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University Degree: Pharmacology

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  1. 'Should the widespread use of antibiotics continue?'

    On April 28 1994, it was reported that some bacteria in patient samples could resist all currently availible antibiotics (2). In order to prevent this from happening on a massive scale, the use of antibiotics should be kept to a minimum and there should be larger investments into alternative treatments. During 1979-1987, 0.02% of pneumococcus strains were penicillin resistent in 13 hospitals in 12 states and in 1995, the figure had increased to 6.6% (3). This shows how quickly the resistance of a particular strain can widely increase and so action against the use of antibiotics must take place as quickly as possible.

    • Word count: 748
  2. Legalization Of Marijuana

    So there is a definite need for marijuana therapy, because for patients that suffer with glaucoma the marijuana can reduce the pressure within the eye, it is also shown to help the nausea and vomiting that can accompany cancer chemotherapy, and new studies show that it may ease pain in the limbs and increase the appetites of AIDS sufferers. Thus it would be very wrong of the government to deny patients medicines that could possibly help them. Marijuana for Medicinal Purpose 4 In the case of glaucoma it is widely accepted that the elevated pressure in the eyeball that damages the optic nerve falls when marijuana is smoked.

    • Word count: 1870
  3. Discuss the viability of the legalisation of cannabis for medicinal purposes

    Speech may become slurred and co-ordination is usually impaired. Large amounts of the drug can produce hallucinogenic effects. (Gross, 2002: Pg. 112) However as with many drugs there are undesirable side effects. These may come in the form of mild panic and paranoia. To illustrate, a recent study showed that 10 to 15% of people who smoked cannabis reported feelings of confusion or paranoia and around 30% gave these experiences as their reasons for quitting the drug. Nausea and vomiting may occur where too much is taken at once, especially when the drug is taken with alcohol. (http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/hottopics/cannabis, 2002)

    • Word count: 1048
  4. Letter to an M.P. Concerning Cannabis

    The medical benefits of cannabis have been proven by extensive medical research. This research has led to disproving many myths about the drug, e.g. it does not cause cancer, damage the lungs, impair short-term memory, nor causes brain damage. It is tobacco that cannabis is usually smoked with which causes these illnesses. Cannabis helps to ease pain, nausea and vomiting caused by serious illnesses such as cancer, AIDS, Multiple Sclerosis. It can improve the quality of life of many sufferers. It is less harmful than tobacco or alcohol. It should be a matter of choice whether or not people smoke cannabis because it is a fundamental human right that they can decide for themselves and this has been taken away as the decision has been made for them.

    • Word count: 631
  5. Biosimilars and recombinant drugs

    There are many Biosimilars being developed in the market which are waiting to be approved. POTENTIAL MERITS AND DEMERITS OF BIOSIMILARS: MERITS: Biosimilars had come as a boon to the biologists when there was a concern of biopharmaceuticals patent expiration. They are cheaper versions eliciting the same biological effects as that of original biopharmaceuticals. They help in treatment of many orphan diseases. DEMERITS: Biosimilars are not identical with biopharmaceuticals in structure, manufacturing and purification. There are many potential problems identified with Biosimilars which include: * Patient safety and Immunogenecity: As biosimilars are not similar to biopharmaceuticals, the potential risk associated with them is also different.

    • Word count: 876
  6. The aim of this experiment was to formulate and manufactured Aspirin 75mg tablets in direct compressions.

    The first attribute of a tablet formulation is therefore compressibility. The second attribute is good flow. Tablets are controlled by weight. After all, the drug dose is a weight included in a larger weight contributed by excipients. The process of tableting relies on consistent volumetric filling of the die space set by the bottom punch. Most drugs are poorly compressible and form ?lumpy?, cohesive bulk. To achieve the necessary attributes of good flow and compressibility for successful tableting, drug substances inevitably have to be combined with other excipients. Aim[h] The aim of this experiment was to formulate and manufactured Aspirin 75mg tablets in direct compressions.

    • Word count: 2982
  7. Determination of Molecular Weight via SDS Page Gel. The focus of this lab is the determination of unknown proteins via molecular weight.

    The concentration of acrylamide used to make the gel will determine the scope of molecule sizes that will be separated. A higher percentage acrylamide in a gel results in smaller pores, which will allow very small molecular weight proteins through. A low percentage of acrylamide will produce large pores and allows for more movement of larger proteins through the matrix. Once in the appropriate apparatus, an electric field is applied to the gel. This field moves the charged proteins and they will be separated based on size, amount of charge, pore size of the gel matrix, duration of exposure to current, and strength of the electrical field.

    • Word count: 1323
  8. Pharmacology. The use of co-beneldopa and selegiline in the treatment of Parkinsons disease

    There the cells release essential dopamine neurotransmitters that help control movement and coordination (ADAM, 2011). Currently, there is no cure for Parkinson's disease and as yet no knowledge as to why people get the condition (Parkinson?s UK, 2011). Parkinson's doesn't directly cause people to die, but symptoms do get worse over time (Parkinson?s UK, 2011). Parkinson's doesn't directly cause people to die, but symptoms do worsen over time (Parkinson?s UK, 2011) which does have a contributory factor to mortality rates. Pharmocokinetics is a branch of pharmacology that is concerned with both the rates at which the drug is absorbed and eliminated and what influences the time the drug moves between one biological compartment and another (Hollinger, 2003).

    • Word count: 3937
  9. Analysis of 3 Unknown Chemicals

    The mechanism is shown in Figure 2. Figure 2. The mechanism of the DNPH Test used to detect aldehyde and ketones. The Beistein Test is used to detect halides and the appearance of a green flame is a positive test. The equation shown below represents the steps of the Beistein Test. Cu (s) + O2 (g) --> CuO (s) CuO + 2 R-X --> CuX2 + 2 R-O The Tollens Test is used to identify aldehydes and the formation of silver mirror or a black precipitate is a positive test.

    • Word count: 2743

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