Introduction I choose milk as the food type I would investigate for microbial contamination from 'Farm to Fork'. I choose milk because I live in a rural area and find that the raw versus pasteurised milk debate is a very topical and important debate, which is ongoing. Raw milk was banned from been sold in Ireland from 1997. I plan to investigate how microbial contamination occurs from before milking start until the milk is placed in the consumer's glass. I have chosen to in particular investigate how microbial contamination with E. Coli 0157:H7 occurs. I have chosen E. Coli 0157, as it has become known worldwide because of increased food poisoning outbreaks that are all extremely serious. I will show how a mastitis infection in a cow while she is being milked leads to a major increase in microbial contamination. From this proper handling and sanitisation on farms become important. I will also show how important the correct distribution and storage of milk is in reducing possible microbial contamination. Mastitis Mastitis is a bacterial infection, which causes an inflammation of the udder. Raw milk from cows with mastitis is heavily contaminated with bacteria. The most common bacteria found on the udder during the inflammation are E. Coli, S. Aureus and Enterobacter. There are 3 different classifications of mastitis . Contagious Mastitis. This is caused by bacteria,
Support Drilling for Oil in ANWR Alaska had many hidden treasures but the most valuable treasure in Alaska is its liquid gold, or more commonly, oil. North America's largest oil field, located in Prudhoe Bay, have off-set an continuing debate between environmentalists and gas industries on whether to drill for oil or not in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR). Oil companies in the US have sought the right to drill for oil in ANWR. Many benefits of drilling that are believed have been stated. For every opposition a rational way or technique had been pointed out and looked into carefully. Exploration for oil in ANWR will really benefit both the Alaskans and the other nations especially the US. We should support drilling for oil in ANWR because not only will it boost income and state money, the damage will also be limited by the use of new technology and it will reduce the US dependence on oil making world oil prices drop. (McGowan, 2004) Most of the supporters of drilling for oil stated that environmental damage will be limited because of the practices and experience of Arctic operations for over twenty years. By using new efficient techniques, impact on the tundra and the wildlife will be minimal. From these high-tech modern drilling techniques, fewer drilling platforms will be built. Building the oil fields on gravel pads the permafrost underneath will be protected.
Environmental Chemistry of Aqueous Systems . Introduction Water is an incredibly important part of our environment. * Biological systems cannot survive without it. The recently funded ESA programme, Darwin, which is to look for signs of life on planets from other Solar Systems targets water along with CO2 and O2 (detected as O3) as key indicators for life. * Evaporation and condensation of water allows the transport of heat within our atmosphere, ultimately driving the wind system, while currents in the oceans provide another means of heat transfer. * The oceans can hold gases in solution, supplying the atmosphere with gases and acting as a buffer against atmospheric change. * It is involved in the formation of OH radicals in the atmosphere, which clean up our atmosphere. Distribution of Water 97 % is in the oceans 2.4 % is in snow and the polar ice sheets 0.6 % is in rivers and freshwater lakes 0.001 % is present in the atmosphere Need to understand Clearly, there are aspects of physics beyond the scope of these lectures that need to be addressed; e.g., latent heat of evaporation, condensation and freezing; atmospheric circulation; ocean currents, etc. For this course, we need to understand the chemistry of species dissolved in water. Two aspects are important: * Natural water systems. Water hardness (Ca2+, Mg2+), pH of rain water (CO2), weathering of
In this essay I am going to evaluate a range of sources that cover the topic of the impact of humans on ocean acidification and summarise the pros and cons of each source type.
4SSG1008 Geography Tutorials: Critical Thinking and Techniques Geography Tutorial Group G1 Submission Date: 17th October 2011 Assignment 1: Evaluation of Sources Topic: "the impact of humans on ocean acidification" Word Count: 1116 Introduction The term ocean acidification is used to describe the ongoing decrease in ocean pH caused by human CO2 emissions, such as the burning of fossil fuels (UK Ocean Acidification Research Programme, 2011). In this essay I am going to evaluate a range of sources that cover the topic of the impact of humans on ocean acidification and summarise the pros and cons of each source type. Discussion Articles published in peer-reviewed journals are considered to be of the highest quality. They must undergo a thorough review process, with multiple professional experts and reviewers involved. As a result of their expertise, data can be presented in a clear, factual and appropriate way. The use of peer review conveys a variety of opinions that can help remove any personal biases and at the same, highlight new ideas and innovation. The three journal articles I examined: (Hoegh-Guldberg et al., 2008), (Sponberg 2007), and Wood et al. (2008) have all been peer reviewed by both scientists and professionals in the field. For example, Hoegh-Guldberg et al. (2008) is reviewed by several named professionals as well as an anonymous reviewer. As a
As the world's expanding population burns large quantities of fossil fuels and simultaneously cuts down large expanses of forests worldwide, the concentrations of CO2 and other greenhouse gases are building up in the atmosphere.
As the world's expanding population burns large quantities of fossil fuels and simultaneously cuts down large expanses of forests worldwide, the concentrations of CO2 and other greenhouse gases are building up in the atmosphere. "The green house effect is the (imperfect) analogy used to explain the atmospheric phenomenon that keeps our planet warm enough to sustain life." There is mounting evidence that this shift in Earth's atmosphere will lead to global changes and potentially major climatic disruptions . The major concern is not that the greenhouse effect is real;"we wouldn't be here if it wasn't." It's that it "may be exacerbated by anthropogenic increases in the effective gasses, threatening a disruption to the equilibrium between incoming and outgoing energy, and a resulting average global warming." From 1880 to today, by many measurements, the global average temperature has increased by 0.5 Degrees Celsius. Human and ecological systems are already vulnerable to a range of environmental pressures, including climate extremes and variability. Global warming is likely to amplify the effects of other pressures and to disrupt our lives in numerous ways. "Melting icebergs and expanding oceans may cause floods." The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) predicts
Article reviewed: "The role of the physical and traffic environment in child pedestrian injuries." Pediatrics, Vol. 98, No. 6. December, 1996.
Critical Review Student Name: Julia PU Student No.: 30646723 Tutor's name: Dr Alan Jones Article reviewed: "The role of the physical and traffic environment in child pedestrian injuries." Pediatrics, Vol. 98, No. 6. December, 1996. Date of submission: Friday October 13th, 2000. Agran, Phyllis F.; Diane G. Winn; Craig L. Anderson; Cecile Tran; Celeste P. Del Valle. "The role of the physical and traffic environment in child pedestrian injuries." Pediatrics, Vol. 98, No. 6. December, 1996. Pedestrian injuries have always be a dominant threaten to parents as it would result in severe injury or death among younger children. Increasing, it has became not only a issue that concerns our community, but a important topic that gains large number of attention from the whole society. Scientist, phycologist and educators have put a great deal of effort on academic research in order to investigate the major causes of pedestrian injuries, and so that different approaches can be used to prevent childhood pedestrian injuries. While previous studies have focused on vehicle speed and traffic volume which associated with greater injury incidence, a group of scientists (including Phyllis F. Agran, Diane G. Winn, Craig L. Anderson, Cecile Tran and Celeste P. Del Valle) designed a case-control study for Latino children in southern California aged between 1 to 14 years old. The purpose of
Critically assess why it is difficult to accurately forecast the amount of anthropogenic climate change we can expect to see by 2050
In this essay the author will assess the difficulties with forecasting the amount of anthropogenic climate change we can expect to see by 2050. The author will use quotes, definitions and examples where appropriate. Over the past 100 years, the world has seen an increase in global average temperatures. Since 1860, the global average temperature has increased by '0.6 degrees Celsius with a ninety-five percent confidence'. (Houghton, J, 2004:56) This increase is believed to be cause of the greenhouse effect, which "...refers to the reduction in outgoing infrared radiation to space due to the presence of the atmosphere." (Harvey, L, 2000:95) This greenhouse effect is induced by natural and anthropogenic sources. The greenhouse effect is partly attributed to the emissions of 'greenhouse gases', such as water vapour, carbon dioxide, methane, ozone and nitrous oxide. (The Royal Society, 2002) The gases form a blanket over the earth which traps the sun's radiation resulting in conditions similar to a greenhouse, see Figure A. Figure A The 'Greenhouse Effect' (Houghton, J, 2004:18) Anthropogenic Carbon Dioxide (CO2) is a gas that is believed to be of main concern, as it is a prominent contributor to an 'Enhanced' Greenhouse effect. Since the industrial revolution, CO2 levels have increased by 30 percent, from 280 parts per million per volume in the 1700 (Houghton, J, 2004) to
The Global Water Crisis The Global Water Crisis Excess and shortage By 2010 about 2.5 billion people in the world are projected to lack access to safe drinking water. At least 30 per cent of the population in China, India, Mexico and the U.S is expected to face severe water stress. By 2025, the supply of water in India will be 700 cubic km per year, while the demand is expected to rise to 1,050 units. Control over this scarce and vital resource, will of course, be a source of guaranteed profits. Vandana Shiva "We're all downstream." Ecologists' Motto.  The has been much talk lately of the looming water crisis, it is a crisis that is picking up steam, scope, and receiving increasing attention, as more and more people become aware of its implications, consequences, environmental impact, and most alarmingly, its potential for economic gain. A year ago a paper on this subject would have been almost surprising in the facts that it would reveal. In the past month however, there has been a noticeable increase in the coverage and notice this crisis is receiving, and rightly so. "This collective resource is becoming rarer because it is being overexploited by a consumerist and pollution--generating humanity. The warning signs are clear: falling water tables, shrinking rivers and lakes, widespread pollution, creeping desertification." These and many other signs are all
A Closer Look at Global Warming The warming of the Earth has been the subject of intense debate and concern for many scientists, policy-makers, and citizens for at least the past decade. Climate Change Science: An Analysis of Some Key Questions, a new report by a committee of the National Research Council, characterizes the global warming trend over the last 100 years, and examines what may be in store for the 21st century and the extent to which warming may be attributable to human activity. The committee was made up of 11 of the nation's top climate scientists, including seven members of the National Academy of Sciences, one of whom is a Nobel Prize winner. The Evidence for Warming Surface temperature measurements recorded daily at hundreds of locations for more than 100 years indicate that the Earth's surface has warmed by about 1 degree Fahrenheit in the past century. This warming has been particularly strong during the last 20 years, and has been accompanied by retreating glaciers, thinning arctic ice, rising sea levels, lengthening of growing seasons for some, and earlier arrival of migratory birds. In addition, several other data support that conclusion, the report says. Part of the debate over global warming centers on disparities between the surface temperature and upper-air temperature. While the Earth's surface temperature has risen, data collected by
Boreal case study The diagram below summarises some of the key ways trees in the boreal forest have adapted to the abiotic factors of this area Case study - The fate of Siberian forests Background information Total area = 8.8 M sq km; (57% world Boreal Forest). The Siberian approach to forests! In Boguchany, Siberia, 20,000 prisoners are set to work logging for punishment - the resultant timber is not used, its purpose was merely to occupy prisoners time. This represents a criminal waste of forest! Such deforestation devastates local ecosystems and reduces wildlife food sources for indigenous people. To make better use of the logs, the Boguchany dam (a local HEP project) is being built for processing logs. This at least reduces waste, but puts further stress on the forest... more forest destruction will occur by flooding for the reservior. Meanwhile in the neighbouring region of Bratsk, Siberia, 100,000 Ha forest has been destroyed by air pollion from aluminium smelters, power stations and chemical factories. This also affects humans ....local mortality rates increased 25% in last 10 yrs. Temperate forest case studies The Forestry Commission in the UK are pursuing MPF (multipurpose forestry). Timber, employment, landscapes, watersheds, biodiversity, habitat considered together (but timber production takes priority!). UK has 10% tree cover but only 2.5%