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University Degree: Applied Biology

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  1. Synthesis and Analysis of an Iron Compound

    Initial (ml) 11.00 11.99 13.99 17.00 16.71 Final (ml) 11.99 13.99 17.00 20.99 21.71 Amount of solution (ml) 0.99 2.00 3.01 3.99 5.00 Absorbance 0.220 0.407 0.607 0.811 1.013 Concentration of stock standard iron solution: 0.05023 mg/ml Amount of unknown sample used in the solution: 0.128 grams Absorbance of unknown solution: 0.220 Table 2. Titration of the Na2C2O4 Solution Trial # 1 2 3 Mass of beaker + sample (g) 123.142 113.718 95.137 Mass of beaker (g) 122.922 133.472 94.921 Mass of Na2C2O4 (g) 0.220 0.246 0.216 KMnO4 solution required (ml) 30.92 36.99 30.62 Table 3. Titration of the Unknown Iron Solution.

    • Word count: 689
  2. Isolation of a natural Product and Purification and Infrared spectrum of trimyristin

    Small amount of activated carbon is added to during the recrystallization in order to absorb the colour inside the solution. After that, it can be filter out by the fluted filter paper. Objective: To isolate trimyristin from nutmeg seed by solvent extraction To purified it by recrystallization. To obtain an infrared spectrum of the isolated trimyristin from the recrystallized trimyristin from the experiment. To study the difference between the infrared spectrum results of the isolated trimyristin from experiment 3 and the recrystallized trimyristin Materials and Methods Procedure for the isolation trimyristin from nutmeg seed by solvent extraction 15.13g of ground nutmeg seed, 40ml of acetone and five antibumping granules were placed into a 100ml round bottom flask.

    • Word count: 1180
  3. Industrial Report

    This also helps in the finding out the adulteration that has been done in the production. The Company is mainly organised into 4 levels. The four levels in the order of descending higher archey are as follows: 1st comes the Executive board which gives effect to the decisions and the policies of the company and to give advice and produce suggestions for the development of the company. 2nd comes the Main board which is responsible for the shares of the company it holds in the stock market.

    • Word count: 1589
  4. Blood Clotting & Problems

    Plasma is mainly made from water, but contains many different proteins and other chemicals, an example would be hormones. * Blood cells - make up about 40% of the blood's volume. Blood cells are made in the bone marrow by blood 'stem' cells. The blood cells that are in the body are different types; they are red cells and white cells. * Red cells - give blood the red color. A constant new supply of red blood cells is needed to replace old cells that break down. Millions are released into the bloodstream from the bone marrow each day.

    • Word count: 2091
  5. Experiment on Spectrophotometer

    Objectives o Learn to use a spectrophotometer o Determine the degree of light absorption by a colored compound o Plot a spectrum of light absorption against wavelength is best to use for peak wavelength o Make a standard solution of known concentration, and then plot them to a graph o Understand calibration graphs o Measure the concentration using a graph o Writing a experimental report Method Refer to manual Results (Nm)

    • Word count: 508
  6. Biochemistry Notes: Lipids; Saturated/Unsaturated Fats; Phospholipids; Steroids

    The tail of fatty acid accounts for fate being insoluble in water. With the help of enzymes dehydration synthesis links a fatty acid to glycerol by an ester linkage (the term for a bond between a hydroxyl group and a carboxyl group. Glycerol now has two remaining hydroxyls and each can be bounded to a fatty acid, the product is a fat (triglyceride). Saturated/Unsaturated Fats Fatty acids vary in length and the number of double bonds. If there are no double bonds between the carbon atoms then the carbon skeleton is bonded to the maximum number of hydrogen atoms.

    • Word count: 602
  7. Heat Balance in a Hot Environment

    An aural thermistor was inserted into the ear and the headband was put on to ensure the thermistor was held in place. Firstly a 30 minute control period was carried out with the subject at rest in a cool environment. The subject was weighed on an electronic balance at the start and at the end of this 30 minute rest period. When this period was concluded, the subject was moved to the hot environment (temperature controlled room), in which the temperature was kept at approximately 40�C and the relative humidity was approximately 20%.

    • Word count: 1815
  8. Cellular Respiration

    Energy released as glucose is slowly broken down and can be captured to produce ATP. ATP is created through a process of cellular respiration. (SYMBIOSIS p75) There are three main stages of cellular respiration. The process begins with glycolysis. Glycolysis literally means "splitting sugars". Glucose is split into two molecules of a three carbon sugar. In the process, two molecules of ATP, two molecules of pyruvic acid and two "high energy" electron carrying molecules of NADH are produced. This process can occur whether or not oxygen is present. (Bailey) The next stage is called the citric acid cycle.

    • Word count: 530
  9. Organic Molecules

    (SYMBIOSIS p20) Purpose In this lab, we will perform simple tests to determine the absence or presence of the four different organic compounds. These tests will, of course, be qualitative rather than quantitative. Meaning we will not be determining the quantity of these compounds within the samples, but simply whether or not they are present. Carbohydrates are what give the cells within our body it's energy. As mentioned before, the building blocks of carbohydrates are sugars. These sugars can are classified according to the amount of sugar molecules they have.

    • Word count: 1429
  10. Proprioception and the stretch refle

    These myofibrils are surrounded by another structure known as the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Within a relaxed muscle fiber the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) stores calcium ions. When these ions are released from dilated sacs within the SR known as terminal cisterns, it triggers muscle contraction. Three different kinds of proteins make up myofibrils, these consist of; contractile proteins which create the force during a contraction, regulatory proteins which affects whether the contraction process is switched on or off and finally structural proteins which keeps the filaments correctly aligned, ensures the myofibril has elasticity and keeps it linked to the sarcolemma.

    • Word count: 2626
  11. Effect of Isotonic Exercise on HR and BP

    This initial response to the impending exercise is equivalent to that of the "fight-or-flight" response. Nerve impulses, initiated from the hypothalamus in the brain are sent to the sympathetic division of the ANS, which then starts to rapidly organise the body's essential resources, such as oxygen and glucose, for the onset of physical activity. Vast amounts of these resources are transported to organs such as the brain, skeletal muscles and the heart. The second mechanism is the actual increase in heart rate during exercise. This is a more complex sequence of events where the increased cellular metabolic processes taking place in active muscles cause relaxation of smooth muscle in the local arterioles.

    • Word count: 1638
  12. SDS-PAGE and Western Blotting Lab report (extensive methods section)

    The technique mixes the protein with sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) which is an anionic detergent that imparts a negative charge on the protein, the strength of which was dependent on the mass of the protein (Shapiro et al., 1967). The SDS denatures the secondary and tertiary structure of the protein, excluding disulphide bridges, and binds at a ratio of 1.4g of SDS per 1g of protein. This gives an identical mass:charge ratio for most proteins, enabling more efficient separation. It has been suggested that SDS-PAGE can determine the molecular weights of proteins with �10% accuracy (Weber, 1969).

    • Word count: 2734
  13. amylase enzyme

    Most enzymes are specific, meaning that they only work on a particular reaction or class of reactions. Enzymes are structural proteins which can catalyze a reaction. They cause an increase in the rate of the reaction, while not being consumed in the reaction (Campbell et al., 2002). The amylase enzyme is secreted by the salivary glands and mixed with food as it is chewed. Amylase hydrolyses the starch molecules by breaking the glucose monomer bonds. The nature of starch may result in differences in amylolysis. The proportion of amylase, the a-(1,4)-linked anhydroglucose polymer, and amylopectin, the highly branched component formed by a-(1,4)-linked anhydroglucose units with a-(1,6)-linked branches are known to vary among different sources of starch (French, 1984).

    • Word count: 2046
  14. Superbugs the rise and fall of hospital acquired infections

    difficile produces heat-resistant spores that remain on hospital surfaces for a long period of time. Once the spores are ingested, they pass through the stomach to the colon, where they change into their active form and multiply. Patients who stay long-term in a hospital have a higher chance of this happening. It is linked to 400 000 cases of severe diarrhea each year and is often fatal. Cases of C.difficile have risen by 5.5% in 2006 compared with 2005 and are still on the rise (Star, 2007).

    • Word count: 1119
  15. Why Do Students Drink?

    s****l Assaults and Alcohol Three-quarters of s****l assaults on school campuses are the result of students who binge drink (High-risk, 2004). Students who drink have the high risk of being s******y assaulted and that also goes for those who do not drink either. Opposing View Some schools have tried to ban alcohol from their campuses hoping that it would become a dry campus. In addition, some schools have said that the alcohol awareness program is not effective as to ban alcohol.

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  16. Characterize of organic macromolecules, which are carbohydrates, protein, and lipid, that present food.

    The tertiary structure refers to the folded and coiled protein structure became a globular that has 3D conformation. The quaternary structure refers to the protein structure that form from two or more tertiary subunit, became a macromolecule. Lipid also known as triacylglycerol, is a macromolecular form by three fatty acid and one glycerol that link by ester linkage, because of its structure is became a heterogeneous group, which soluble in non-polar solvent, and insoluble in polar solvent. There are two types of fatty acid, that is saturated fatty acid, and unsaturated fatty acid.

    • Word count: 3868
  17. Effect of exercise on heart rate and arterial blood pressure in young healthy volunteers.

    After 10 minutes, it had decreased to around the same as the rest state. Systolic blood pressure increased after exercise, and decreased slightly below resting systolic pressure after the recovery period. Diastolic blood pressure decreased slightly after exercise, and after the recovery period, it returned to around the same pressure as it was before exercise. Conclusions and implications: It was found that, whilst heart rate and systolic blood pressure were consistent with the hypothesis, diastolic blood pressure only changed by a small margin. Introduction The cardiovascular system circulates nutrients throughout various parts of the body via the blood, which is continuously circulated around the whole body.

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  18. Ecstasy and Brain Damage.

    [5] Despite its classification, the use of the drug has risen dramatically over the past 15-20 years. Between 1991 and 1997 the percentage of college students (US) who had taken MDMA rose from 0.9% to 2.4%. During the same period, use among young adults rose from 0.8% to 2.1%. [6] A more recent study in the US has shown that 2.3% of college students and 4.3% of young adults between the ages of 19-28 years had taken the drug at least once during the last year.

    • Word count: 1867
  19. Changes in the GRK2 Expressions during Heart Failure

    human HF, chronic activation of the sympathetic nervous system has adverse implications and can accelerate cardiac pathology.9,11 Chronic HF can be characterized by decreased responsiveness of ?AR to their agonists.17 This desensitization is a due to the decreased number of ?ARs and impaired receptor function, i.e. receptor uncoupling.18,19 These outcomes are partially related to the enhanced activity of GRK2.1 Therefore, constant stimulation of ?ARs has been linked to their downregulation, which contributes substantially to heart failure via a molecular abnormal upregulation of GRK2.8,20,21 Under physiological conditions, SNS regulation and function occurs via ?2AR.

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  20. Contact cues are an effective substitute for the loss of vestibular function

    Individuals affected by such a loss often demonstrate different head and body control patterns than normal2. Many patients with a vestibular dysfunction use a cane or use their index fingertip as a contact cue to provide tactile input, which leads to improvement of spatial orientation and postural sway3. A series of studies on vestibular loss patients indicates that somatosensory cues at the fingertip and hand reduce their postural sway. The tongue and fingers enhance balance control due to their precise spatial resolution4. The study performed by Fitzpatrick and McClosely in 1994 demonstrated how the fingertip can capture body displacement and motion at levels below threshold for the vestibular apparatus.

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    However, while containment through preventive strategies and modern day technology in regard to new treatments may be a beacon of possible success and solution, the reality remains evident that there are countries in the developing world, from Eastern Europe to Asia and North Africa, where the disease continues to spread. In other regions, like Sub Saharan Africa, where the disease continues to spread exponentially, the predictions for the future of the population are bleaker than ever. Particularly, in South Africa, HIV prevalence in 15-49 year olds has risen from less than 1% to about 20% in little more than a

    • Word count: 5705
  22. Alternative Fuels Thesis: Natural gas is the most economical and environmental friendly fuel for motor vehicles

    Of the various types of alternative fuels, natural gas is the most economical and reduces air pollution. Analysis The most common types of alternative fuels considered for motor vehicles are electric fuel, natural gas, hydrogen and fuel cell. Each of these fuels has its own advantages and disadvantages. The best alternative fuel will be the one that is economical and reduces air pollution. There are various types of motor vehicles depending on the kind of fuel utilized in it such as electric vehicles, hydrogen fuel vehicles, fuel cell vehicles and natural gas fuel vehicles An electric fuel vehicle has the capacity of not producing any pollutants and even if they do, it is easier to control it.

    • Word count: 744
  23. Biotechnology companies within the UK.

    Enterprise and Information Society Commissioner Erkki Liikanen said: "Practically the entire European biotechnology industry is facing difficulties due to the collapse in investor confidence in knowledge-based industries. Many small biotechnology enterprises, working on medical, industrial, agricultural and environmental applications, are unable to get the funding they need to turn their research findings into a commercial reality. If a large number of such enterprises were to fail, it would seriously undermine knowledge that is critical to the long-term competitiveness of major European industries.

    • Word count: 3797
  24. Hybrid and Hydrogen-Based Automobiles.

    The search for alternative fuels has been in progress for a while now. Another challenge is to find a solution that would significantly reduce gas-emissions, while maintaining a high performance to attract consumers. Today, the most efficient solution is hybrid cars. Some automakers have already put on the market their own version. Toyota is selling the Prius, while Honda is selling the Insight. GM is almost ready to display its own hybrid car. As for hydrogen-based, more research needs to done before automakers are ready to produce them. 1.3 Scope Because the time awarded to this research was limited, so is the content.

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  25. Discuss the presentation of Adverse Events & Adverse Drug Reactions in the PI.

    Discuss the presentation of Adverse Events & Adverse Drug Reactions in the PI. The Australian Guidelines for Registration of Drugs stipulate that the PI for a product should provide an indication of the adverse events that have been associated with treatment, as well as their severity, clinical importance & frequency. The adverse events listed within a PI may be drawn from comparative trials, as well as adverse reactions reported during pre and post marketing experience. Adverse events identified from clinical trial data will often include the incidence rates of the most frequently observed adverse events, regardless of whether their causality to drug treatment has been confirmed.

    • Word count: 1445

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