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GCSE: Changing Materials - The Earth and its Atmosphere

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Key things you need to know about the atmosphere

  1. 1 The air around us is composed of 70% nitrogen, 29% oxygen and 1% other gases (mostly noble gases and 0.04% carbon dioxide)
  2. 2 Two of the best ways now being used to reduce carbon dioxide emissions are: “capture and storage”- where we capture the CO2 and trap it in abandoned oil wells. And “sequestration”- where we react the CO2 with CaO to make CaCO3 (CaO + CO2 = CaCO3)
  3. 3 The layer of atmosphere that we live in is called the troposphere. Above that is the stratosphere, followed by the mesosphere, then the thermosphere and finally the exosphere. The ozone layer is located in the lower stratosphere.
  4. 4 The ozone layer is a layer of O3 molecules that absorb harmful ultraviolet radiation that would otherwise kill most human life on Earth (by giving us cancer).
  5. 5 Gases like CFC’s (chlorofluorocarbons) destroy the ozone layer. It takes decades for CFC’s to be removed from the atmosphere once they are up there- and all the time they are constantly destroying more ozone. There is currently a hole in the ozone layer caused by gases like CFC’s that is as big as the arctic (north) pole…and growing.

Five top tips on pollution

  1. 1 Carbon monoxide is a toxic gas as it blocks the haemoglobin in our blood from transporting oxygen around our body…if you take in too much carbon monoxide you will suffocate even if you keep on breathing!
  2. 2 Nitrogen oxide and nitrogen dioxide gases in the atmosphere cause acid rain. This destroys trees and makes lakes too acidic for fish to live in. It is also responsible for corroding buildings.
  3. 3 Carbon dioxide is the biggest cause of global warming and if its levels are not reduced, it could cause the melting of the polar ice caps. This will flood an estimated minimum of 30% of England. It is the biggest worry of atmospheric scientists of our time.
  4. 4 Particulates, mainly found in car exhausts, get stuck in our lungs and cause cancer.
  5. 5 Low level ozone (O3) is incredibly dangerous, especially for people who have asthma.

What is global warming?

  1. 1 Global warming is caused by greenhouse gases absorbing infrared radiation emitted from the Earth and scattering it back down to Earth. As infrared radiation is basically heat, this heats the surface of the Earth up.
  2. 2 As well as carbon dioxide, other greenhouse gases include water and methane. They absorb the infrared radiation by making their bonds vibrate.
  3. 3 As global warming causes the polar ice caps to melt, clathrate deposits (huge amount of trapped methane gas) are released. This causes further global warming in a positive feedback loop.
  4. 4 As the average temperature on land raises, many crops will not be able to grow. Almost all scientists agree that this will cause widespread famine on a scale never seen before. This will affect all countries, not just developing countries.
  5. 5 A common mistake students make is to confuse the greenhouse effect with the hole in the ozone layer. Ozone has nothing to do with the greenhouse effect. Keep these two topics clearly separated in your mind.

  1. Plastics- A Benefit or a Disaster? (Science research coursework)

    Only then does the temperature of the remaining mixture rise and other components are boiled off. The supply of fractions with small molecules, like petrol, is less than the demand for them. Cracking is a chemical reaction that takes the useless fractions of crude oil with long chains, breaks them up and turns them into useful short chains, so you will end up with an alkene and an alkane. Fractional distillation and cracking make the raw materials for plastics. Cracking is used to produce a mixture of smaller alkanes and alkenes from larger alkanes.

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  2. Human Impact On the Environment

    Alongside this change the thickness of ice had decreased to 2.2 metres in the years 1993 to 1997. There is a decrease of 1.6 metres in ice thickness over this time. These years were the closest to 2000 which is why they have been used although they aren't 100% accurate they were the closest possible to 2000. This proves that as the years have passed the surface air temperature has increased while the thickness of ice has decreased and will carry on decreasing if surface air temperature decreases further. Global Concentration of Carbon Dioxide in the atmosphere since 1870 The graph above also reflects a positive correlation because the line is slightly curved and is going up.

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  3. Determination of Molar Mass by Freezing Point Depression

    * Data was recorded for temperature below -10�C for the solution. 3. Experimental Results: 3.1. Determination of a Molar Mass by Measurements of Freezing Point Depression. Data Table: TIME TEMP TEMP TEMP TEMP MINUTES H2O H2O SOLUTION SOLUTION RUN # 1 RUN # 2 RUN # 1 RUN # 2 0.5 10.0 11.0 10.0 11.0 1.0 6.0 7.0 4.0 5.0 1.5 4.0 5.0 0.0 2.0 2.0 2.5 5.0 -1.0 0.0 2.5 2.0 4.0 -2.0 -1.0 3.0 1.0 3.0 -3.0 -2.0 3.5 1.0 2.0 -3.0 -3.0 4.0 1.0 1.0 -4.0 -3.0 4.5 0.0 1.0 -4.0 -3.5 5.0 0.0 0.0 -4.0 -4.0 5.5 0.0 0.0 -4.0 -4.0 6.0 0.0 0.0 -4.5 -4.0 6.5 0.0 0.0 -4.5 -4.5

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  4. Is an increase in traffic pollution the

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colourless, odourless and tasteless toxic gas which is emitted as a result of combustion processes, and is also formed by the oxidation of hydrocarbons and other organic compounds. CO survives in the atmosphere for approximately 1 month but is eventually oxidised into carbon dioxide (CO2). Nitrogen oxides are formed during high temperature combustion processes from the oxidation of nitrogen in the air or fuel. The principal source of nitrogen oxides, nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), is road traffic, which is responsible for approximately half the emissions in Europe.

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  5. Investigating the effect of the temperature of hydrochloric acid on its rate of reaction with marble

    This will be the independent variable. Volume of HCl solution. The more hydrochloric acid present, the more inter-particle collisions might occur. This could increase the number of successful reactions/unit of time, increasing the rate of reaction. Use the same amount of HCl solution in each experiment. Concentration of HCl The more HCl molecules/ml of solution, the more HCl/volume, therefore meaning that particles colliding with the CaCO3 are more likely to be HCl. This would give a higher rate of reaction.

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  6. Should the UK build more Nuclear Power Stations?

    Background Information Nuclear power plants provide about 17% of the world's electricity, some countries depend more on nuclear power for electricity than others. In France, for instance, about 75% of the electricity is generated from nuclear power, according to the International Atomic Energy Agency. In the US however, nuclear power supplies about 15% of the electricity overall, but it is not evenly distributed between states. While in the UK, 23% of energy generated is nuclear, with gas at 38%, coal at 32%, oil & others at 4% with only 3% of the UK's energy generation is coming from renewable sources.

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  7. air pollution

    Air pollution was becoming a really big problem, especially when the weather was foggy. But since the industrial revolution, the quality of the air we breathe has deteriorated considerably - mainly as a result of human activities. Rising industrial and energy production, the burning of fossil fuels and the dramatic rise in traffic on our roads all contribute to air pollution in our towns and cities which, in turn, can lead to serious health problems. For example, air pollution is increasingly being cited as the main cause of lung conditions such as asthma - twice as many people suffer from asthma today compared to 20 years ago.

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  8. Are fossil fuels being overused?

    If over all these years we would have been using the Sun as a substitute for fossil fuels then we would have less global warming and more of the non-renewable fossil fuels to use later on. If we would have been using solar power all these years then there would've been no where near as many deaths from pollution as there has been. On the other hand, people may argue that we might not have as many new products, electronics, cars, televisions, mobile phones, houses, jobs etc.

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  9. Factors affecting mass of copper transferred in Electrolysis of aqueous copper sulphate

    Copper is a chemical element in the periodic table that has the symbol Cu and atomic number 29. Copper is a reddish-colored metal, with a high electrical and thermal conductivityCopper has its characteristic color because it reflects red and orange light and absorbs other frequencies in the visible spectrum, due to its band structureCopper is insoluble in water (H2O) as well as isopropanol, or isopropyl alcohol. There are two stable isotopes, 63Cu and 65Cu, along with a couple of dozen radioisotopes.

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  10. GCSE Chemistry - Electrolysis Coursework

    I can therefore predict that if I double the time of the experiment, I will therefore be doubling the charge. This statement can be supported by both of Faraday�s Laws. Faraday�s First Law of electrolysis states that: �The mass of any element deposited during electrolysis is directly proportional to the number of coulombs of electricity passed� Faraday�s Second Law of electrolysis states that: �The mass of an element deposited by one Faraday of electricity is equal to the atomic mass in grams of the element divided by the number of electrons required to discharge one ion of the element.� Another

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  11. Investigating how the amount of copper affects the mass of the cathode

    The fourth variable the affects the experiment is the size of the concentration. The higher the concentration, again the positive and negative ions are more active therefore, there are more chances of collisions at the cathode to form more copper. I will be changing the size of the current throughout my experiment. I will use a rheostat and an ammeter to control the size of the current so that it is adjusted accurately. BACKGROUND INFORMATION: British scientist, Michael Faraday (1791-1867)

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  12. The Electrolysis Of Copper Sulphate Solution Using Copper Electrodes

    The size of the electrodes was also never exactly the same, as they were reused, so the amount of electrolysis differed from experiment to experiment. The separation of the electrodes was a small source of error, as they were not always exactly the same distance apart. The current which was controlled with the rheostat was not always the same, as the amount of copper decreases, so does the resistance, and so the current increases. Other errors could have been caused by the apparatus, such as the ammeter, which is quite old, and may not be perfectly calibrated, and the scales, which only show the mass to 2 decimal places.

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  13. Thermal Decomposition Of Metal Carbonates

    With some metals there is no reaction at all. These are the metals at the bottom of the reactivity series, such as gold. Also the most reactive metals form their oxides much quicker than the less reactive metals. This type of reaction is called an oxidation reaction, because the metal gains oxygen. The formula for the reaction with air is: Metal + Oxygen = Metal Oxide Metals can also be placed in water to see how they react. Again the extremely reactive metals potassium and sodium react more vigorously compared to the less reactive metals.

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  14. Investigate the factors that affect the mass of Copper deposited on the Copper Cathode during the Electrolysis of Copper (11) Sulphate Solution using Copper Electrodes.

    Cu + 2e ==> Cu atom At the anode The ions OH (hydroxide ions) and So (sulphate ions) are attracted here. As So is not a halogen, OH ions give up electrons more readily and migrate to the anode forming oxygen there. OH - 4e ==> 2H O + O Electrolysis involves both Oxidation and Reduction reactions at the electrodes. They are chemical opposites, oxidation is loss of electrons and reduction is the gain of electrons. At the cathode, cations gain electrons and are reduced and at the anode, anions lose electrons and are oxidised As we know there are two different types of electrolytes, aqueous and molten.

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  15. What Effects the Reaction in the Electrolysis of Copper Sulphate.

    scale This will provide me with more accurate readings and make my test fairer Tap Water will wash off any copper sulphate solution still on the electrodes after the experiment Electric heater This will remove the water on the electrodes and leave me with only the electrodes themselves I could use any of the following variables for my experiment 1. Time 2. Current 3. Temperature 4. Molarity/Concentration of Solution 5. Quantity of Solution 6. Distance between the electrodes 7. The surface of the electrodes 8.

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  16. Investigation to show how the amount of electric current affects the amount of copper deposited at the electrodes during the electrolysis of copper sulphate solution using copper electrodes.

    As the electrolyte is of course an ionic compound, it contains positive and negative ions. As I have stated above, the copper ions are positive and are therefore attracted to the cathode. When the copper ions reach the cathode, they are discharged by the plentiful electrodes being put into the cathode. Thus they become copper atoms. This is shown by the equation: Cu�+ + 2e- � Cu This shows that two electrons are needed to discharge each copper ion. In addition to the copper in the copper sulphate solution being decomposed, positive copper ions from the positive anode are also being attracted to the negative cathode.

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  17. Find out how magnesium ribbon reacts with various chlorides.

    Arrangement of particles in an atom The protons and neutrons are tightly packed in the nucleus of an atom. The electrons move rapidly around the nucleus in distinct energy levels. Each energy level is capable of accommodating only a certain number of electrons. The first energy level can hold only two electrons. This energy level is filled first. The second energy level can hold only eight electrons. This energy level is filled after the first energy level and before the third energy level.

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  18. Electrolysis - The aim of this experiment is to prove that by passing electric current through an aqueous copper sulphate solution changes the mass of each electrode. The anode's mass will increase and the cathode's mass will decrease.

    A bromide ion, Br- differs from Br a bromide atom because it has one more electron. The extra electron gives it a negative charge. A Lead ion Pb2+, differs from a Lead atom, Pb by having 2 more electrons. When ions reach the electrodes they lose their charge, they are discharged. The positive electrode takes electrons form bromine ions so that they become bromine atoms. Then the bromide atoms pair up to form bromine molecules: The negative electrode gives electrons to the positively charged lead ions so that they become lead atoms. The electrons, which are supplied to the anode by the discharge of bromine ions, travel round the external circuit to the cathode.

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  19. Electrolytic wastewater treatment apparatus

    The process of claim 1, wherein the wastewater is derived from an upstream process facility selected from the group consisting of power generation stations, printed circuit board manufacturing facilities, and landfill seepage wastewater. 10. The process of claim 1, conducted in a mode selected from the group consisting of continuous, semi-continuous and batch modes of operation. 11. The process of claim 1, wherein the wastewater prior to being flowed into the electrolytic oxidation cell is subjected to pH adjustment, to obtain a pH level of from about 7 to about 10 in the wastewater flowed into the electrolytic oxidation cell.

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  20. Quantitative electrolysis concerns the amount of product obtained in an electrolysis, and the various calculations to find the mass of a product using the different variables.

    When ions discharge, products are obtained. Increasing the number of ions discharged will increase the mass of product formed. So mass of product is directly proportional to the number of ions discharged. So, The number of ions discharged is directly proportional to mass, (m) The number of ions discharged is directly proportional to current, (I) The number of ions discharged is directly proportional to time, (t) Therefore, m ? I m ? t m ? It m = constant It From these, What happens during the electrolysis of CuSO4? At the Anode: Cu(s) ? Cu2+(aq) +2e- At the Cathode: Cu2+(aq)

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  21. Investigating the factors that affect the amount of copper deposited during the electrolysis of copper (II) sulphate solution.

    We first got two pieces of copper and labelled them 'C' and 'A' (cathode and anode). We cleaned the copper with cotton wool and propanone to remove any dirt or grease and we then weighed the electrodes and recorded their masses. The electrodes were then connected to a battery in a simple circuit (as shown below) with a light bulb with the copper (II) sulphate solution as the electrolyte. The negative terminal of the battery was connected to then cathode, and the positive to the anode. The electrolysis was kept going for as long as possible. When the experiment was over, we disconnected the electrodes carefully, washed them in distilled water and patted them gently dry.

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  22. Thermal Decomposition of Metal carbonates

    Again the extremely reactive metals potassium and sodium react more vigorously compared to the less reactive metals. In preliminary work that I have done as potassium was placed in cold water it immediately began to react vigorously with the water. The metal also set on fire as it darted around the water. Hydrogen was given off by the potassium as it reacted with the cold water. Calcium which is also a very reactive metal does not react in the same way as potassium. Calcium reacts slower as it is placed in cold water. The calcium falls to the bottom of the beaker, whereas potassium floated on the top.

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  23. The Electrolysis Of Copper (ii) Sulphate Solution Using Copper Electrodes

    Instead the anode itself loses electrons which change into cations and pass into the electrolyte mixture. The reason why this change occurs rather than an anion discharging is because it requires less energy and hence occurs more easily. The discharged ions are the products of electrolysis and if this is solid like Copper it deposits at one electrode. In the electrolysis of Copper(II) Sulphate solution using Copper electrodes the ions present are CU2+ and SO42- from CuSO4 and H+ and OH- from H2O: The ionic half equations in this experiment are: At the anode no ions will discharge since it

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  24. Investigating one of the factors that affects the mass of copper deposited when copper sulphate solution is electrolysed using copper electrodes

    For 0.1A the gain of mass at the cathode is the same as the loss at the anode. At 0.2A the gain and loss in mass at both electrodes are quite similar. Using my pilot study results I could also determine what different sizes of current I should be investigating with and what time the solutions should be electrolysed for. I find that at 0.1A there was a very small change in mass at both electrodes. Leaving the solution to be electrolysed for longer may have helped but even then the change would have been very small.

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