Support Drilling for Oil in ANWR Alaska had many hidden treasures but the most valuable treasure in Alaska is its liquid gold, or more commonly, oil. North America's largest oil field, located in Prudhoe Bay, have off-set an continuing debate between environmentalists and gas industries on whether to drill for oil or not in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR). Oil companies in the US have sought the right to drill for oil in ANWR. Many benefits of drilling that are believed have been stated. For every opposition a rational way or technique had been pointed out and looked into carefully. Exploration for oil in ANWR will really benefit both the Alaskans and the other nations especially the US. We should support drilling for oil in ANWR because not only will it boost income and state money, the damage will also be limited by the use of new technology and it will reduce the US dependence on oil making world oil prices drop. (McGowan, 2004) Most of the supporters of drilling for oil stated that environmental damage will be limited because of the practices and experience of Arctic operations for over twenty years. By using new efficient techniques, impact on the tundra and the wildlife will be minimal. From these high-tech modern drilling techniques, fewer drilling platforms will be built. Building the oil fields on gravel pads the permafrost underneath will be protected.
In this essay I am going to evaluate a range of sources that cover the topic of the impact of humans on ocean acidification and summarise the pros and cons of each source type.
4SSG1008 Geography Tutorials: Critical Thinking and Techniques Geography Tutorial Group G1 Submission Date: 17th October 2011 Assignment 1: Evaluation of Sources Topic: "the impact of humans on ocean acidification" Word Count: 1116 Introduction The term ocean acidification is used to describe the ongoing decrease in ocean pH caused by human CO2 emissions, such as the burning of fossil fuels (UK Ocean Acidification Research Programme, 2011). In this essay I am going to evaluate a range of sources that cover the topic of the impact of humans on ocean acidification and summarise the pros and cons of each source type. Discussion Articles published in peer-reviewed journals are considered to be of the highest quality. They must undergo a thorough review process, with multiple professional experts and reviewers involved. As a result of their expertise, data can be presented in a clear, factual and appropriate way. The use of peer review conveys a variety of opinions that can help remove any personal biases and at the same, highlight new ideas and innovation. The three journal articles I examined: (Hoegh-Guldberg et al., 2008), (Sponberg 2007), and Wood et al. (2008) have all been peer reviewed by both scientists and professionals in the field. For example, Hoegh-Guldberg et al. (2008) is reviewed by several named professionals as well as an anonymous reviewer. As a
Article reviewed: "The role of the physical and traffic environment in child pedestrian injuries." Pediatrics, Vol. 98, No. 6. December, 1996.
Critical Review Student Name: Julia PU Student No.: 30646723 Tutor's name: Dr Alan Jones Article reviewed: "The role of the physical and traffic environment in child pedestrian injuries." Pediatrics, Vol. 98, No. 6. December, 1996. Date of submission: Friday October 13th, 2000. Agran, Phyllis F.; Diane G. Winn; Craig L. Anderson; Cecile Tran; Celeste P. Del Valle. "The role of the physical and traffic environment in child pedestrian injuries." Pediatrics, Vol. 98, No. 6. December, 1996. Pedestrian injuries have always be a dominant threaten to parents as it would result in severe injury or death among younger children. Increasing, it has became not only a issue that concerns our community, but a important topic that gains large number of attention from the whole society. Scientist, phycologist and educators have put a great deal of effort on academic research in order to investigate the major causes of pedestrian injuries, and so that different approaches can be used to prevent childhood pedestrian injuries. While previous studies have focused on vehicle speed and traffic volume which associated with greater injury incidence, a group of scientists (including Phyllis F. Agran, Diane G. Winn, Craig L. Anderson, Cecile Tran and Celeste P. Del Valle) designed a case-control study for Latino children in southern California aged between 1 to 14 years old. The purpose of
Critically assess why it is difficult to accurately forecast the amount of anthropogenic climate change we can expect to see by 2050
In this essay the author will assess the difficulties with forecasting the amount of anthropogenic climate change we can expect to see by 2050. The author will use quotes, definitions and examples where appropriate. Over the past 100 years, the world has seen an increase in global average temperatures. Since 1860, the global average temperature has increased by '0.6 degrees Celsius with a ninety-five percent confidence'. (Houghton, J, 2004:56) This increase is believed to be cause of the greenhouse effect, which "...refers to the reduction in outgoing infrared radiation to space due to the presence of the atmosphere." (Harvey, L, 2000:95) This greenhouse effect is induced by natural and anthropogenic sources. The greenhouse effect is partly attributed to the emissions of 'greenhouse gases', such as water vapour, carbon dioxide, methane, ozone and nitrous oxide. (The Royal Society, 2002) The gases form a blanket over the earth which traps the sun's radiation resulting in conditions similar to a greenhouse, see Figure A. Figure A The 'Greenhouse Effect' (Houghton, J, 2004:18) Anthropogenic Carbon Dioxide (CO2) is a gas that is believed to be of main concern, as it is a prominent contributor to an 'Enhanced' Greenhouse effect. Since the industrial revolution, CO2 levels have increased by 30 percent, from 280 parts per million per volume in the 1700 (Houghton, J, 2004) to
Boreal case study The diagram below summarises some of the key ways trees in the boreal forest have adapted to the abiotic factors of this area Case study - The fate of Siberian forests Background information Total area = 8.8 M sq km; (57% world Boreal Forest). The Siberian approach to forests! In Boguchany, Siberia, 20,000 prisoners are set to work logging for punishment - the resultant timber is not used, its purpose was merely to occupy prisoners time. This represents a criminal waste of forest! Such deforestation devastates local ecosystems and reduces wildlife food sources for indigenous people. To make better use of the logs, the Boguchany dam (a local HEP project) is being built for processing logs. This at least reduces waste, but puts further stress on the forest... more forest destruction will occur by flooding for the reservior. Meanwhile in the neighbouring region of Bratsk, Siberia, 100,000 Ha forest has been destroyed by air pollion from aluminium smelters, power stations and chemical factories. This also affects humans ....local mortality rates increased 25% in last 10 yrs. Temperate forest case studies The Forestry Commission in the UK are pursuing MPF (multipurpose forestry). Timber, employment, landscapes, watersheds, biodiversity, habitat considered together (but timber production takes priority!). UK has 10% tree cover but only 2.5%
"Subglacial Drainage is now recognised as one of the most important branches of Glaciology". Evaluate This Statement.
"Subglacial Drainage is now recognised as one of the most important branches of Glaciology". Evaluate This Statement. "The hydrological component of glacial systems is of great significance to the description and flow regime of glaciers" (Iken, 1981) in turn relating to many human interests. Water supplies in Central Asia and the Canadian highlands depend upon glacial drainage for much of the year for irrigation purposes. In Alpine glaciated regions such as the Swiss and French Alps and Norway, relying on such concentrated water systems is essential for hydroelectric power. Knowledge of glacial drainage also seems essential to calculate sudden drainage events or outburst floods from ice dams, which have threatened areas of Peru, Iceland and Alaska for centuries. Sub glacial drainage also influences basal flow, which feeds back to manipulate glacier motion and therefore provides feasible explanations for flow dynamics and surge events. It is this subglacial component of glacial water that provides the hub for this paper; specifically the importance of sub glacial drainage with respect to glacier motion. Subglacial drainage will also be looked at from its two fundamental distinctions; 'discrete' and 'distributed'. In the former, water is confined to a few channels or conduits, whereas distributed systems transport water over the whole of, or a large proportion of the bed.
Environmental taxes refer to the long-term economic, social and environmental gains and increase the incentives to protect the global environmental. (Australian Government Department of Environment and Heritage, 2005) [Online]. It is also known as tax shift, green tax reform and ecological taxing (Hanno Beck et.el, 1998) [Online]. The tax revenue collected from the people and business commercial are transfer into the inquisition policy tool that used to increase the quality of environment, reduce the demands and expenditure, increase more beneficial activities to society and welfare and promote the innovation (Hanno Beck et.el, 1998) [Online]. Tax shift is a tool that with the intention of encouraging the sustainable activities and discouraging environmentally damaging behaviour and improve the overall the tax equity (Mainewatch Institute, no date) [Online]. The ideas are based on current economic trend, which fail to account the environmental damages because sending incorrect price signal, and the tax system creates counterproductive incentives (Mainewatch Institute, no date) [Online]. Tax shift are trying solution to reduce the level of taxes on production activities and increase the level of taxes on unproductive activities such as pollution, consumption product in order to promote the tax equity (Mainewatch Institute, no date) [Online]. Most of environmental taxes are
Ocean services - the companys current activities, legislative requirements and any possible impacts on the environment.
Table of Contents FOREWORD 1 INTRODUCTION 1 PURPOSE 3 SCOPE 3 RELEVANT POLICY AND LEGISLATION 4 International Conventions 4 Commonwealth Legislation and Regulations 6 Marine Orders 7 CONSEQUENCES OF OPERATIONS 8 PERFORMANCE STANDARDS 10 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT PLANNING 11 Pollution Impact Upon Water 12 MONITORING THE PROGRAM. 15 CONTINUAL IMPROVEMENT 16 ADVANTAGES OF IMPLEMENTATION 16 SUMMARY 18 REFERENCES 19 FOREWORD Any activity in the maritime area has the potential to impact directly upon its immediate area and can collaterally damage other sections of the environment. For example, the introduction of an alien species in something as simple as ballast water may end up destroying an entire ecosystem. From a commercial sense, the advantages of adopting sound environmental responsibility range from reducing the chance of incurring hefty fines or costs involved in clean up operations, to assisting in the development of new partnerships with like minded organisations. Assuming a greater role as an advocate can pay bigger dividends by helping an organisation have a greater influence upon its activities and assist in continuing current and future activities. INTRODUCTION Ocean Services is a small company that provides practical seagoing experience and training in seamanship, navigation and shipboard life. Ocean operations are conducted onboard the MV Star, a
Explain what accountants mean by environmental accounting and illustrate the importance of the role of environmental performance indicators.
Explain what accountants mean by environmental accounting and illustrate the importance of the role of environmental performance indicators. Gray, (2001) States that, 'to what extent can the privileged minority of the worlds population continue to enjoy life of rising luxury whilst the planets eco-systems collapse.' This comment is perfectly introduces the concept of environmental accounting which takes into account the effect on the environment of the organisations actions, and therefore adjust there financial figures to reflect this, as Emery (2002) states, most organisations have an environmental impact of some kind, therefore environmental accounting has become evidently essential in contemporary society. The roots of environmental accounting come from the concept of corporate social responsibility, which emerged in the 1960s, Glautier (2001). Firms are encouraged to take account and address the impacts, which they have on their external environment. Ecological and social externalities are the most common aspect of these, these are not included in the companies' financial statements, but have both positive and negative impacts on the company's external environment. Environmental accounting tries to put a monetary value on them in order to include them in the company's financial records. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) defines environmental accounting as
Do you consider intelligence to have a stronger genetic or environmental basis? Since the term nature-nurture was first initiated by Galton (1883, c.f. Plomin, 1988) the question of whether intelligence has a stronger environmental or genetic basis has been the source of much controversy and debate (Bouchard., Lykken., McGue., Segal., & Tallegen, 1990a, 1991., Bouchard & McGue, 1981., Hernstein & Murray, 1994., Plomin, 1988., Scarr 1997). Traditionally, research into intelligence has been diverged by two opposing positions; Behavioural Genetic Theory and Socialization Theory (Scarr, 1997). Whilst Socialization theory provides useful insights into the qualitative nature of differences in behaviour and intelligence, methods used by such research are criticised as being "antiquated" and "confounded" (Scarr, 1997, p.34) hampered by their inability to include genetically informative designs (Baumrind, 1993., Hoffman, 1991., Scarr, 1997). Behavioural genetic theory on the other hand not only describes the genetic contribution on intelligence (Bouchard & McGue, 1981., Bouchard et al., 1990a, 1991) it also emphasizes the importance of environmental influences which provides a crucial explanation for the major source of variation in behaviour (Eysenck., & Fulkner, 1983., Loehlin & Nicholls, 1976, c.f. Plomin, 1988., Plomin, Loehlin, & Defries, 1985, Plomin & Daniels, 1987., Scarr,