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University Degree: Environmental Sciences

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  1. Setting up a Learning Environment.

    An excellence of design aims to generate a classroom that is extremely functional, aesthetically appealing, age-appropriate, child-directed, and teacher-supported. A well-designed group care environment encourages children's individual and social development. The setting, arrangement, and equipment give infants many opportunities to challenge themselves through seeing, touching, feeling, and moving. In surroundings that are safe to explore freely, infants discover how to chart their environment cognitively, to manipulate it, and to master it. Crawlers and Walkers and Toddlers and Twos 1. Square Footage - Should be 500-600 square feet usable.

    • Word count: 1934
  2. Global warming and the basic mechanisms of climate change.

    With negotiations completed, the obligations agreed upon were initialised on the 10th December 1997. In contrast to the weak target embedded in the FCCC which required the parties to 'aim' to return their carbon dioxide emission levels to 1990 levels by 200010, the Kyoto Protocol was the first legally binding treaty aimed at cutting greenhouse gases and has been acknowledged as being the most far-reaching piece of international law to be issued in many decades. The Kyoto Protocol is a legally binding instrument, of the FCCC, which set legally binding limits for emissions of greenhouse gases11, for all those who ratified it.

    • Word count: 3761
  3. With respect to the UK, consider the range of options required to manage and reduce the causes of the enhanced greenhouse effect.

    The United Kingdom along with the rest of the world has noticed many of these problems and has been able to recognise that changes to the natural state of the environment have occurred. The UK with 1% of the world's population and producing 2.3% of the world's CO2 has a real duty to the rest of the world. Policies surrounding emissions from industry in this area have been subject to change and there is now a far higher level of awareness within the country.

    • Word count: 1884
  4. Definitions of the Different Personality Types

    Such a behavioural orientation gives rise to the development of leadership skills, good interpersonal and persuasive abilities. Occupations generally chosen by the enterprising type include law, politics, sales and business. The Conventional Type (C) The conventional type shows a preference for ordered activity that includes the manipulation of data (for example, filing). This behavioural orientation results in the individual's becoming adept in clerical, computational and routine tasks. This type prefers occupations such as accountancy, business, administrative and clerical work, and data punching.

    • Word count: 2906
  5. Compare and Contrast the use of setting in at least two of the texts you have examined this semester

    This essay will explore the use of setting in two Twentieth Century novels, 'The Magic Toyshop', (1969) by Angela Carter, which is a form of post modernist writing and 'Love on the Dole', (1933) by Walter Greenwood, which can be classed as Modernism. The setting of the novel can be very important in social and historical factors, depicting the mood of the environment the novel takes place and how it relates to the story being told. Walter Greenwood sets his novel 'Love on the Dole' in Salford, a well-known industrial town, which is highly specific to the story: "The identical houses of yesterday remain, still valuable in the estate market, not to mention a highly satisfactory profit, has been paid for over and over again by the tenants."

    • Word count: 1039
  6. Discuss the Possible Mechanisms for Short-term Climate Change within the Quaternary.

    These have major consequences (Lowe and Walker, 1997) for Gulf Stream operation. The North Atlantic Polar front also changed position significantly during the last glacial-interglacial transition partly in response to meltwater movements, causing Norwegian Sea surface temperatures to fall by up to 5�C in 40 years, leading to large and rapid atmospheric changes. A major issue in short term climate change is the impact of changes in the Thermohaline Circulation (THC, figure 1). Crucial here is production of North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW), as saline cold water sinks at high latitudes and is 'ventilated', (Lowe and Walker, 1997 p.

    • Word count: 2758
  7. Hazards - A case study to illustrate hazards occuring in the physical, modified physical, built and human enviroment in Los Angeles.

    An example of a hazard from the modified physical environment includes photochemical smog. The name originates from the fact that most of the less desirable properties of such fog, result from chemical reactions induced by sunlight. Emissions from the many cars and industrial concerns, when combined with the fog to which the basin is naturally high prone, create smog. Smog appears 'cleaner' than fog produced by the burning of coal in the sense that it does not contain the very large particles of soot. However, the eye irritation and damage to plant leaves that it produces still make it unpleasant.

    • Word count: 1355
  8. The Sahel region of central Africa is arguably one of the most impoverished and environmentally damaged geographic regions on Earth.

    The land is generally dehydrated, dusty, and flat. The climate of the Sahel is barely inviting. The weather patterns of the region are highly irregular and show signs of drastic change over the past centuries. Two major air masses dictate climate control. A dry air mass known as the "Continental tropical mass" blows over the steppe and northern savannah throughout the 8-month dry season from October to May. It is followed by a lightly rainy season concentrated in the southern regions that lasts through September. This is called the "Maritime tropical mass". (Gritzner 8) Between these two alterations, a zone known as the "Intertropical Front" circles between the Gulf of Guinea in January towards the 25 degree parallel north in August.

    • Word count: 1236
  9. The Mesolithic era.

    provides evidence of the variety in Mesolithic diets by analysing animal bones found at Starr Carr. They showed that wild cattle made up the majority of bones, followed by elk, red deer, roe deer and wild pig. Starr Carr also revealed evidence of domesticated dogs; it is probable that they would have been used for hunting and rounding up rather than as pets. Other signs of domesticated animals come from Bahn (Bahn, 1980) who suggests that there may be evidence for tethered horses from as early as the Middle Palaeolithic, their use, however, can only be inferred, but some suggestions are as pets, captive live meat, or modes of transportation or traction.

    • Word count: 1766
  10. Natural Hazards - This report will look at the floods that occurred along the Yangtze River, and Dongting lake, China, August 2002. Floods are very common within China's provinces.

    Although there were no floods along the major rivers, there were flash floods, landslides and mudflows, which resulted in high casualties. This report will be a factual account of what hapend in these provinces. River and coastal flooding are the most frequently occurring natural disaster and are increasing in occurrence more rapidly than any other disaster. Urbanization and deforestation reduce the capability of the earth to hold excess water. As asphalt expands and open spaces disappear, it takes less rain to flood communities as water running over the pavement collects quickly and easily disrupts storm drain systems.

    • Word count: 573
  11. To what extent is Climate Change caused by Human Activity?

    It is necessary to make a distinction between "climate change" attributable to human activities that are altering the atmospheric composition, and "climate variability" attributable to natural causes where climate variability refers to variations in the mean state i.e. the occurrence of extremes in the climate beyond that of individual weather events. Variability may be due to natural internal processes within the climate system which are referred to as a climatic internal variability. (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change 'UNFCCC', Article 1).

    • Word count: 1918
  12. Carbon tetrachloride.

    Although it may contain many good properties and attribute good uses to society and the economy, the bad outweigh the good. Therefore it should not be marketed due to the danger that it would provoke. This is why a phase-out was scheduled under the Montreal Protocol, with the exception of feedstock and other essential uses. There have been many arguments that have coincided with the creation of carbon tetrachloride. First of all, it is not natural and is a man made substance.

    • Word count: 1305
  13. Floodplains - Any watershed begins with small trickles of water.

    A floodplain is a mostly flat area of land bordering a river that is subjected to periodic flooding. It is made up of silts and sands, which have been deposited over many years by the river. Whilst some deposition takes place within the river channel, the bulk of the sediment is deposited when the river floods. The reason for this is that as the river spreads over its floodplain, there is a sudden increase in both the wetted perimeter and the hydraulic radius.

    • Word count: 533

    Environmental determinism fell from favour as it was realised that the overall system of the physical environment is far too complex to be explained by deterministic approaches. As a scientific approach, it was too simplistic, whilst not necessarily being reliable due to its generality. Additionally, in the twentieth century, determinism came to be discredited by many as it could be used to explain racial variations, which could also be linked to Nazism. The nineteenth century also saw the rise of a modified alternative to determinism, called possibilism. This is the more complex view that the physical environment is a series of systems which offer man a choice of possibilities of which he can take advantage. This paradigm of study is associated with the French school of geography, specifically Paul Vidal de la Blache (1845-1918) and Lucien Febvre (1878-1956). Possibilism recognises the importance of the influence of the physical environment (although it is not dominant) whilst also accounting for man's freedom of choice, thus aiming to explain spatial variations within a fixed environment. "There are no necessities, but everywhere possibilities; and man, as master of the possibilities, is the judge of their use." (L.Febvre). In this way, the development of an area is directly related to the people concerned. Within possibilism, man and his influences are the dominant forces rather than environmental factors, although these too are recognised. Human activity is seen as being a modifying agent to the earths features. In addition, possibilism encompasses cultural, historical, and economic influences, giving a more rounded approach. Possibilism has also been influential in the rise of the school of cultural geography associated with the name of Carl Ortwin Sauer and the University of California at Berkeley, and with development of the idea of human ecology. The founder of this latter notion was H.H.Barrows (1877-1960), of the University of Chicago, who stressed the importance of the type of relationship between human and physical factors, and especially wanted to study the physical elements only when these were relevant to human activity. This approach was an ecological viewpoint to the relationship between people and their environment and applies normal ecological models to people. The fourth and final approach developed before 1945 was one concerning landscape change. This approach tried to monitor how people alter landscapes through time to suit themselves. This adjustment is slow and progressive. In modern day geography, determinism and possibilism no longer hold their former importance. Technological advances and increased research now allow man to alter his own environment to suit him. Since 1945, a newer, wider diversity of approaches have appeared. This major change was due to large criticism of environmental determinism as it dealt with the 'region'. This 'region' is no longer as important as an area of study as its scale is too small. Today more issues are on a global scale. These four main approaches had merits of their own in their time, although now they have become outdated and today more ideas have been developed. The main environmental approach of today is probabilism. This has resulted from simple determinism. It suggests a probable outcome given a set of facts, ie. what will probably happen. For example, given an increase in carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere, sea level will probably rise. There is always uncertainty in this approach but it's seen as being a more sophisticated idea. Probabilism has been the main approach in the study of the relationships between people and their environment, during the second half of the twentieth century. However, there are others, such as the development of human ecology, landscape development, resources and management and resources and hazards. All of these approaches are important in their own fields and are more relevant to todays environment. To conclude, during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, many different approaches have been developed to enable us to understand relationships between people and their environment. However, no one approach could encompass the many different issues that arise, and as time continues, modernisation leads to the necessity to rethink and redevelop old, outdated

    • Word count: 1056
  15. My visit to Jiuzhaigou valley.

    The two tickets are only valid in one day that means if you want to visit it again the next day, you have to pay the tickets again. After we entered the main gate, a working personnel came and showed us to the bus station. This kind of bus is said to better solve the problem of pollution of tail gas to the environment of the scenic spot. Soon the bus started and a lovely Tibetan girl, served as a guide, began to introduce Jiuzhaigou to the passengers.

    • Word count: 575
  16. With reference to one or more examples, describe how and why strategies of river basin management are different between LEDCs and MEDCs?

    The River Colorado, which is 1470 miles long, is the most managed river of its size in the world. Eighteen dams lie along the river, which have the significant effect of reducing the water flow downstream and reducing peak discharge, thus reducing the flood risk. On the other hand, the intensity of river basin management in Bangladesh for the Ganges-Brahamaputra is significantly less. The only permanent form of flood management is the 3500 km long embankment that was completed as part of the 1987 Flood Action Plan drawn up and financially supported by the World Bank. Furthermore, even greater differences lie in the usage of these schemes.

    • Word count: 856
  17. Critically evaluate the work of the Environment Agency for England And Wales.

    After six year in operation, their performance has been criticised by many academics, environmentalists, regulated industries, public and even the House of Commons Select Committee on the Environment, Transport and Regional Affairs (SCETRA). In this essay, the work and the goals of the Environment Agency will be discussed in the first section. Then follow by an evaluation of the works of the agency, and then compared with foreign Environment Agency. Therefore, a solid conclusion can be made on the effectiveness of environment agency.

    • Word count: 2144
  18. Human impacts at the coast intended to stabilise a coastline can also lead inadvertently to increased coastal erosion. Discuss.

    There are many types of coastal defence mechanisms that are employed to try and reduce the effects of coastal erosion. The first one I am going to cover is groynes. Groynes are structures made of wood or stone that protrude out into the sea at right angles to the coast (see diagram (a) below). Groynes are intended to trap sediment from the effects of longshore drift thus creating a large beach that will act as a defence against waves so they will not reach the cliffs or sea wall behind.

    • Word count: 1376
  19. Assessment of Indoor Environment.

    constant/variable. Acoustical Standardisation Internationally is the responsibility of the International Standards Organisation. In modern buildings about 30 types of noise generating equipment has been identified, producing levels of 45-60DbA. It can be higher in cases where very low sound dampening materials have been used in the structure. Indoor Air Quality Air is influenced by quality of indoor air pollutants and quality of outdoor air coming in. This can be screened, filtered or washed. Some volatile and particulate pollutants are emitted form the occupants themselves, others may originate from tobacco, combustion products from cooking, heating, lighting gaseous and particulate compounds

    • Word count: 4463
  20. "Understanding the Savanna".

    There are five factors that together determine what form of savanna is successful at any particular location. These are climate, edaphic, hydrological and geomorphologic factors, fire and grazing (Bourliere and Hadley 1992). Savanna is a dynamic system found in every tropical climatic area of the globe (Collinson 1988), located mainly between the latitudes of 5 degrees and 15 degrees north and south of the equator (Park 2001). Nix (1992) argues savanna can be found as far as 30 degrees north and south of the equator. The vegetation zone can be found in the interior of continents, sandwiched midway between the open desert steppes and the humid equatorial zones, it covers approximately 11.6 % of the earths land surface (Briggs et al 1997).

    • Word count: 3358
  21. A general increase of natural hazard impact?

    A general increase of natural hazard impact? From a physical viewpoint, global climate change introduces new physical patterns such as increased erosion because of deforestation... Then, men have to cope with this modified environment. Global warning brings about more and more flooding along coasts and around islands since the sea level rises (Bangladesh, Pays Bas, Maldives). Then, human beings have the impression that catastrophes are increasing. From October 2000 to April 2001, a large part of British Isles was affected by the most widespread flooding in over 50 years.

    • Word count: 3243
  22. Climate change and its impacts.

    Thus, a higher concentration means a warmer climate. ? Carbon Dioxide - Of all the 'anthropogenic'6 greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide has by far the greatest impact on the global heat budget (heat budget = amount of heat absorbed - the amount radiated back into space). Contributing to carbon dioxide's greenhouse potency is its persistence: as much as 40 percent of it tends to remain in the atmosphere for centuries. The accumulation of atmospheric carbon dioxide is promoted not only by combustion but also by tropical deforestation. ? Aerosols - They are not categorized as gases, but they are minute solid particles, sometimes covered by a liquid film, finely dispersed in the atmosphere.

    • Word count: 4735
  23. What contribution can geographers make to moderate the impact of natural hazards?

    'From a strict cost assessment, one might argue that society should let nature take its course, and put its resources into minimising medical risks and everyday accidents.' (Lundgren, 1988: 761) This Marxist perspective on hazard management is, in my opinion, an important one to consider, as it can interact with already-existing development programmes. That is not to diminish the direct impact of the hazard itself, however. For the area which is hit, the effects (both economically and in human terms)

    • Word count: 3809
  24. "Atmospheric hazards are natural phenomena." A Natural Hazard is an unexpected or uncontrollable natural event of unusual magnitude

    Even though humans cannot be the sole cause of an atmospheric event, their influence can have an effect on the frequency, magnitude and also the location of atmospheric hazards. Atmospheric events can be labelled as a hazard when people or infrastructures are at risk. However, sometimes an atmospheric event would not become a hazard in the first place, if it wasn't for human developments interfering with natural processes. In ancient times, people didn't have the technology we have today, and learned how to live with atmospheric events. The flooding of the river nile, was actually beneficial to the ancient Egyptions.

    • Word count: 886
  25. Ethical Clarification of the Climate Change Debate

    Though most environmentalists seem to subscribe to this viewpoint, it is interesting that both politicians and scientists have found both their disciplines to be deeply divided. Most business people, however, would likely disagree with the aforementioned perspective. Those who denounce the idea of climate change as non-existent emphasize that the scientific "proof" of climate change is actually quite uncertain and thus they do not promote immediate action which they contend will damage the economy in order to address a potential non-issue (Jones, 4).

    • Word count: 1329

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