• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

University Degree: Environmental Sciences

Browse by

Currently browsing by:

4 star+ (1)
3 star+ (1)

Meet our team of inspirational teachers

find out about the team

Get help from 80+ teachers and hundreds of thousands of student written documents

  • Marked by Teachers essays 1
  1. Marked by a teacher

    Citing a number of contemporary issues, evaluate pressures on water and discuss the means by which the resource might be better managed in the future.

    4 star(s)

    In 2005 it was estimated that 48.6% of the world's population lived in urban areas (Encyclopedia of Earth, 2009) with this number constantly on the rise. Urban water provision usually depends on inefficient infrastructure which is susceptible to leakage. People living in cities depend more on large scale farming and food processing industries that require large amounts of water and energy. Urban sprawl contributes to increased flooding and contamination of freshwater supplies because of impermeable surfaces which can negatively affect groundwater levels by decreasing the possibility of water seeping into the ground, increase evaporation of rainwater off bare ground and by polluting groundwater with urban waste (Pennington & Cech, 2010).

    • Word count: 2624
  2. Cultural Perceptions of the Wolf

    The wolf has been a symbol of great respect and honor as well as a demonic symbol of hatred and persecution. While the Europeans saw the wolf as a demonic machine capable of destroying a man's livelihood overnight, many Native American tribes saw the wolf as a brother, a revered companion in hunting, and a figure with deep connections to the spiritual world. These varying perceptions of wolves between European and Native American cultures at the time were the result of contrasting social backgrounds, including each culture's unique set of customs, traditions, and practices, as well as the divergent economic and religious pressures that existed between the separate cultures at the time.

    • Word count: 2104
  3. Environmental Impact Assesment

    was needed. Upon this notion the services of Henry's Environmental Impact Limited was sought to study and report the finding to the Board and NEPA for their approval. 1.1 Description of Project The project to be undertaken is that of a Gym-no-thorium which is to be constructed on the grounds of the Knox Community College (Spalding Campus). The erection of a 73.8 square meters with two bathrooms and changing area, the hall is to be marked for badminton, volleyball and netball.

    • Word count: 2957
  4. Environmental Chemistry of Aqueous Systems

    Two aspects are important: * Natural water systems. Water hardness (Ca2+, Mg2+), pH of rain water (CO2), weathering of minerals (CaCO3), pH of natural waters, decomposition of organic matter (aerobic and anaerobic). * Polluted water systems. Water contamination with phosphates, nitrates, detergents, heavy metals; acid rain (HNO3, H2SO4). Equilibrium and Kinetics These two factors can clearly have a strong effect on the nature of dissolved species in natural and polluted waters. * Kinetic factors may include rates of chemical reactions, rates of transport from gas to liquid, rates of transport in the liquid, etc.

    • Word count: 2224
  5. How useful are the calculations of heritabilities in understanding human behaviour? Historically, the study of heritability (defined as the proportion of phenotypic variance that can be accounted for by genetic variance)

    Twin studies are a classical method in heritability researches because they allow the investigator to compare pairs of individuals of the same age and family environment, but of different degrees of genetic relatedness, on some trait of interest. A greater resemblance for the identical twin pairs is taken as evidence that the trait in question is, to a certain extent, genetically determined. The study of adoptive families is another important design: it examines the resemblance of genetically unrelated individuals growing up together in the same family, as parents and children or as siblings.

    • Word count: 2050
  6. Approaches to the past are largely determined by the intellectual climate of the times. To what extent does this statement apply to Book One of Herodotus?

    At this time Athens was the centre of intellectual life and could boast an almost unique galaxy of talent. It was clear that Herodotus was impressed by Athens and this was demonstrated by his pro Athenian bias in his narrative. 'Herodotus was said to have recited a part of the 'Histories' at Athens and to have received a reward for it. To add greater precision, the absurdly high sum of ten talents was later fixed on the amount of the reward, the consequence of Athenian delight at being favourably depicted in the 'Histories'. This shows how he was influenced by the intellectual climate because he was eager to show Athens in a positive light and this was clearly because of him having lived there for a period of his life.

    • Word count: 2041
  7. Global warming.

    Temperatures are rising and the following observations prove this. Over the last century research has shown that average land surface has rose from 0.45 to 0.6 oC. This is due to the increase of these gases and some of these gases occur naturally in our atmosphere and some occur due to human activities. "The naturally occurring gasses include water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and ozone" (Hare, 204). Some human activities intensify the levels of most of these gases, which can lead to devastating impacts on the Earth.

    • Word count: 2312
  8. Definitions of the Different Personality Types

    Such a behavioural orientation gives rise to the development of leadership skills, good interpersonal and persuasive abilities. Occupations generally chosen by the enterprising type include law, politics, sales and business. The Conventional Type (C) The conventional type shows a preference for ordered activity that includes the manipulation of data (for example, filing). This behavioural orientation results in the individual's becoming adept in clerical, computational and routine tasks. This type prefers occupations such as accountancy, business, administrative and clerical work, and data punching.

    • Word count: 2906
  9. Discuss the Possible Mechanisms for Short-term Climate Change within the Quaternary.

    These have major consequences (Lowe and Walker, 1997) for Gulf Stream operation. The North Atlantic Polar front also changed position significantly during the last glacial-interglacial transition partly in response to meltwater movements, causing Norwegian Sea surface temperatures to fall by up to 5�C in 40 years, leading to large and rapid atmospheric changes. A major issue in short term climate change is the impact of changes in the Thermohaline Circulation (THC, figure 1). Crucial here is production of North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW), as saline cold water sinks at high latitudes and is 'ventilated', (Lowe and Walker, 1997 p.

    • Word count: 2758
  10. Critically evaluate the work of the Environment Agency for England And Wales.

    After six year in operation, their performance has been criticised by many academics, environmentalists, regulated industries, public and even the House of Commons Select Committee on the Environment, Transport and Regional Affairs (SCETRA). In this essay, the work and the goals of the Environment Agency will be discussed in the first section. Then follow by an evaluation of the works of the agency, and then compared with foreign Environment Agency. Therefore, a solid conclusion can be made on the effectiveness of environment agency.

    • Word count: 2144
  11. Environmental issues and the field of international relations

    Therefore they paid unprecedented attention to the environmental protection and control industry. Meanwhile, they have recognized that it is important to "develop a new, more sustainable model of development" (Babiker et al. 2000:525). Some progress has been made in that direction, such as Kyoto Protocol. The Kyoto Protocol is a legally binding international agreement to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions causing climate change, which was initially negotiated during the meeting held in Kyoto, Japan in 1997 (Boyd and Maria 2002; Larkin 2004).

    • Word count: 2559
  12. Global Environmental System - The Global Climate Change Affects on UK

    Also the climate is always defined as in a local area; because the local climate is formed by many factors, and the factors are not always the same in vary areas. There are mainly three determinations of the local climate, which are sunlight radio level, the atmospheric circumfluence and the surface situation. By these reasons, although the earth seems to be a blue planet, there are still numbers of different climate areas, which are called as the climate zones. These are the multi-reasons of the appearances of Torrid Zone and Frigid Zone, rain-belt and arid-belt, equator and the two poles.

    • Word count: 2194
  13. Discuss how Motivational Climate research might be used by teachers and coaches to positively influence children's experiences in sport.

    This can be closely linked to Atkinson's (1964) achievement motivation theory. In this study Atkinson (1964, citied in James Thompson & Wiggins, 1999. pg. 2) refers the theory, as to one's contact with the environment and the aspiration to be successful. People have a need to achieve or a need to avoid failure when placed in certain situations (Cox, 1998). As a result of this theory, it seems that choosing the correct environment, for which the child learns in, is a vital element of increasing motivation.

    • Word count: 2384
  14. Power struggles exist within every country, within every province or state and even within cities. This is where Friedman's core/periphery model comes in to play for Canada.

    British Columbia The geographic region of British Columbia is composed of two physiographic regions and two climate zones. The Cordillera covers the majority of British Columbia's land except for a northeastern portion (Peace River Country), which is covered by the Interior Plains. Do to the rugged nature of the Cordillera, only 2% of this land is arable.2 Two climate zones also affect British Columbia's region: the Pacific climate zone and the Cordillera climate zone. Western British Columbia gets very mild and humid weather as where the interior get more fluctuating dry and cold weather. A leading Canadian geographer, John Bradbury, saw British Columbia as a periphery with characteristics of a core.3 This region has a very densely populated southwestern corner, considered to be its economic and industrial core; the rest of the province is a resource hinterland.

    • Word count: 2343
  15. Is the international ban on the trade of ivory consistent with the principles of sustainable development?

    Of the 37 countries that house elephants all have at least 50% of their population living below the poverty line (CIA World Factbook, 2011), which suggests that the ivory ban is not in accordance with sustainable ideals as it curtails the ability of those currently in poverty to meet their own needs. With regard to intragenerational equity, if it is accepted that people must profit from a resource in order to conserve it (Moore, 2011) then it can be argued that there are other methods of commodifying elephants that are far more in line with the ethos of sustainable development than harvesting them for ivory, such as eco tourism.

    • Word count: 2825

"Physical science stands as one of the great achievements of the human spirit."

-Arthur David Ritchie

From the sighting of the Higgs boson to the development of clean energy, physical science research consistently alters the way we see the universe, and brings us life-changing technologies. If you're a science person who wants to learn about the universe and its properties-skimming over details like the organisms that live on earth-then a university degree in one of the physical sciences could be a great choice for you.

Strong written communication skills are important for any student of science, so be prepared to roll up the sleeves of your lab coat, and write some reports and essays. If you need a push in the right direction, browse Marked by Teachers' collection of physical science essays. The teacher annotations will show you what should be included in a good piece of science writing, and before long, you'll be writing and editing your own work with confidence.

Students of the physical sciences often take a higher degree in their field, or in a related subject like one of the biological sciences.Careers paths include business, education and research within academia and industry.


Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • Evaluate the arguments for and against the use of GM crops in developing countries. Which do you support and why?

    "In conclusion, it would be impossible to say that there are clear-cut answers to this question as there are both advantages and disadvantages of genetically modifying crops in developing countries. For example, although GM crops could be easier to grow in the infertile soils of Africa and Asia, thus providing more food, there is no guarantee that these crops won't cause serious damage to people's health and to the environment. Scientists cannot yet say whether or not GM crops are safe, simply because they don't know. It therefore seems clear that if people's health is at risk, that should be the most important factor, showing that GM crops are more of a disadvantage than an advantage. However, if it can be proven that Genetically modifying crops is safe to people and to the environment, this opinion would probably be reversed. 1 www.maf.govt.nz 2 www.maf.govt.nz 3 www.agresearch.co.nz"

  • Discuss the similarities and differences between human and physical geography

    "In conclusion human geography focuses on all that is human and physical geography concentrates on the physical processes of the environment. Both elements are interrelated and the focus of their study has changed over time, both areas of geography have made an effort to move away from out dated simplistic theories and both areas have an interest in current affairs. It can be said that although both areas come under the heading of "geography" recently the two disciplines have moved away from each other and have established their knowledge in separate fields of expertise, this can be seen by the fact that human geography articles are published in journals of social science and physical geography articles are published in natural science journals. Space is the key to both sides of geography as both areas are concerned with how communities or environments and their distribution change dependant on their location. Despite the fact that there are many linkages between the two sides of geography, the fact that they are diverging suggests that there are rarely similarities within the two disciplines. That is not to say that this was always the case as geography began as one subject which was concerned with the mapping and cataloguing of regions in order to describe parts of the earth."

  • Discuss a range of geomorphological techniques we can use to determine the rate and magnitude of slope movement.

    "In conclusion, slope movement and magnitude of this movement can be measured and determined in many different ways. Techniques involving technology are the most astute in comparing and contrasting slope movement and the magnitude of this movement. However, the physical measuring of the slope movement highlights and determines ultimately the statue of the slope movement."

Marked by a teacher

This document has been marked by one of our great teachers. You can read the full teachers notes when you download the document.

Peer reviewed

This document has been reviewed by one of our specialist student essay reviewing squad. Read the full review on the document page.

Peer reviewed

This document has been reviewed by one of our specialist student document reviewing squad. Read the full review under the document preview on this page.