- Join over 1.2 million students every month
- Accelerate your learning by 29%
- Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
University Degree: Social Theory
Currently browsing by:
- Removefewer than 1000 words
Meet our team of inspirational teachers
- Marked by Teachers essays 3
Nietzsche Genealogy of Morality. Nietzsche focuses much on the origin of words and the meanings and connotations of these words that we as people tend to link to good and bad.
Their thought, Nietzsche argues, is "unhistorical" because it suggests that noble acts and unselfishness predates value-judgments. From Nietzsche's understanding, these terms rose from the natural aristocracy. Nietzsche focuses much on the origin of words and the meanings and connotations of these words that we as people tend to link to "good" and "bad." In Nietzsche's distinction between a thing and its meaning, we find the initial doubt with which Nietzsche unravels so many of our assumptions. Nietzsche battles with the usage of the word "good" as he unravels the origin or history of the word. He says that these masters, or the ruling class, have been able to define what is good, therefore strength, power, health, wealth, and happiness are all considered "good" because these are qualities linked to the ruling class (Nietzsche 11).
- Word count: 795
WHAT IS SOCIAL CONSTRUCTION? WHAT ARE THE KEY DEFINITIONS AND CHARACTERISTICS OF SOCIAL CONSTRUCTION?
This means that things could not have existed had people not built it. Social construction has been also defined as "the way people view themselves and others is not natural but shaped by the society in which they live" (Marshall, 1998). Society does see the world directly but through lenses. Illness is seen as social construct through two dimensional, which are eastern medicine and their version definition of illness and the western medicine and their definition of illness. In alternative medicine, patients are classified by body type. Illness is considered to be a matter of imbalance of the body; therefore treatment is aimed at restoring balance to the mind and body system.
- Word count: 614
Similarly, the civilians on Earth in the movie The Matrix fail to see that they too are living in a type of constructed reality, whereby, much like the prisoners in the parable, they too are prisoners of this reality - failing to recognise that what is before them is not essentially the 'real' (Miller, 2002). If one of these prisoners in the parable were to be released, and compelled to turn his head and walk toward the light which had previously been behind him (Plato, 1901), he would undoubtedly suffer pain as a result of sensitive eyes meeting the glare (Plato, 1901), and be in a somewhat bewildered state (Scruton, 1995).
- Word count: 972
and representations. This would appear that we have some degree of agency in forming our identities. There is also the fact that the social groups, symbols and representations are socially constructed bringing us back to structure and providing a link between the personal and the social, who we think we are and how others see us. Louise Althusser's theory of interpellation (in Woodward et al., 2004, pg. 19) is interesting when considering this link between the personal and the social. Althusser argues that people are recruited into identities especially via the media in a process which people liken themselves to portrayed images thinking 'hey that's me'.
- Word count: 778
receive similar economic rewards'1. Higher an individual's market position easier it becomes to obtain and access goods and services of a prestigious value and their power increases to dispose of them. This results in social groups becoming segregated and differences become evident because individuals in the same market position are more likely to share the same lifestyles and feel a sense of belonging and acceptance within that group. Thus excluding and creating prejudice against other existing groups which Weber refers to as Social closure, 'the way power is exercised to exclude outsiders from the privileges of social membership'2.
- Word count: 724
Stress. The total stress score from the social readjustment scale does not adequately reflect what the author believes to be his personal level of stress associated with social readjustment. The scale covers most issues that deal with social readjustment.
Theories are needed to explain and predict stress, as well as for the design and evaluation of interventions. Although there has been a history of developing, testing, applying, and refining psychological theories on stress, debates and limitations in evidence exist (Dombeck and Wells-Moran, 2006). The component of theories which, for example, predicts change should be better elaborated so that we can more easily understand what actually reduces stress. Theories need to be empirically testable in two ways. Theories need to specify a set of changeable predictors to describe, explain, and predict behavior change, and they should enable us to design an effective intervention that produces exactly those changes in behavior that are predicted by the relevant theory.
- Word count: 673
Leon spent many years in the cooperatives movement. After Walras was appointed to the Academy of Lausanne in 1870. He wrote and published the first edition of The "Elements of Pure Economics" in 1874. In the course of Leon's work of the "Elements of Pure Economics" lead to his reputation of being "the father of general equilibrium theory". Leon Walras's Elements are familiar to every modern economist. It covers much of what is available to us in the general equilibrium theory. The general equilibrium theory is a branch of theoretical microeconomics. It explains the production, consumption and prices in a whole economy. Walras set out his Elements into eight parts.
- Word count: 603
The skill of the Apache in battle became legendary. "It was said that an Apache warrior could run 50 miles without stopping and travel faster than a troop of mounted soldiers." (4) But they saw themselves differently; they faced constant struggle to survive. When Apache warriors raided a village, they did so from pure necessity. Most of the time they kept to themselves, moving from camp to camp in search of deer and buffalo, collecting roots and berries, and sometimes planting seeds to which they later returned. "They set up their camps on the outskirts of the pueblos.
- Word count: 701
So the similarities show that all must be related from a common ancestor. One example is a chimpanzee's arm having five fingers, five hand bones and a set of small bones in the wrist, two lower arm bones and one upper arm bone. Most scientists have said to believe that life on earth started with very simple creatures which has developed slowly this idea is called the theory of evolution. Scientists have over the years studied active organisms and prehistoric ruins, scientists try to explain how and why living things have altered over time.
- Word count: 622
Using at least one example from social life, explain what C. Wright Mills (1916-62) meant by the 'sociological imagination".
Public issues, however, exist on an impersonal level in the form of institutions and the processes of society. These social problems can only be addressed through collective action, rather than an individual pursuing change, however, troubles are only by and large resolved through political responses. For the individual, the pain and challenge of these troubles is experienced alone, however their origin has developed outside of their personal lives. An applied sociological imagination would be that if, for example a small number of women in a town developed eating disorders, or a small number of people had been fired from their
- Word count: 728
The theory is based on contemporary British cultural studies from the development of Marxian base/superstructure theory. That theory states that changes in the superstructure (culture and ideology in the sense of social values and stereotypes) are determined by change in the base. Another theoretical approach is the Gramsci's concept of hegemony "that helps to explain why class conflict was not endemic despite the fact that power and capital were so unevenly distributed and the working class led such confined lives" Willis's study analyses the inner meaning, rationality and dynamic of cultural process to do that focus on a group of teenager working class.
- Word count: 794
And finally, the Ego - conscious and rational, the ego attempts to build a bridge between the demands of the Id and the superego. If the individual is well adjusted to life's pressures and demands, they will develop a strong ego and be able to cope. If not, abnormality arises, resulting in conduct disorders as a child and psychopathic disorders as an adult. When the Ego is managing to balance the two extremes, it employs defence mechanisms to help. These are used to distort or deny reality to help the body to protect the body from distress when trying to cope with the demands of each.
- Word count: 748
On his travels Darwin visited the Galapagos Islands; it was here discovered and collected samples of bird fossils of geological interest to himself. On his return, Darwin studied his finding and asked John Gould (1804-1881) to classify the bird fossils. Gould identified these birds as being finches. Furthermore Darwin realised that each Galapagos island had its own species of finch that were all slightly different to each other, but all closely resembles those on the South America mainland. It was this evidence that led Darwin to believe that each of these finches had the same ancestors but each had 'evolved' differently in order to survive in its environment.
- Word count: 976
Class Unlike previous systems, class divisions are not legally or religiously bound but depend on economic factors. Marx and Weber's theories of stratification are most influential and only differ slightly. Marx defines stratification as being primarily based on economic factors and the immense divide between the capitalist and the worker. Weber adopts the same perspective, but also recognises the aspects of party and status. Party refers to the common interests that bind social classes together such as political parties. Status is the 'social honour given to individuals or groups' (p.280). The theories of Marx and Weber assist the understanding of how stratification contributes to contemporary society.
- Word count: 800
poverty * Crimes are often deliberate and conscious acts with political motives e.g Women's Liberation Movement; Black Power Movement; Gay Liberation Front. Shows people fighting back against capitalism * Many crimes against poverty involve redistribution of wealth: if a poor resident of an inner city area steals from a rich person, the former is helping to change society * Deviants are not just passive victims of capitalism, they are actively struggling to alter it * Wish to see socialist rather than communist society * Greater emphasis than other Marxists on freedom in any future society * Hippies, homosexuals, ethnic minorities and drug users should be accepted and not turned into animals by persecution.
- Word count: 686
In Todd Gitlin's book called Media Sociology he looks at the Dominant Paradigm and the effects of "Mass media". In a chapter we learn "the recalcitrance of audiences, their resistance to media-generated messages
Survey studies of the broadcast of political agendas for social attention showed only slight effects on the public. This proves that audiences are still able to argue and deliberate what is being feed to them and they are still able to make up their own minds. Another factor that influenced their opinions was the theory of the "two step flow of communication". The study revealed evidence that the flow of mass communication is less direct than previously suggested. Lazarsfeld and his associates Bernard Berelson and Hazel Gaudet suggest that "ideas often flow from radio and print to the opinion leaders and from them to the less active sections of the population".
- Word count: 996
For example, the randomly produced stimuli might resemble those produced when running. The sleeper could then dream of running. The brain then attempts to explain random signals from the lower brain produce a random dream with no deep or hidden meanings or purpose. Some envision dreams as simply the brain's technique for memory consolidation and clean-up activity, know as the reverse learning theory (Crick & Mitchison, 1983). Others see dreams as an emotional safety net, emphasizing the rich emotions and deep personal meaning that dreamers sometimes experience (Cartwright, 1990). This theory has the advantage that it is based on detailed information about the brain processes, but the disadvantage is that it does not fully explain the existence of coherent dreams.
- Word count: 599
Durkheim explained the true nature of the totem as it being symbolically representative of the society that worships it. In essence, they are subconsciously worshipping their own society. This is because the totem stands for the values of the society that worships it. In addition to this, Durkheim believed that social life is impossible without the shared values that form collective consensus. Without them, there would be no social order, control or solidarity. He argues that religion acts as a reinforcement of the collective conscience. The worshipping of society strengthens these values and beliefs that form the basis of social life.
- Word count: 959
The increase in their importance has its bases in Conservative spending plans, in their last term in power. During this time the efforts made by the Tories to lower tax, resulted in cut backs in pubic expenditure. The implications of this were dramatic reductions of government spending in housing. In an effort to try and lessen the effects of this the government strategy was to strengthen housing associations at the expense of Local Authorities. One of the effects of the governments increased support for housing associations was the transfer of housing stock from local authorities to housing associations.
- Word count: 985
On second thoughts he may realise he wasn't looking where he was going and apologise to the two women for spilling beer on them and maybe try to help them. If he feels the women were in his way he may scold the women for being careless and clumsy. If the women feel responsible for the accident they will apologise and the man will probably accept their apology and maybe even apologise himself. If the women do not feel responsible they will argue with the man about whose fault it was for the whole incident.
- Word count: 741
Give an outline of this issue and use the principles of Social Psychology to explain it. (12) The contemporary issue I have studied in Social psychology is that of reducing prejudice.
Prejudice works in three parts; it affects what you think of a person, how you feel about them and consequently how you behave towards them. This is called discrimination and is against modern laws and values. In today's society, prejudice is still an important issue which needs to be tackled and the psychological methods with which to do this are still being experimented and developed. Recent and ongoing examples of prejudice in modern society are homosexual people receiving prejudice from the rest of society.
- Word count: 607
"The String Theory" suggests that "small vibrating 1-dimensional objects with length and tension constitute the universe" (Superstring theory). Each dissonant vibration constitutes a different particle. An example is sound waves created on a musical instrument. Each string on the instrument can vibrate in resonant patterns creating various amplitudes and wavelengths in the sound wave. Therefore, a variety of musical notes can be heard. Thus, "there is no possible way for strings to vibrate in the three spatial dimensions that we are familiar with, up and down, left and right, and back and forth" (Greene 1999).
- Word count: 928
This is a sociological perspective based on the ideas of Karl Marx (1818-83). Marxism is a structuarlist theory i.e. he saw the individual as less important than the social structure of society.
The exploitation of the proletariat would eventually lead to major class conflict poverty-stricken proletariat and the bourgeoisie. The proletariat would struggle against the ruling class through strikes, demonstrations and other forms of protest. The working class would develop class conscious an awareness of their common working class interests and through exploitation until eventually they would make socialist revolution and overthrow the ruling class. (K Brown 1992 Introduction to Sociology 2nd Ed.Blackwell publishers u.k page 18). The forces of production and the social relationship of production form the infrastructure of society.
- Word count: 923
Therefore arose the concern over health care for workers, disability coverage, childcare, retirement, safety, fair working conditions and pay. Workers expected the government to make sure that there concerns and basic needs were accommodated and ever since the government has become a permanent part of the social welfare system. Social Values Two important social values are individualism and social responsibility and there is a continuous cycle shift between the two.
- Word count: 377
was introduced by Prof. Dr. Christa Buschendorf of the Institut f�r England- und Amerikastudien of the J.W. Goethe Universit�t Frankfurt and Mr. Daniel Wendell the deputy director of the Amerika Haus in Frankfurt. Mr. Dormagen of the Suhrkamp Verlag then gave a short biography of Tristan Egolf who was born 1971 in Pennsylvania and played guitar in a punk band in New York after having quit college. While travelling through Europe Tristan Egolf wrote on his first novel Lord of the Barnyard (1999)
- Word count: 380