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  1. Identify and discuss the Concepts, Skills and Methods deployed in: Whitmarsh L (2009) Whats in a global name? Commonalities and differences in public understanding of climate change and global warming, Public Understanding of Science, 18

    Public understanding of climate change is vital, as the electorate have huge influence over policy decision-making. Also, for individuals to tackle climate change at a local level, understanding is needed. As a result of the importance of the issue, many surveys have been carried out at all levels to investigate public understanding of climate change. Such research was primarily carried out using quantative social surveys and more recently in-depth qualitative studies. However, Whitmarsh (2009) argues that many surveys present an inaccurate impression of the publics understanding of climate change for two reasons: Firstly, Whitmarsh (2009)

    • Word count: 1658
  2. How to build a habitable planet

    The Earth has been compared to a huge recycling machine that consists of many parts. The Earth is made up of the inner core, the outer core, the mantle, the crust and the atmosphere; these parts play a pivotal role in the functioning of a successful planetary system. However, human interference in the system can have adverse effects on the ability of the Earth to perform the necessary planetary functions which could potentially be detrimental to the sustainability of the planet.

    • Word count: 1767
  3. Importance of stratospheric ozone

    O + O2 (3.4) [O + O + M ? O2 + M (3.5)] Reaction (3.5) is too slow to be important, and only reaction (3.3) destroys 'odd' oxygen. One effect of ozone formation in the stratosphere is that it absorbs radiation which heats the atmosphere, and causes a temperature inversion (hot air lying above cold). In fact, it is this process that leads to the formation of the stratosphere. The fact that ozone exists in a layer in the stratosphere can be considered with reference to reaction 3.1.

    • Word count: 1359
  4. Atmospheric pollution

    In December 1952 London had suffered a serious smog problem resulting in 4000 deaths. The committee said that the problem of having clean air may take as long as 15 years to solve. Although the statistics were not fully available, they stated that there was a clear link between pollution and respiratory diseases. Whilst deaths in Denmark were as low as 2.2 per 100,000 men and 1.9 per 100,000 women, the figures in England and Wales were 107.9 for men and 62.7 for women in the year 1951. Following pressure in Parliament the government legislated for clean air.

    • Word count: 1332
  5. Free essay

    internal enviroment (heat lab)

    is the temperature difference between the heated side of the material and side in contact with the heat sinks. To conduct this experiment we used the following equation which enabled us to find the heat flow through the material: Q = ? x A (t1 - t2) d And re-arranged it to make ? the subject. d x Q = ? A (t1 - t2) The apparatus we used for the duration of our experiment consisted of two identical concrete slabs which were sandwiched between two metal heat sinks which were to be tested. A sheet of electrically conducting paper was placed between the concrete slabs to act as a heater.

    • Word count: 1929
  6. health promotion smoking

    Doll and Hill found that smoking can cause cancer of the lungs, chronic bronchitis, coronary artery disease and others. In the U.S.A research on smoking was done on a large scale. It was convincing to see the statistics from these cohort studies on smoking and the impact of cardiovascular diseases. In 1948 a group of people were studied. A long-term study was followed up in Massachusetts. It was clear that smoking effects blood cholesterol, blood pressure and heart disease (Shurtleff 1974). Cigarettes are legal by law but there is a health risk associated with them. All cigarette packets carry a health warning.

    • Word count: 1439
  7. I choose milk as the food type I would investigate for microbial contamination from Farm to Fork.

    The most common bacteria found on the udder during the inflammation are E. Coli, S. Aureus and Enterobacter. There are 3 different classifications of mastitis 1. Contagious Mastitis. This is caused by bacteria, which can survive on the skin of teat and in the udder .The pathogens involved in mastitis spread from udder to udder. A common type of bacteria that causes this would be S. Aureus. 2. Environmental Mastitis. This is caused by bacteria, which usually can't live on the skin of teat or udder. This type of bacteria enters the teat canal through dirty housing conditions and poor hygiene standards on farms and milking parlours.

    • Word count: 1680
  8. Free essay

    The Brick and brickwork.

    It has little waste and is a 'running bond'. This implies that it has little waste. This bond uses stretcher bricks which, when layed, are offset by half a brick. English bond This bond is made up of headers and footers. The bond is a full brick in dept and the strongest bond for a one brick wall. Flemish Bond This is the hardest of all bonds to lay. It consists of an alternate header and footer in each course. This bond is also one brick thick. Fairface Blockwork Block Sizes Concrete blocks come in various strengths, sizes and colours.

    • Word count: 1884
  9. Maunal Handling Training Course

    Module 2: Basic information on the anatomy and biomechanics of the spine and muscles. How injuries can occur? The Lumbar Spine The lumbar spine is made up of the last five vertebra of the spine. The vertebrae are the bones of the spine; their function is to provide support and protection to the spinal cord. Each vertebra is composed of a large piece of bone called the body, which is attached to a bony ring. When the vertebrae are stacked one on top of the other, they form a column on the front and a bony tube in the back.

    • Word count: 1402
  10. The influence of differing spread of precipitation

    and dry seasons for the tropics as with the vast area of low pressure coupled with warm (promoting convection), moist maritime air Non-frontal convergence develops and intense tropical cyclones occur. These cyclones precipitate over a very large area and are responsible for intense floodings in Southern Asia. Frontal convergence occurs at the polar fronts of 60� North/South due to warm air travelling on the Ferrell cell, which continues from the Hadley cell, meeting colder air and an area of low pressure forms which can cause the formation of a mid-latitude depression.

    • Word count: 1793
  11. Global warming: the result of the industrial burning of fossil fuels?

    The result of this global warming is predicted to be an increase in precipitation, more dramatic weather conditions, and a rise in sea levels, with a rise of 4-8 inches already seen over the past century (EPA c.ref 6). El Nino has increased in frequency from once every 5-7 years, to once every 3-5 years (Showstack, 1988, c.ref 1). The ice caps are shrinking, with a 3,000km2 section of the Larsen B ice sheet in Antarctica disintegrating in just 35 days (National Snow and Ice Data Center, c.ref 4), which is indicative of the warming of the atmosphere, (Gelbispan, 1997, c.ref 1).

    • Word count: 1416
  12. Why is it difficult to achieve on the protection of the Global Environment? What concepts have been developed to overcome the difficulties?

    Since 1960s, the Arctic ice pack has reduced its thickness by 40%. The sea level is rising 3 times faster over the past 100 years than the past 3 millenniums. The consequences of global warming are dangerous. For example, more extreme weather that cause floods, hurricanes, property destructions and diseases that threat human beings and animals2. Another important problem of the environment is ozone layer. There is a layer of ozone around the globe, at height between 10 kilometres and 35 kilometres, that protects human beings and animals from harmful radiation.

    • Word count: 1753

    Definition and Principles The word Homeostasis comes from the Greek roots homeo and stasis meaning to remain the same. According to Tortora & Grabowski (1996) Homeostasis is a condition in which a body's internal environment remains within certain physiological limits. Homeostasis is frequently seeing as equilibrium. The internal equilibrium of the body involves the maintenance of a steady rate of concentration of substances and physical parameters such as water balance, blood concentration etc. Walter B. Cannon (1871-1945), an American physiologist, was the person that coined the term homeostasis in 1932 (Clancy, J, McVicar, A, 2002).

    • Word count: 1192
  14. Evaluate the arguments for and against the use of GM crops in developing countries. Which do you support and why?

    Many people argue that genetically modified crops can be a good thing, particularly with regard to health. Genetically modified food has great potential as a relatively cheap source of human therapeutics, especially for the poorer countries. For example, 'In 1996 US researchers were genetically engineering a banana to produce an antigen found in the outer coat of the hepatitis B virus. If successful this banana could immunise children in developing countries for just a few cents per dose. Currently traditional hepatitis B vaccines cost between $100 and $200 per dose.'

    • Word count: 1461
  15. With reference to a range of geomorphic hazards you have studied, examine the role of human activities in both preventing and controlling this hazard type.

    The topic of mass movement is interesting, not least because it can occur on a very local scale, a scale that humans can prevent through a variety of means. The most primitive yet effective ways is to use harness the power of vegetation. Where the type of mass movement involved mainly soil, thus the hazard would be labelled a mudslide, vegetation and particularly trees can bind the soil together and prevent the slide. Tree and plant roots would not only bind the soil together, making it less susceptible to the power of gravity and the lubricating power of water, but they would intercept some of the water that would be present during a potential mudslide reducing the risk further.

    • Word count: 1772
  16. This essay willdiscuss the role of the United Nations in assisting Small Island States adaptto climate change, making particular reference to Tuvalu and the 'environmentalrefugee' debate. 'Refugees', by definition are:

    With residential population on Small Island States generally concentrated within coastal zones any rise in sea level will displace these populations (Davissen and Long, 2003, p6). Tuvalu, in particular, is extremely vulnerable to even small rises in sea level (Gillespie and Burns, 2000, p235; Ede, 2003, p40). Islands do not need to be covered in water for them to become uninhabitable. Once rising sea levels get into the food chain, the island would be unable to sustain habitation. In Tuvalu people are already being forced to grow root crops in metal buckets rather than in the ground due to the increased salinity of the soil (Davissen and Long, 2003, p5).

    • Word count: 1239
  17. Discuss the similarities and differences between human and physical geography

    In the United Kingdom human geography was not really explored in detail until after 1945. According to The American Heritage(r) Dictionary of the English Language, a study of a field of interest is a science if it observes, identifies, describes, investigates experimentally and theoretically explains phenomena, therefore both physical and human geography must be considered to be science due to the fact that both areas of geography can be studied methodologically. Despite the fact that the two aspects of geography are moving apart they are both considered to be sciences that have drawn on the idea of space.

    • Word count: 1609
  18. The atmosphere and refrigerant gasses

    The damage caused to the environment in the past has been immense, and will take along time to recover, if ever. This progressive damage was checked early in the 1990's by a radical change in global rules and regulations governing the management and use of these chemicals; however, the danger still exists if not managed correctly. What are the properties of refrigerant gases?: In its liquid form it generally occupies about 40 times less volume than it does as a gas.

    • Word count: 1122
  19. The failure of the US and Australian Governments to ratify the Kyoto Protocol reflects the influence of short- term business considerations. Do you agree or disagree with this statement?

    In 2001, President Bush unilaterally pulled the US out of the protocol (Bohringer & Loschel, 2003). The exit of the world's biggest economy, and a huge pollutant, was a devastating blow to Kyoto's aspirations and to the morale of the other signatories. After that, Australian is also out from the protocol although it is far smaller than the US, Australia's absence is nevertheless very important because of the proliferation of heavy industry. And both countries said that implementing Kyoto would damage the competitiveness of their industries.

    • Word count: 1606
  20. Global Warming.

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), along with other groups and organizations, maintain that the responsibility for global warming and all of its consequences rests mostly on the shoulders of human beings. The EPA claims that the majority of the warming of the planet that has taken place over the last fifty years is attributable to human activities. Their argument is that "human activities have altered the chemical composition of the atmosphere through the buildup of greenhouse gases" (EPA website). This argument makes it difficult for humans to hide from its apparent responsibility in crippling this planet's state of equilibrium.

    • Word count: 1149
  21. Marine Pollution.

    The term "marine pollution" was not widely used until 1967, when the tanker Torrey Canyon spilled more then 36 million gallons of crude oil just 20 miles off the coast of Cornwall, England. The United Nations Joint Group of experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Pollution (GESAMP) defined marine pollution in 1972 as "the introduction by man, directly or indirectly, of substances or energy to the marine environment (including estuaries) resulting in deleterious effects such as: harm to living resources: hazards to human health; hindrance of marine activities including fishing; impairing the quality use of seawater and reduction of amenities (Clark)".

    • Word count: 1094
  22. Visual Illusions - sensory filtering or knowledge of the world?

    This is an example of shape and size constancy, the "ability to perceive objects as we know them to be despite changes in the sensory stimulation which they produce"1. The main focus of the top down theories is that perception allows our brains to go beyond the information given and fill in any gaps that may be missing with our own knowledge of the world. An example of how this process is used to 'decode' visual illusions uses the Ponzo illusion, as illustrated below.

    • Word count: 1511
  23. Homeostasis Is a Central Theme In Animal Physiology.

    It is this communication, which ultimately leads to a change in the external environment. Right to the organ level or tissue organisation were for example the expulsion of urea changes the blood pH and osmolarity. These internal changes are countered by the excretion of hormones etc, (these substances share 4 main structural forms. Amines, steroids, prostaglandin and peptides) which start a "chain reaction" to nullify the change these hormones are either secreted via ducts (exocrine system) or directly into the blood stream, (endocrine system).

    • Word count: 1101
  24. Why do rivers flood? With reference to specific examples, discuss the effectiveness of measures that can be taken to prevent flooding.

    They instead however affect the rate of discharge by controlling factors such as the shape of the channel (by introducing stone dykes), the bed-load (by dredging) and the flow rate of the river (by building dams) and by constructing lev�es. On the Mississippi a number of large engineering works have taken place in order to try and control the flooding of the floodplain. This was started because the shipping that navigated the Mississippi needed a minimum of 9 feet in order that they did not run aground.

    • Word count: 1030
  25. The "Ultimate Cause" for History.

    Although Diamond concedes that the "proximate cause" of European dominance was weaponry, disease, and technology, he argues that the "ultimate cause" is not because of racial superiority, but rather food production and ultimately environment. In Chapter 10: Spacious Skies and Tilted Axes he proves that a major factor contributing to the differing rates of the spread of crops is the orientation of the continents' axes: predominantly west-east for Eurasia, predominantly north-south for the Americas and Africa. Throughout the book, Diamond uses numerous rhetorical techniques, including posing initial questions and answering them using logical reasoning, presenting concrete scientific data, and conceding counterarguments.

    • Word count: 1586

"Physical science stands as one of the great achievements of the human spirit."

-Arthur David Ritchie

From the sighting of the Higgs boson to the development of clean energy, physical science research consistently alters the way we see the universe, and brings us life-changing technologies. If you're a science person who wants to learn about the universe and its properties-skimming over details like the organisms that live on earth-then a university degree in one of the physical sciences could be a great choice for you.

Strong written communication skills are important for any student of science, so be prepared to roll up the sleeves of your lab coat, and write some reports and essays. If you need a push in the right direction, browse Marked by Teachers' collection of physical science essays. The teacher annotations will show you what should be included in a good piece of science writing, and before long, you'll be writing and editing your own work with confidence.

Students of the physical sciences often take a higher degree in their field, or in a related subject like one of the biological sciences.Careers paths include business, education and research within academia and industry.


Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • Evaluate the arguments for and against the use of GM crops in developing countries. Which do you support and why?

    "In conclusion, it would be impossible to say that there are clear-cut answers to this question as there are both advantages and disadvantages of genetically modifying crops in developing countries. For example, although GM crops could be easier to grow in the infertile soils of Africa and Asia, thus providing more food, there is no guarantee that these crops won't cause serious damage to people's health and to the environment. Scientists cannot yet say whether or not GM crops are safe, simply because they don't know. It therefore seems clear that if people's health is at risk, that should be the most important factor, showing that GM crops are more of a disadvantage than an advantage. However, if it can be proven that Genetically modifying crops is safe to people and to the environment, this opinion would probably be reversed. 1 www.maf.govt.nz 2 www.maf.govt.nz 3 www.agresearch.co.nz"

  • Discuss the similarities and differences between human and physical geography

    "In conclusion human geography focuses on all that is human and physical geography concentrates on the physical processes of the environment. Both elements are interrelated and the focus of their study has changed over time, both areas of geography have made an effort to move away from out dated simplistic theories and both areas have an interest in current affairs. It can be said that although both areas come under the heading of "geography" recently the two disciplines have moved away from each other and have established their knowledge in separate fields of expertise, this can be seen by the fact that human geography articles are published in journals of social science and physical geography articles are published in natural science journals. Space is the key to both sides of geography as both areas are concerned with how communities or environments and their distribution change dependant on their location. Despite the fact that there are many linkages between the two sides of geography, the fact that they are diverging suggests that there are rarely similarities within the two disciplines. That is not to say that this was always the case as geography began as one subject which was concerned with the mapping and cataloguing of regions in order to describe parts of the earth."

  • Discuss a range of geomorphological techniques we can use to determine the rate and magnitude of slope movement.

    "In conclusion, slope movement and magnitude of this movement can be measured and determined in many different ways. Techniques involving technology are the most astute in comparing and contrasting slope movement and the magnitude of this movement. However, the physical measuring of the slope movement highlights and determines ultimately the statue of the slope movement."

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