I choose milk as the food type I would investigate for microbial contamination from Farm to Fork.
Introduction I choose milk as the food type I would investigate for microbial contamination from 'Farm to Fork'. I choose milk because I live in a rural area and find that the raw versus pasteurised milk debate is a very topical and important debate, which is ongoing. Raw milk was banned from been sold in Ireland from 1997. I plan to investigate how microbial contamination occurs from before milking start until the milk is placed in the consumer's glass. I have chosen to in particular investigate how microbial contamination with E. Coli 0157:H7 occurs. I have chosen E. Coli 0157, as it has become known worldwide because of increased food poisoning outbreaks that are all extremely serious. I will show how a mastitis infection in a cow while she is being milked leads to a major increase in microbial contamination. From this proper handling and sanitisation on farms become important. I will also show how important the correct distribution and storage of milk is in reducing possible microbial contamination. Mastitis Mastitis is a bacterial infection, which causes an inflammation of the udder. Raw milk from cows with mastitis is heavily contaminated with bacteria. The most common bacteria found on the udder during the inflammation are E. Coli, S. Aureus and Enterobacter. There are 3 different classifications of mastitis . Contagious Mastitis. This is caused by bacteria,
Environmental Chemistry of Aqueous Systems
Environmental Chemistry of Aqueous Systems . Introduction Water is an incredibly important part of our environment. * Biological systems cannot survive without it. The recently funded ESA programme, Darwin, which is to look for signs of life on planets from other Solar Systems targets water along with CO2 and O2 (detected as O3) as key indicators for life. * Evaporation and condensation of water allows the transport of heat within our atmosphere, ultimately driving the wind system, while currents in the oceans provide another means of heat transfer. * The oceans can hold gases in solution, supplying the atmosphere with gases and acting as a buffer against atmospheric change. * It is involved in the formation of OH radicals in the atmosphere, which clean up our atmosphere. Distribution of Water 97 % is in the oceans 2.4 % is in snow and the polar ice sheets 0.6 % is in rivers and freshwater lakes 0.001 % is present in the atmosphere Need to understand Clearly, there are aspects of physics beyond the scope of these lectures that need to be addressed; e.g., latent heat of evaporation, condensation and freezing; atmospheric circulation; ocean currents, etc. For this course, we need to understand the chemistry of species dissolved in water. Two aspects are important: * Natural water systems. Water hardness (Ca2+, Mg2+), pH of rain water (CO2), weathering of
As the world's expanding population burns large quantities of fossil fuels and simultaneously cuts down large expanses of forests worldwide, the concentrations of CO2 and other greenhouse gases are building up in the atmosphere.
As the world's expanding population burns large quantities of fossil fuels and simultaneously cuts down large expanses of forests worldwide, the concentrations of CO2 and other greenhouse gases are building up in the atmosphere. "The green house effect is the (imperfect) analogy used to explain the atmospheric phenomenon that keeps our planet warm enough to sustain life." There is mounting evidence that this shift in Earth's atmosphere will lead to global changes and potentially major climatic disruptions . The major concern is not that the greenhouse effect is real;"we wouldn't be here if it wasn't." It's that it "may be exacerbated by anthropogenic increases in the effective gasses, threatening a disruption to the equilibrium between incoming and outgoing energy, and a resulting average global warming." From 1880 to today, by many measurements, the global average temperature has increased by 0.5 Degrees Celsius. Human and ecological systems are already vulnerable to a range of environmental pressures, including climate extremes and variability. Global warming is likely to amplify the effects of other pressures and to disrupt our lives in numerous ways. "Melting icebergs and expanding oceans may cause floods." The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) predicts
The Global Water Crisis
The Global Water Crisis The Global Water Crisis Excess and shortage By 2010 about 2.5 billion people in the world are projected to lack access to safe drinking water. At least 30 per cent of the population in China, India, Mexico and the U.S is expected to face severe water stress. By 2025, the supply of water in India will be 700 cubic km per year, while the demand is expected to rise to 1,050 units. Control over this scarce and vital resource, will of course, be a source of guaranteed profits. Vandana Shiva "We're all downstream." Ecologists' Motto.  The has been much talk lately of the looming water crisis, it is a crisis that is picking up steam, scope, and receiving increasing attention, as more and more people become aware of its implications, consequences, environmental impact, and most alarmingly, its potential for economic gain. A year ago a paper on this subject would have been almost surprising in the facts that it would reveal. In the past month however, there has been a noticeable increase in the coverage and notice this crisis is receiving, and rightly so. "This collective resource is becoming rarer because it is being overexploited by a consumerist and pollution--generating humanity. The warning signs are clear: falling water tables, shrinking rivers and lakes, widespread pollution, creeping desertification." These and many other signs are all
A Closer Look at Global Warming
A Closer Look at Global Warming The warming of the Earth has been the subject of intense debate and concern for many scientists, policy-makers, and citizens for at least the past decade. Climate Change Science: An Analysis of Some Key Questions, a new report by a committee of the National Research Council, characterizes the global warming trend over the last 100 years, and examines what may be in store for the 21st century and the extent to which warming may be attributable to human activity. The committee was made up of 11 of the nation's top climate scientists, including seven members of the National Academy of Sciences, one of whom is a Nobel Prize winner. The Evidence for Warming Surface temperature measurements recorded daily at hundreds of locations for more than 100 years indicate that the Earth's surface has warmed by about 1 degree Fahrenheit in the past century. This warming has been particularly strong during the last 20 years, and has been accompanied by retreating glaciers, thinning arctic ice, rising sea levels, lengthening of growing seasons for some, and earlier arrival of migratory birds. In addition, several other data support that conclusion, the report says. Part of the debate over global warming centers on disparities between the surface temperature and upper-air temperature. While the Earth's surface temperature has risen, data collected by
Environmental Education Grants Program in Australia.
ENVIRONMENTAL Australia is the sixth largest country in the world and has a population of 19 million people. It is about the same geographic size as the 48 mainland states of the USA and 50% larger than Europe. The Australia environment is unique. From un-spoilt beaches, tropical rainforests, rugged mountain ranges and vast tracts of desert, it is a country of contrasts. Most of Australia receives more than 3,000 hours of sunshine a year. The environmental impacts of tourism are a serious problem and visible concern such as land clearing and destruction of habitats, pollution of the air and waterways, pressure on landfills and noise pollution primarily associated with motor vehicles and aircrafts. Australia's natural wonder is Great Barrier Reef. The Great Barrier Reef is as big as the total combined area of the UK and Ireland. But tourist's thoughtless to destruct of Coral Reef for souvenir. One clear message form the case is that dryland salinity and water scarcity have arisen in Australia. As water scarcity is worsened by climate variability, Australia places a very high priority on cooperative action on climate change and related issues in the Pacific region. Australia signed the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change(UNFCC) in June 1992 and ratified it in December 1992. UNFCC arose from increasing international concern about the
Cultural Perceptions of the Wolf
Daniel Strauss Section 306 10/4/10 Envir 113 Paper #1 Paper Topic: Analyze the differences between the various perceptions of wolves from culture to culture by examining all the religious beliefs, social customs and traditions, as well as economic pressures that reflect contrasting projections of wolves between separate cultures. Explain what the conflicting portrayals of wolves reveal about the changing attitudes towards the relationship between humans and nature from one culture to the next. No single explanation exists for the varying perceptions and portrayals of wolves between the European and Native American cultures during the Middle Ages and early European settlement in America. Modern-day Americans find it easy to blame one side, specifically the Europeans, for the vengeful destruction of a national wildlife heritage. However, the religious, social, and economic differences between the two cultures at the time explain the underlying motives. As Lopez puts it, "We forget how little, really, separates us from the times and circumstances in which we, too, would have killed wolves" (Lopez, 138). Each culture, defined by their own set of customs and traditions, viewed not just the wolf but nature as a whole, in very different lights. The wolf has been a symbol of great respect and honor as well as a demonic symbol of hatred and persecution. While the Europeans saw
health promotion smoking
Health promotion is the process of promoting health it enables the local population to be aware of policies and to promote the improvement in the standard of living. There are many added values of health awareness policies and iniatives. Health promotion enables people to take control and be aware in order to improve health. It is important for a person to reach a state of mind were he is able to identify and be able to cope with the environment to satisfy and to change. Eliminating and solving disease does not necessarily mean that you have created health and happiness. Individuals would respond to the expression of health and happiness and respond to challenge they meet in every day life. There are different models of health promotion. Individuals have to clarify their own aim and value. Associations or organisations promoting health use an approach, which is suited to their career. Careful considerations take place because it has to facilitate the clients need. In order to do this assessments are taken to ensure that the client is receiving the right help. In 1958 Doll and Hill proved that there is a link between smoking and lung cancer. Doll and Hill found that smoking can cause cancer of the lungs, chronic bronchitis, coronary artery disease and others. In the U.S.A research on smoking was done on a large scale. It was convincing to see the statistics from these cohort
Definitions of the Different Personality Types
Definitions of the Different Personality Types The Realistic Type (R) This personality type shows a definite preference for working with objects, tools and machinery. This leads to the mastering of manual skills, i.e. skills of a mechanical, agricultural, electrical and technical nature. As this personality type usually shows a clear aversion to educational, intellectual, social and creative activities, a lack of social, educational and verbal skills may be experienced. This type prefers occupations such as those of electricians, aircraft mechanics, plumbers, toolmakers, farmers and draughtsmen. The Investigative Type (I) The investigative type is characterised by a preference for the systematic investigation of the physical, biological and cultural phenomena. Consequently this leads to the mastery of scientific and mathematical skills. Careers preferred by the investigative type inter alia include those of physicist, biologist, mathematician, anthropologist and chemist. The Artistic Type (A) This type shows a preference for achieving his or her creativity in a free environment. This usually leads to mastery of artistic skills, irrespective of whether they relate to language, art, music or drama. Occupations relating to this type include those of actor/actress, interior decorator, musician and journal. The Social Type (S) The social type shows a definite preference for
Compare and Contrast the use of setting in at least two of the texts you have examined this semester
Compare and Contrast the use of setting in at least two of the texts you have examined this semester. Twentieth Century Fiction brought about change in literary methods and the development of different narrative styles. Modernism a term that came in to use, since the second world war, challenges traditional concepts of story and plot, and brings about questioning, looking for meaning and truth. The Modernist novel delves in to the sub conscious minds of its characters, bringing about techniques such as 'stream of consciousness'. Post Modernism celebrates the modern world rather than question it, rejecting the idea of truth and meaning. It rejects grand narratives and explores the extreme, mixing fantasy with what is real; this is seen in the technique 'Magic Realism'. Some Twentieth Century Fiction, in particular Modernism and Post Modernism present human beings alienated from their environment. This essay will explore the use of setting in two Twentieth Century novels, 'The Magic Toyshop', (1969) by Angela Carter, which is a form of post modernist writing and 'Love on the Dole', (1933) by Walter Greenwood, which can be classed as Modernism. The setting of the novel can be very important in social and historical factors, depicting the mood of the environment the novel takes place and how it relates to the story being told. Walter Greenwood sets his novel 'Love on the