windows.

    • Word count: 2693
  22. I think Franklin Delano Roosevelt's 'New Deal' was responsible for this. The New Deal itself succeeded in sparking America's eventual economic recovery, it was undeniably instrumental in starting an equally important psychological recovery.

    This made him think he had a duty to help people less fortunate than him. Franklin was always willing to have a go, changing things for the good of the everybody. He was very enthusiastic. When he was young he used to go and visit an orphanage, so he saw children who were very poor. This shows he could understand people who were in a poor state. On the one hand FDR could not understand the American people through his background and upbringing. He came from a rich family, so he had no idea of what it as like to have no money at all, not have any real personal possessions.

    • Word count: 2573
  23. Do these sources support the view that the failure of Prohibition was inevitable?

    There is evidence in the sources to suggest the decline in everyday commoners abiding by the law and the increase in crime caused by the rebellion against prohibition. The evidence to suggest that the failure of prohibition was inevitable comes from many different factors. One of the most important and most significant factors contributing towards the evidence of prohibition's failure was the inefficiency of law enforcement. Right from the beginning of the introduction of prohibition the law enforcement of it was never that harsh.

    • Word count: 2589
  24. How successful was the New Deal insolving the problems of the depression in the USA?

    (Gov.) to get the US out of depression. His priorities were to get Americans back to work, to protect their monies and belongings, provide benefits for the sick, old or unemployed and basically getting America back on the road to recovery. In his first hundred days of election he did masses. He worked everyday to prove to America that he was going to get them back into prosperity. He worked closely with his advisers (Known as Brain's Trust) to put up several companies and measures to ensure America gets back to normal.

    • Word count: 2128
  25. The Prohibition experiment of the 1920's

    aim of making the American people drink less, it is these argument which I am going to aim to address in this essay and then come to a conclusion as to whether or not Prohibition was a success or a failure. During the period of Prohibition, crime rate more than doubled, especially when it came to organised crime and gangsterism. Although ordinary crime rate increased, this could be due to the fact that in the period before Prohibition police officials were not picking people up for alcohol-related offences as much and after the Volstead Act was passed, as they now felt obliged to.

    • Word count: 2315

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • c) To what extent did all Americans benefit from the boom in the 1920's?

    "In conclusion a lot of Americans benefited from the boom in the 1920's, but not all. Anyone that got involved with the Ford car industry benefited greatly because it opened many opportunities to other people and got other industries booming. The number of unemployed people in America was going down slowly and more people had jobs and were earning. People now were enjoying life and having fun. Women had all the freedom they wanted. People who were hardest hit were the farmers (agriculture), Black Americans and also the Native Indians. Less than half of Americas population were enjoying the booming years, but the majority of America remained poor. To be precise 60% of the Americans were living in poverty and remained in poverty regardless of the economic boom. The people who were suffering from poverty in America suffered a great deal. Blacks, ship builders, coal miners, textile workers were affected greatly. These people made up 60% of Americas population and they were in poverty. In comparison to the rich 40% of Americans population such people in: new industries, car industries, businesses, electrical. These people benefited due to the high wages and could afford to buy the new products on the market."

  • Discuss the reasons for the popularity of gangster films in the early 1930s. Indicate to what actual social context they responded, and why these films became increasingly controversial.

    "Robert Warshow attributes the small length of production of gangster films to the fact that "America, as a social and political organization, is committed to a cheerful view of life"26 and the gangster genre does not promote this ideology. Due to the actions taken by censorship committees it seems as though even when in truth there are troubles within a society these issues are not allowed to be projected into the countries culture, this is reflected by Warshow's sentiments that "every production of mass culture is a public act and must conform with accepted notions of public good"27. Had the gangster genre become popular at a period when there was not such a great deal of civil unrest then perhaps there would not have been such a public outcry in result of the material included, but because of the social effects of and the admiration given to the gangsters within such films the government tried to abolish. This conclusion is supported by Warshow's suggestion that "At a time when the normal condition of the citizen is a state of anxiety, euphoria spreads over our culture like the broad smile of an idiot"28."

  • To What Extent Did The New Deal Pull America Out Of The Depression?

    "My opinion of to what extent did the New Deal pull America out of the depression is that they didn't. All the New Deal did in my opinion was to keep the country from going into complete poverty and kept it running. Even when Roosevelt thought that the New Deal had done enough to regain recovery it slowly started to slip back into depression. This would have just kept happening if they had carried on with schemes for making jobs. The only reason that America got out of depression was because of World War Two. Brad Freislich"

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