Explain, with examples, how the processes of natural selection and sexual selection are thought to have contributed to modern-day human behaviour
Explain, with examples, how the processes of natural selection and sexual selection are thought to have contributed to modern-day human behaviour Human physical and psychological mechanisms are subject to an environment which is ever changing. Selection enables us to develop and so cope with these random changes by selecting the mechanisms which enable us to cope with these external factors and thus making them much more likely to be inherited by our next generation (Clegg, 2007). It is the survival of the gene to which selection refers to as opposed to the species, for example, the gene which enables the individual to reproduce effectively or the gene that predisposition certain behaviours which are most suitable to it's environment will be passed down to future generations. This means that genes that are less effective for survival or reproduction are less likely to be inherited (Barrett et al., 2002 as cited in Clegg, 2007 p121) It is common practice to divide selection into two process: natural selection; and sexual selection (Clegg, 2007). Natural selection refers to the process of genes which are responsible for physical and behavioural characteristics and are most suitable for survival, being inherited by the next generation. Sexual selection (which could also be argued as being a sub-process of natural selection) refers to the process of genes which influence
Evaluate The Influence Of Nature And Nurture On The Development Of Aggression Aggression is an action. It is intended to harm someone. It can be a verbal attack--insults, threats, sarcasm, or attributing nasty motives to them or a physical punishment or restriction. Researchers have tried to understand the nature of this behaviour. In doing this, there has been an ongoing argument of what its source is. "The nature vs. nurture topic has been a continuing debate for many aspects of human behaviour, including aggression. There have been many studies indicating that chemical relationships between serotonin, testosterone, and frontal lobe brain chemistry may play a key role in determining aggressive behaviour, while other studies have explored environmental and societal factors that have been said to control patterns in human aggression."1 Scientists have known for years that traits such as eye color and hair color are determined by specific genes encoded in each human cell. The Nature Theory takes things a step further to say that our more abstract traits such as intelligence, personality, aggression, and sexual orientation are also encoded in an individual's DNA. While not discounting that genetic tendencies may exist, supporters of the nurture theory believe they ultimately don't matter - that our behavioural aspects originate only from the environmental factors of
Literature Review - How exactly do couples that have arranged marriages get to meet each other and get married? Do arranged marriages work out better than love marriages?
Arranged Marriages, Matchmakers, and Personal Ads Sirisha Jala PSY 325: Statistics for the Behavioral & Social Sciences Donna Wall March 28th 2011 Arranged Marriages, Matchmakers, and Personal Ads Introduction The chosen issue is arranged marriages, matchmakers, and personal ads. It was selected due to personal reasons of being an Indian female of marriageable age and soon to be, one of subjects written about in these studies of arranged marriages. The perspective of this approach is that arranged marriages last longer and arranged marriages are the typical Indian family affair, love marriages can last for a long time but people fall out of love and get divorced, arranged marriages have changed to adapt to the 21st Century of Internet, and nowadays, in arranged marriages the children choose whom they marry but the parents have to meet the choice. The scope of this paper attempts to understand why arranged marriages have been more stable in India and other Asian countries than love marriages in the Western world, together with the advantages and disadvantages of this approach to marriage. Statement of the Problem How exactly do couples that have arranged marriages get to meet each other and get married? Do arranged marriages work out better than love marriages? Many people think that arranged marriages actually do work out better than love marriages do. Many people
Hidden Costs: The links between Incivility and Bullying in the Workplace Duda Silva Psychology 460 Dr. Diane Villa March 24, 2009 Abstract Research indicates that human incivility, can and is the cause of many cases of "workplace bullying". Workplace bullying can affect a company's bottom line due to lost productivity and employee turnover. An ongoing issue, incivility is directly linked with the attitudes that start the actual bullying. Bullying crosses personal boundaries and hurts not only the people affected, but many organizations worldwide; from sales to hospitals, service industries to technology firms. Incivility and bullying deteriorate work performance and leaves those individuals experiencing these repeated attacks, physical or verbal, ashamed to not only return to their job, but with a feeling of helplessness and defeat. This article is written to not only to examine the shared traits and differences between incivility and bullying and how it affects individuals, but to better inform the working class and companies alike on how these activities affect personal well-being, work performance, and company profitability. Hidden Costs: The Links between Incivility and Bullying in the Workplace Civil behavior involves treating others with dignity and respect as well as acting with consideration for their feelings (Estes, B, & Wang, J., 2008). Uncivil
Does watching too much violence in films and television make people more violent? The question of whether media causes violence has attracted a lot of attention and has been much researched. It is however an exceptionally difficult theory to test as it is hard to define it objectively. This is because what some people may consider as being a violent act, others would not, and more so forms of violence may be acceptable by some may not be acceptable to others. For example hitting your child if they have done something wrong. We can therefore say it is difficult to access what is considered to be violent and what is not and because of this it makes it harder to isolate the effect of media violence from the wide range of other factors that may be said to cause violent behaviour. Eldrige et al 1997 claimed that as soon as films in Britain were introduced, concerns were raised about the way they would undermine morality. Films were generating crime, promiscuous sex shown and portraying violence. There was particular concern because of the way large numbers of women and children learned how to commit crime by seeing crime scenes on the screen. Others, on the other hand believed that stories of romantic love affairs would undermine marriage and threaten the family. A recent case carried out by Newbun and Hagell 1995 showed the murder of a 2 year-old boy
Neutrality in psychoanalysis. Psychoanalysts draw many parallels with Batman. Psychoanalysts are also devoted to helping others and follow a set of principles when in practice. An essential part of the psychoanalytic code is neutrality.
Running head: PSYCHOANALYSTS ARE BATMAN Neutral Psychoanalysts: I am Batman Mathew Gullotta Macquarie University Neutral Psychoanalysts: I am Batman Batman. When read, the image of a superhero with a profound power devoted to helping others comes to mind. Defined by the Complete Scoundrel sourcebook (McArtor & Schneider, 2007) as a "neutral good" character, Batman adheres to a personal code, in which he is unbiased in doing 'good', while remaining unindebted to those he helps. This personal code was devised to maintain a greater good in society by providing a set of guiding principles that aid in making moral decisions and is followed when fighting crime. Psychoanalysts draw many parallels with Batman. Psychoanalysts are also devoted to helping others and follow a set of principles when in practice. An essential part of the psychoanalytic code is neutrality. According to Meissner (1998) "neutrality has been long honored as an essential component of the [psycho]analytic situation and process" (p. 1089). The concept of neutrality has recently been the basis of highly controversial debate. Emphasis has been placed on the interactions of the analyst, in particular the use of self-disclosures. Analysts have examined the outcomes of neutrality and self-disclosure in the analytical process. These authors have purported mixed stances. Some analysts have advocated neutrality
This essay will discuss sociological research and theories that offer the potential for advising people on aspects of creating and sustaining satisfying relationships across a number of perspectives and evaluate the evidence provided.
This essay will discuss sociological research and theories that offer the potential for advising people on aspects of creating and sustaining satisfying relationships across a number of perspectives and evaluate the evidence provided. The essay will then focus on the question of whether the role of giving advice is valid for social psychologists and the potential problems in offering relationship advice. Social psychology can be used in different contexts for different purposes. While many reasons for starting and maintaining the great variety of relationships in which people are involved have been scrutinised, the functions of relationships identified by researchers are dependant to a very great extent on what any particular theoretical perspective identifies as the 'goal of relating'(Miell and Croghan 2002 cited in Miell and Dallos 2002). To tell us anything of functional value as individuals about creating and sustaining relationships, the different perspectives of social psychology must stand up to robust investigation around issues of personal relevance. To do this we must assess how well evidence and theory from social psychology relate directly to our personal lives, our interpersonal relationships and our social roles. We must ask how we can draw upon these to help in the process of living our lives. The humanistic perspective places emphasis on particular ways
Critically compare and contrast two theories that explain prejudice, discrimination and stereotyping.
Critically compare and contrast two theories that explain prejudice, discrimination and stereotyping. Prejudice, discrimination and stereotyping have been topics of interest for countless social psychologists for a while now. Many psychologists have theorized about the cause and nature of such behaviour, yet the ones that provoke the most interest are; the social identity theory which originates in the work preliminarily conducted by Henri Tajfel; and the realistic conflict theory proposed by Sheriff (1966). This essay will attempt to compare and contrast these two intriguing explanations of prejudice, discrimination and stereotyping in terms of intergroup behaviour. Tajfel defines social identity as "the individuals knowledge that he belongs to certain social groups together with some emotional and value significance to him of this group membership" (Tajfel, 1972). Social identity theory defines a group in terms of its member's self-conception. Psychologically, a group exists when it consists of three or more members who evaluate themselves based on attributes they have in common with each other which differentiate them from other groups. Social identity theory assumes that individuals join groups because they are motivated to increase or maintain their self esteem which is something that group membership can provide. This is achieved by indentifying with an in-group and
Discuss research into the effects of the media on pro and anti social behaviour. There is an abundance of research into the effects media has, but mostly on children, and mostly regarding aggression or violence. However there are pro social studies. In 1973 Friedrich and Steiner studied American Pre-School children, who watched a television program called "Mister Rogers Neighbourhood." This programme is pro social and non violent. There were children who watched neutral or aggressive programmes to study the effects other programmes may have. After the programme the kids who watched the pro social TV, were more helpful and they remembered much of the pro social information. They became increasingly helpful if they role played pro social events from the programme. Another pro social study was by Sprafkin, Liebert and Poulos in 1975. They studied 6 year olds. Some kids watched an episode of "Lassie", which involved a heroic scene were a boy rescued a dog. The others saw an episode of the "Brady Bunch" (comedy) After watching the Television the children were given an option. They could help some distressed puppies but they would have to stop playing the game that they were playing were you could win "a big prize". The kids who had watched "Lassie" spent on average 90 seconds with the puppies, however the others spent under 50 seconds. This shows they had imitated specific
Is crime an abnormal Act? Is crime an abnormal act committed by an abnormal person? An average person confronted with the question, "Is crime an abnormal act committed by an abnormal person"?, would undoubtedly say, ÔǣYesÔÇ?. They would consider themselves, perhaps not angelic, but certainly law-abiding members of society; however, if these so-called, ÔÇÿlaw-abidingÔÇÖ citizens were to take a little time to analyse the question, their answer might be very different; moreover, they might discover the ÔÇÿgeneÔÇÖ of criminality is in us all! Crime and deviance is not only a normal part of society, it is undoubtedly a product of its very existence! We shall see how such is the case through the work of some great individuals (Durkheim & Merton) who took the time to ÔÇÿthinkÔÇÖ about the question, and used a variety of theories to explain their subsequent answers. We shall explore their theories that will direct us towards a realistic answer. In pursuit of an answer to the aforementioned question, one must first understand the question itself and its very meaning. Crime itself is a very transient term; it is something that varies through the passage of time, society, geography, and by who commits the act. A sad, yet perfect instance would be the taking of life. In times of war we are taught the finer skills of killing, awarded medals and held in high esteem