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University Degree: Environmental & Physical Geography

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  • Marked by Teachers essays 1
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  1. Marked by a teacher

    "Environmental degradation is neither the inevitable price of, nor a desirable path for, economic development

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    Today, this bell shaped curve has been used to explain the relationship between environmental degradation and economic development. An example of its use is in the analysis of the relationship between indices of air and water pollution and per capita income (as an indicator of economic growth). Studies by Shafik (1994) and Stern et al. (1996) show clearly how levels may at first increase, and then decrease as per capita income grows. This evidence supports the view that environmental degradation may not necessarily be the inevitable price of economic development in the long term. Munasinghe (1999) describes the EKC hypothesis as an approach that seeks to relate the state of the environment to the stage of development.

    • Word count: 4267
  2. Environmental Management. The London smog of 1952 is one of history's most important air pollution episodes in terms of its impact on science, public perception of air pollution, and government regulation.

    Sensitivity analysis reveals that only an extremely severe influenza epidemic could account for the majority of the excess deaths for this time period. Such an epidemic would be on the order of twice the case-fatality rate and quadruple the incidence observed in a general medical practice during the winter of 1953. These results underscore the need for diligence regarding extremely high air pollution that still exists in many parts of the world. On December 4th 1952 an anticyclone settled over London.

    • Word count: 2833
  3. In this essay I am going to evaluate a range of sources that cover the topic of the impact of humans on ocean acidification and summarise the pros and cons of each source type.

    is reviewed by several named professionals as well as an anonymous reviewer. As a result of this scrutiny, journals such as this have a balanced argument and are transparent in their methods, data and working. Hoegh-Guldberg et al. (2008) is written by various authors, all of which have scientific backgrounds related to ocean acidification. Furthermore, the fact that Hoegh-Guldberg et al (2008) is published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS)

    • Word count: 1784
  4. The 123 Agreement Between U.S. and Russia on Nuclear Waste Disposal. Recently the Russian-American relationship has been strengthened by a legally binding document the 123 Agreement, which came into force in January 2011 and contained information abou

    Despite the promising capacity of nuclear production, nuclear waste concept and its high radioactivity were always the two key issues that preoccupied the world since the 1940s. This type of waste is the most hazardous creation of anthropogenic nature that will stay on the planet even if all of the production would be phased out within the nearest future. Some materials have a half-life (rate of partial decay of elements) of more than several hundred years, which almost certainly poses a threat to the future generations of not only humans but also all other living organisms in case of an accident.

    • Word count: 1649
  5. Uncanny Valley

    The Uncanny Valley has been criticized and here are a few of its critics. David Hanson has stated that objects being portrayed with human characteristics will have a disparaging response. He adds that by having individuals critique photographs that have been altered from humanoid robots to humanoid robots to android robots to human beings, may perhaps be changed by adding cartoonish features to the object which had fallen into the valley at first. Hanson also critiques that the uncanny seems to look at any point of human likeness, and that individuals cultural backgrounds may have an impact on how models are observed with respect to the uncanny valley.

    • Word count: 1638
  6. Global Warming. Due to too much information, there are many conflicting views on whether human activity is leading to climate change and further to global warming. Warburton (2001) explains: The consequences of global warming are unclear and have cau

    Warburton (2001) explains: "The consequences of global warming are unclear and have caused much controversy (p.57) Whereas, Ian Stewart (2007) warns us of the dangers of global warming and climate change. He explains that humans operate on a different timescale to the planet. In changing this world we are altering every environment that allowed our species and civilization to flourish. Just like the dinosaurs, we can't cope with sudden change. This time it is us, not dinosaurs who are top of the food chain.

    • Word count: 2807
  7. Coastal and marine pollution in India. In India most contamination from land base sources industrial and domestic wastes and agriculture run-off. Other activities are also becoming more significant like shipping and related actions ship breaking,

    * Around 14% of global ocean production * Up to 50% of global oceanic denitrification. * 80% of the global organic matter interment. * 90% of the global sedimentary mineralisation. * 75-90% of the global sink of suspended river load and its connected rudiments/pollutants. * In excess of 50% of present day global carbonate deposition. (Elrich de Sa, 2003) In India most contamination from land base sources - industrial and domestic wastes and agriculture run-off. Other activities are also becoming more significant like shipping and related actions - ship breaking, ship building and port activities.

    • Word count: 3816
  8. How did Captain Cook influence the way we see and understand the modern world

    of New Zealand and achieving first European contact with places such as Australia and the Hawaiian Islands. These areas were to be later incorporated into the British Empire. Such good were his navigating skills that it was recorded his maps were still used in the twentieth century: "he produced charts and maps that were of such accuracy that some were still in use as recently as the twentieth century"(http://www.mostlymaps.com/reference/The-Voyages-of-Captain-Cook/1st-voyage.php) His charting of the Arctic and Antarctic coastlines created geographical imaginations that helped shape people's understanding of these places.

    • Word count: 966
  9. Select an issue in the field of development- for example, trade, aid, gender, children- and discuss how the key development agencies have engaged with the topic over the past 10 years.

    that could make a significant difference. These groups have become the leading figures, which presently assist in the combat of social injustice, poverty and supply both long-term and short-term aid to those countries that are less developed. This essay, will therefore discuss how the development agencies of CAFOD, Christian Aid, Trocaire and Oxfam, non-governmental organisations which have all had a considerable influence on the domestic development of impoverished communities, have engaged in supplying aid to these communities over the past ten years.

    • Word count: 1709
  10. GIS exercise. This exercise surrounds Black Ven, the largest coastal landslide in the UK and the whole of Europe. It is situated between Charmouth and Lyme Regis, and is of great importance as both of the towns rely heavily on their landscape and tourism

    The legend then goes through pink to orange as relief increases. The areas of highest relief are just north of Black Ven at Timber Hill. Buildings and infrastructure are mainly found where relief is low: less than 80m above sea-level (T Hengl, 2003.) Areas at risk from landslides are found where there is a major change between high and low relief in a short distance, e.g. at the bottom of Timber Hill where infrastructure and buildings are found to the South-West and to the East.

    • Word count: 1002
  11. Free essay

    Examine the influence of habitat diversity and substratum on the composition of macroinvertebrate communities from riverine systems

    Species distribution has been found to vary considerably with specific species displaying preferences to certain habitats and the conditions they provide. For example a difference is seen in the dominant abundance of chironomids in pools and Simuliids in riffles were discovered, along with more riffle and run taxa such as Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera, Plecoptera, and Oligochaeta. (Scullion) Most Baetids, Simuliidae and all Plecoptera were found to be more abundant in riffles whereas Chironomidae, Dytiscidae and Leptophlebiidae apparently always more common in pools (Armitage et al., 1974).

    • Word count: 3108
  12. Debate whether contemporary patterns of globalisation and inequality are linked to insufficient market freedom or unbridled capitalism

    (Amin, A, Thrift, N, 1994.). Although globalisation has helped many people, the number of people living in poverty has increased by almost 100 million as total world income has increased by an average of 2.5% annually. (Stiglitz, J. 2002). Globalisation has caused many inequalities for the world both between and within countries. Western countries have pushed poor countries to eliminate their barriers and their tariffs on goods however they have kept their own barriers therefore there has been continued polarisation between the poor countries and the richer countries.

    • Word count: 1902
  13. Critically assess why it is difficult to accurately forecast the amount of anthropogenic climate change we can expect to see by 2050

    to 377.38 ppmv in 2004 (Keeling, C and Whorf, T, 2005) accounting for 55% of total anthropogenic emissions. (Andrews, J et. Al, 1996:181) According to Manahan, "Carbon Dioxide is increasing by about 1ppm per year." (Manahan, 1991:341) Methane (CH4), a component of natural gas has seen increases from 0.7 parts per billion during the pre-industrial period to 1.7 parts per billion (Manahan, 1991:341). Highlighting that; "Methane is going up at a rate of almost 0.02 ppm/year" (Manahan, S, 1991:341) accounting for 15% of total anthropogenic emissions. (Andrews, J et. Al, 1996:181) This is a small but significant increase as 'CH4 is 20-30 times more effective at trapping heat compared to CO2'.

    • Word count: 2117
  14. Identify the underpinning philosophy of Coastal Zone Management and will discuss how the UK is adopting this policy at a governmental level.

    Many human activities have and still occur within the coastal zone. The author will now discuss some of the activities that occur in the coastal zone. Transport is a particular activity that has encouraged economic growth, leading to the further development of ports. Imports and exports are transported using the sea, encountering ports where they are loaded and unloaded and transported inland by other methods. The coast is also the centre for tourist activity, many hotels, holiday camps have been established along the hinterland. In addition, tourists use the maritime environment as a commodity, such as whale watching and cruising.

    • Word count: 3085
  15. The islands of Texel and Schiermonnikoog have different and similar intrinsic values. Discuss these intrinsic values and how they may influence the Dutch attitudes towards the implementation of coastal protection and management in these islands

    However, what factors are taken into consideration when the 'integrated management' of this region occurs? Texel and Schiermonnikoog are islands that lie within this region and suffer from this multi-stakeholder audience, often with conflicting socio-economic and ecological interests. They are of particular interest as both islands present differences and similarities in their use value. It is important to assess how these use values expressed by the activities of the interest groups, albeit economic or ecological, may alter the implementation and or intensity of a particular coastal management program.

    • Word count: 3546
  16. What are the main factors that should be considered when performing a programme of ecological restoration?

    When endeavouring upon a programme of restoration most of the decisions should be made in the planning stages. This paper trys to explore the best ways on making these decisions, and then goes onto explain the reasoning some decision might be made and in reference to what. I have also advocated the post monitoring stage in chapter 3. The plan: Do's and Dont's Deciding on a site has many complications, and landscape ecology must be taken into account. Proximity to neighbouring site similar to the desired target habitat may be invaluable (Richardson et al 2000,Borgman 2005) as it allows for natural succession, but it could negatively impact on a site if exotic invasive species are a concern.

    • Word count: 2242
  17. Environmental Law Public Participation

    individual planning or pollution control applications or the availability of judicial review remedies for people with a 'sufficient interest'.2 In short, benefits of public participation include the following: improving the quality of decisions, environmental problem solving, promoting environmental citizenship, improving procedural legitimacy and eliciting values. Access to environmental information has fundamental importance for the mobilisation of public's enforcement mechanisms.3 Similarly, environmental data enables the public to assess the environmental performance of operators and the regulatory performance of the authorities. It is therefore the key to the enforcement of environmental law, accountability and public confidence in environmental matters.

    • Word count: 3127
  18. Support Drilling for Oil in ANWR

    (McGowan, 2004) Most of the supporters of drilling for oil stated that environmental damage will be limited because of the practices and experience of Arctic operations for over twenty years. By using new efficient techniques, impact on the tundra and the wildlife will be minimal. From these high-tech modern drilling techniques, fewer drilling platforms will be built. Building the oil fields on gravel pads the permafrost underneath will be protected. Pipelines will be lifted off the ground and these pipes will have fitted loops that will limit oil spills or leaks.

    • Word count: 786
  19. Environmental Taxes

    Even though, the rational of tax shifting idea are important but it must included the tax equity, improve the quality of environmental and eco-efficiency (Mainewatch Institute, no date) [Online]. Initially, objective of easy to avoid is encourage people convenience to change their behavior to protect the global environmental and successful of educate and public realize how the serious issues of the individual acts damages our share environment (Gemini Press, 2005) [Online]. For example, the government imposes the taxes on fuels to influence the demand of transport and encourage the people to drives less or share the public transport to reduce the level of pollution (Hanno Beck et.el, 1998)

    • Word count: 4395
  20. The current system of environmental governance is a diffuse process, spread through many different treaty bodies and other U.N. institutions. At present UNEP, is the primary environmental organ in the system.

    Individual states are ill-equipped to deal with many of the environmental problems of today. What is the role of the United Nations in continuing momentum toward greater cooperation regarding global environmental issues? Many environmental issues, including climate change, the protection of biodiversity, the pollution of air and water, have major transboundary aspects and require interstate cooperation. Since the 1972 Stockholm Conference on the Human Environment, the United Nations through UNEP (U.N. Environment Program) has established a strong track record in facilitating that cooperation by collecting and disseminating data on environmental problems, assisting governments in creating or improving policy, legislative and institutional frameworks for environmental protection and helping governments reach agreements on important environmental conventions.

    • Word count: 9880
  21. Ocean services - the companys current activities, legislative requirements and any possible impacts on the environment.

    The master is also the company's Director and operates all administrative functions of the company onboard the vessel. * Maritime Instructors. Star normally embarks four training officers, who are also employees of the company. Their primary role is facilitation of training and providing administrative support for embarked students. * Trainees. Star normally embarks up to 15 students per cruise. The students come from a variety of backgrounds ranging from private individuals to employees of large national and international shipping companies. Since commencing operations in 1999 the company has steadily grown in size and stature and is now regarded as a leading maritime training provider.

    • Word count: 3461
  22. "Subglacial Drainage is now recognised as one of the most important branches of Glaciology". Evaluate This Statement.

    Subglacial drainage will also be looked at from its two fundamental distinctions; 'discrete' and 'distributed'. In the former, water is confined to a few channels or conduits, whereas distributed systems transport water over the whole of, or a large proportion of the bed. Subglacial water was first considered to form a film or sheet at the sole of the glacier (Weertman, 1972). Water was thought to cover around 80% of the bed, originating from basal melt rather than surface percolation. Weertman described a thin film which formed on bedrock irregularities through the process of regelation.

    • Word count: 1297
  23. Article reviewed: "The role of the physical and traffic environment in child pedestrian injuries." Pediatrics, Vol. 98, No. 6. December, 1996.

    While previous studies have focused on vehicle speed and traffic volume which associated with greater injury incidence, a group of scientists (including Phyllis F. Agran, Diane G. Winn, Craig L. Anderson, Cecile Tran and Celeste P. Del Valle) designed a case-control study for Latino children in southern California aged between 1 to 14 years old. The purpose of this study is to identify environmental risk factors on residential neighbourhood streets for paediatric injuries. Factors which were taken into account embrace the number parked vehicle on road, pedestrian presents, car speed and traffic volume.

    • Word count: 884
  24. Boreal Forest case study.

    Future potential A growing market is charcoal. Britain uses an estimated 60 000 tonnes a year, mostly for barbeques. Much of it imported from endangered tropical mangrove swamps. In recent months, stores ranging from Harrods to B&Q, the home improvement chain, have agreed to supply charcoal from British wood. Coppiced wood is also still used for a variety of jobs, from fencing and thatching to making barrel hoops, tent pegs and walking sticks. Every tonne of dry coppiced wood could generate as much electricity as 650 kilograms of coal, and save the release of up to 500 kilograms of carbon

    • Word count: 4372
  25. The state of the union, given by President George W. Bush on Tuesday January 28, 2003, was overall an effective and clear message to the American population.

    Many critics say his tax cuts and new spending are driving deficits to record levels. I personally do not believe in debt, but that we should concentrate on the sensible budget to reduce our national debt. Bush argues with these critics saying that his economic growth policies will bring in more tax revenue, while demanding "spending discipline" from lawmakers.

    • Word count: 476

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • Human impacts at the coast intended to stabilise a coast line can alos lead inadvertently to increased coastal erosion. Discuss

    "Conclusion There are many types of coastal defence schemes each of which have positive and negative affects on protecting land and property from the sea. Whatever man made features are made there is a good chance that they will interfere with the natural movements of beach sediments. This may lead to increased erosion in certain areas eventhough the structure was originally desighned to prevent this problem."

  • "The ISO 14000 environmental management series is a major step forward in corporate environmental management" Discuss with particular reference to the ISO 14001 EMS.

    "CONCLUSION The importance of the ISO 14000 series cannot be denied: 'This is a significant milestone in the whole area of business and the environment'58 ISO 14001 differs from many traditional environmental regulatory systems since it allows organisations to focus on environmental efforts against internationally accepted criteria.59Thus allowing progress to be made towards achieving sustainable development. It could be argued that the major attraction of the ISO 14000 series is its flexibility and its ability to capture the attention and backing of top management.60 However, the standard is not without faults. There appears to be a lack of trust when it comes to believing the claims of businesses regarding the environment and the existence of an audit privilege does not help alleviate such worries. Furthermore, it cannot be forgotten that ISO 14001 only provides the minimum requirements for establishing an EMS. That said, at least the standard has managed to get companies to pay attention and get involved in the environment."

  • Choose a public policy in Hong Kong and then discuss the most appropriate model for explaining the way in which the policy was made. Give reasons for your choice.

    "Among the decision making models, such as the rational comprehensive model, incrementalism, mixed scanning and contingency model, each of them have its own merits and drawbacks. There is no concrete conclusion to tell which one is the best in public policy making. Instead, it is mainly depending on the nature of the policy as well as the degree of urgency."

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