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University Degree: 1950-1999

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  1. Marked by a teacher

    AIDS Epidemic in Africa

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    The HIV/AIDS crisis in Africa has become an enormous problem that cannot and should not be ignored by anyone. Out of all of the people in the world with AIDS, no less than one third reside in Africa, with nearly thirty-four million people living in sub-Sahara Africa infected with HIV. There is convincing evidence that one of the first cases of the human immunodeficiency virus was gathered in the capital of the Belgian Congo in 1959. There is also reliable evidence that the virus originated from SIV, simian immunodeficiency virus, which is an infection from African monkeys.

    • Word count: 1851
  2. Assess the contribution of local grass root activists in the civil rights movement

    It can be said that the famous Rosa Parks story of not giving up her seat and getting arrested is the start of the movement; nevertheless the tactics used by local grass-root activists that followed had a peaceful yet strong message. Martin Luther King Junior was the president of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLL) which planned some of the movements' biggest events which had great impact, the Montgomery Bus Boycott and the March on Washington. The main reason why the local grass-root activists were so effective and popular was because they were involved with the population of blacks which allowed them to spread the word whilst getting everyone involved.

    • Word count: 1979
  3. According to Kenneth McRoberts, Despite the best efforts of the Franco regime, Catalonia was still intact when Franco finally died on 20 November 1975. This essay will analyze the impact of Francoism on Catalonia in the light of this

    It was a white terror, official and relentless, without anyone to intervene for the victims or to try to save them. First of all, the use of Catalan was prohibited given its status as a second language (Segura 2006: 1-9). Even in the workplace Catalan was banned as a spoken language. In the University of Barcelona, all subjects dealing with Catalan culture were abolished, and The Institut d'Estudis Catalans was replaced with an Institutio Espa�ol de Estudios Mediterr�neos. Punishment for the offenders ranged from simple fines to dismissal from the workplace, exile and prison.

    • Word count: 1259
  4. The post 1978 wave of democratization in Latin America has been far from an unqualified success. Do you agree with the previous statement?

    Through analysing the situation it is clear that over the last 20 years Latin America, particularly in the 80s (and recently as well) lacked some of these musts, 'most of these regimes were not complete democracies' Skidmore (2005, p.59), Skidmore also argues the military still had 'considerable' power from background and was able to influence policy. Since the third wave of democratization military coups have not been uncommon, with attempts (albeit failed attempts) in Guatemala, Paraguay and Venezuela. Many countries have come under scrutiny for the quality of their democracy, Peru and Venezuela (under Fujimori and Hugo Chavez)

    • Word count: 1656
  5. Communism collapsed in Eastern Europe because of Gorbachev

    Based on the Bolshevik 'one-party system', there was no contest for power in Russia, and Stalin was easily able to consolidate power after Lenin placed him at the head of the Workers' and Peasants' Inspectorate - known as the Rabkrin - ousting and outmanoeuvring any threat from within the party. Gorbachev, although a dedicated Leninist, was the first leader fully who committed to establish a free and more liberal regime, untainted by greed. Mikhail Gorbachev came to power in mid-March, 1985 and is widely seen as Russia's most talented and dynamic leader for many years.

    • Word count: 1756
  6. Free essay

    In relation to Gorbachev and his program of perestroika (economic reform) and why it failed, one must firstly examine various other factors. Throughout this paper one shall be examining the USSR and her economy before Gorbachev came to power.

    Perhaps most importantly one shall reach the conclusion as to why economic perestroika ultimately failed. Before one goes into detail regarding the Soviet Union before Gorbachev's rise to power, one must explain the key features of a Communist regime. Before Gorbachev, the USSR had, like many communist systems four basic features that distinguished it from the capitalist West. The economy was almost entirely in public rather than private ownership. Power was highly centralized- the USSR was ruled by a single dominant Communist party.

    • Word count: 1853
  7. AMS Response Paper 3

    Kerouac's book is very representative of the beat generation and its values of liberty and openness. The book which is narrated through the eyes of a young writer, Sal Paradise (Jack Kerouac), is an account of his travels cross country with a character named Dean Moriarty (Neal Cassady). By reading about Kerouac's journeys, one gets an accurate perception of the Beat Generation through his many personal experiences. The book is definitely representative of the Beat Generations individuality, because it was during this period, where people were looking to develop change. The change during this time, is that of expression and experimentation.

    • Word count: 1755
  8. The African Mind in the Twentieth Century

    It was believed that the culture clash of Africans and Europeans caused mental stress on the African people, and the only way for Africans to keep their sanity against the disruptive changes from colonialism was to obey " their traditional leaders and follow traditional norms"(Vaughn. 109). However, defining what was considered normal for Africans was not a simple task, "the African had no regard for the sanctity for life, no sense of decency, by European standards he was simply abnormal" (McCulloch, p.

    • Word count: 1796
  9. When Harold Macmillan said that most of our people have never had it so good what did he mean?

    The consumer society was now tremendously booming and everything was working towards better personal convenience, especially with banks now offering larger credit opportunities and businesses proposing suitable pay-back schemes for large purchases such as televisions, refrigerators and other electrical household appliances. 'You can do your week's shopping in a day... here is the refrigerator to give you a fresh interest in food, more fun and more leisure'1 claimed a British mother, pointing out some of the advantages of transforming Britain.

    • Word count: 1874
  10. Is there a distinctive Conservative ideology?

    Throughout this essay I shall attempt to reveal whether there ever was an ideological guideline to Conservative politics and shall demonstrate whether or not the term 'ideology' is suitable to conservatives as it can be argued that their political party was merely an adaptation of the political needs of the time. The development of Conservatism is thought to have derived from the Anglo-Irish political theorist and organist Edmund Burke, as the tradition of Conservative ideas claim to originate from three fundamental principles: Firstly, traditionalism as it is the key ideology that conservatives base themselves upon.

    • Word count: 1535
  11. How did Margaret Thatcher transform Britain?

    the pound had to be withdrew from currency fix, as the conservative government were not capable of keeping sterling above its agreed lower limit.4 Yet despite this, some historians argue that with the introduction of ideologically driven monetarist and deregulatory policies by Margaret Thatcher, the UK was 'transformed from an insider system to the shareholder oriented outsider system, which it is today.'5 Education is also another factor to be discussed. In 1998 the 'Education Act' was put into place, which allowed parents full control over their child's education and gave financial accountability to the schools, as Thatcher had a 'passionate

    • Word count: 1872
  12. Briefing paper on why the new President of the EU should definitely come from Germany.

    the gap of EU nations by America, whence commencing the first unification of the EU together on 9th May 1950 by French President Robert Schuman, in his Schuman Plan followed the treaty of Paris in 1951, for the ECSC which will be explained further on,. Germany can stand geographically as the impartial friend to all EU members in the heart of the continent; speaking for its citizen s e.g. in 2009 Germany maintained the highest number of seats for MEPs in the European Parliament at "99 members,4".thus maintaining their superior role in Europe through representation of their people.

    • Word count: 1677
  13. A history to overcome

    Queensland case (World News Australia). The Native Title Act 1993 includes rights to: live on the region, access it for traditional purposes, hunt and fish, and teach customs on the land (Native Title). The intervention took this land away from the Indigenous population and is currently holding it with five year leases. Because of this, as well as other factors, most do not own their own land or housing. Sixty three percent of Indigenous people rent compared to twenty seven percent of the rest of Australia's population (Aboriginal Land).

    • Word count: 1099
  14. To what extent was nationalism in Africa and Asia in the early 20th centaury a mass movement

    Pan-Arabism is the concept, which calls for the creation of a single Arab state. This idea was held my vast amounts of contemporary Arabs who strongly believed the Arab world should united under one state as it would be much more economically and military capable1. Arab nationalism in the 20th centaury started off not as a popular mass movement but from a small number of individuals with the aim of spreading this idea amongst there people with the intention of turning it into a mass movement.

    • Word count: 1439
  15. Free essay

    The Algerian revolution was the culmination of the Algerian War of Independence (19541962) and led to Algeria's independence from France. It was a hugely significant milestone in the decolonisation of North Africa.

    In this essay we will attempt to look at all the aforementioned factors and others which, through the Algerian Revolution, have left great impacts upon the nations involved, the region and the world at least indirectly, it is through this that we shall than be able to derive the significance of the Algerian Revolution. One of the most resounding elements of the entire conflict within the region was the extent and ferocity of the violence which took place. The battles, massacres and stories of torture still set a precedent for the humanitarian atrocities which have been afflicted in times of

    • Word count: 1834
  16. Historical Approaches to studying the themes of 'Society' and 'Economy'

    Indeed, what is interesting to note is that the study of economics is often defined as a 'social study'1, highlighting the fact that historians will apply very similar methods to the two fields of study. Whilst when looking the perspective of society it is possible to see that there are fairly clear boundaries to the way in which it is considered (i.e. through Anthropologists and Sociologists), the study of economy does not appear to be so rigid in its approach.

    • Word count: 1608
  17. The Vietnam War

    S. National Guard discharged weapons into the crowd of people gathered. This caused the death of four students and injuries to nine other students, some of which were students not even involved with the demonstration. This confrontation at Kent State became the fuel of the antiwar movement of the 1970s. Furthermore, In The Vietnam Era 1963 -1965 (2005), is was found the Kent Anti War episode reached across the nation and Jackson State College in Mississippi had a similar occurrence. Protesters took over a woman's dorm and on May 14 1970 without provocation, police started discharging their weapons killing two students and wounded 12 others.

    • Word count: 1220
  18. Analyze the contribution made to the different Cuban musical genre by the various ethnic groups which have populated Cuba.

    They all have contributed in many ways to the Cuban culture but most importantly they also affected the Cuban music which is one of the most important part of this culture. The Amerindians The native Cuban people were the Taino, Arawak and the Ciboney, who were known for there style of music called areito. ''When Christopher Columbus arrived in Cuba in 1492 one of the cultural expression he found was the ''Areito'' a simple yet sweet music made by the native Taino people.

    • Word count: 1890
  19. Document Analysis Document: Wales(TM)s gallant exit from the world cup, The Times, June 20th 1958

    When considering Johnes' book in comparison to Williams in order to make it a fair analysis, the on chapters that will be considered in the review are chapters two and three as they cover a chronological period from the late Victorian era until the mid twentieth century. This is done because this is the main period covered in Gareth Williams book which does run until about 1975 but focuses mainly between 1905 to 1950. Chapters one is still taken into account and also chapter four of Johnes book which is entitled 'the television era 1958-2000 will also be touched on

    • Word count: 1576
  20. Alberta-China Economic Relationship

    Alberta is actively pursuing partnerships in Shanghai, Zhejian and Guandong to further business interests in science and technology. Trade between Alberta and China started with agriculture, and China is now Alberta's fourth largest agricultural export market. Alberta is also working with China to improve China's dairy and livestock industries; opportunities include seeds, rains, oilseeds, beef, canola, other food products, equipment, and agriculture consulting services. Education is a major factor in the relationship between Alberta and China and has received an increasing focus in recent years.

    • Word count: 1887
  21. What are the major factors that led to the end of the cold war?

    and perestroika (restructuring) were arguably the most important reforms for ending the Cold War. Glasnost reduced censorship and allowed true popular opinion to emerge, enabling the citizens of the USSR to see how the West was living, making many in the Soviet Bloc unhappy with the comparable living standards and lifestyle (LaFeber 1991: 328). Perestroika was aimed at reforming the economy by allowing foreign investment, promoting private initiatives and decentralising industry, but also to revolutionise the political set up, by allowing two thirds of a new legislature to be elected by popular choice (Crockatt, 2006: 116).

    • Word count: 1423
  22. "War in the trenches"? To what extent were Church and State opposed in the GDR?

    The relationship between the Church and State in East Germany has been variously characterised, from full-scale conflict4 to uneasy co-operation.5 Between these two extremes, the contemporary German theologian and church historian Johannes Althausen has argued that the situation was more akin to "war in the trenches"; a situation of stalemate, with each side ideologically hostile to the other but unable or unwilling to enter into open conflict.6 In this essay I will examine how far Althausen's description of the relationship between the Church and State in the GDR can be described in this way.

    • Word count: 1935
  23. Do Great Men change the course of history? Discuss with reference to either Lenin or Stalin or Gorbachev

    The other major area I am going to look at is his battle of ideals with Trotsky and what this meant for history. Socialism in one country/Permanent revolution The rise of Stalin to leadership, first within the party and then within the state must be seen in this perspective. His importance begins to emerge with the growing bureaucratisation of party and state. But the bureaucracy in its turn developed and expanded because of Russia's extreme backwardness and isolation; it was the product of a revolution in retreat, pinned down within the frontiers of a poverty stricken economy, dependent on a huge mass of primitive peasants.

    • Word count: 1824
  24. Explain the success and failures of Mao in China

    and from this point onwards Liu Shaoqi ("a moderate") governed China, whilst Mao reminded in the background. Mao didn't like the "moderates" whom he thought were creating a "new middle class of party officials" and were taking a step back from traditional communists' views. However China under the "moderates", saw a steady economic recovery, however when Mao saw a weakening of power he started to plan his comeback. Therefore in 1963 Mao published the "Little Red Book" which was part of his cult of personality and became a bible to most people.

    • Word count: 1693
  25. How and why did America's role in the world change in the 20th century?

    At the beginning of the 20th century it can be seen that American foreign interests were concentrated on relations with Latin America. After the Treaty of Paris was signed in 1898 America dominated Cuba until US troops left in 1902. The Platt Amendment, authorised America to establish a government that's was to be run by the people of Cuba. The Roosevelt Corollary was the next step in changing America's role in the world. The amendment to the Monroe Doctrine allowed the United States to intervene in the internal affairs of a country should it need policing; justifying any American intervention in Latin American affairs.

    • Word count: 1676

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • Evaluate Ernesto "Ché" Guevara's impact on the success of the Cuban Revolution.

    "E Conclusion Ch� Guevara's importance and relevance in the Cuban Revolution was crucial. He provided a type of leadership which was lacking in Latin American movements of the sort. His style of leading by example and self-sacrifice was not even present in the likes of Fidel himself or his brother. This contribution undoubtedly makes him a unique addition to the forces and was important in controlling the revolution, making sure that it served its initial aims. His close relationship as friend and confidante of Castro was also important in the leanings of the tactics to guerrilla warfare and even more so after the war would end."

  • Do Great Men change the course of history? Discuss with reference to either Lenin or Stalin or Gorbachev

    "Conclusion How then are we to judge Stalin? Looking at him purely from a historical and a narcissistic point of view he was definitely one of if not the key person in 20th century history. . Born in obscurity, he rose to historic significance, a fallible human being of extraordinary qualities. He supervised the near-chaotic transformation of peasant Eurasia into an urban, industrialised superpower under unprecedented adversities. Though his achievements were at the cost of exorbitant sacrifice of human beings and natural resources, they were on a scale commensurate with the cruelty of two world wars. 1 Chris ward Stalins Russia pg23 2 www.janus.umd.edu/issues/sp07/Szpakowski_SocialisminOneCountry 3 Chris ward Stalins Russia pg35 4 Geoffrey Hosking A history of the soviet union pg150 5 L.Deutscher Stalin pg324 6 L.Deutscher Stalin pg466 7 L.Deutscher Stalin pg468 8 8 L.Deutscher Stalin pg468 9 L.Deutscher Stalin pg483"

  • "War in the trenches"? To what extent were Church and State opposed in the GDR?

    "In conclusion, I would agree with Althausen's depiction of the relationship between Church and State in the DDR as "war in the trenches". Neither side could reach an authentic compromise with the other on ideological grounds, but for political and pragmatic reasons neither could they maintain complete separation. The church could not go into "internal exile" without renouncing a key part of its mission to witness to society; neither could the SED eliminate a deeply-rooted institution so quickly, or do without the welfare services provided by the Church. Communism and Christianity made for uneasy bedfellows in the DDR, but the example is an instructive one for political theology, even if the SED state has now collapsed and the East German church is now decidedly a minority group. (1,635 words)"

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