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AS and A Level: European Union
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Not only could Britain's products now improve they were now under protection from abroad. One other advantage that the EU offered for Britain was the free movement of workers in Europe. If someone from France wanted to work in Britain they could but if Britain had not been in the EU then they would not have been able to. The real advantage of moving workers freely from one country to another is that these workers will be highly skilled. For example, Belgium is renowned for its ability to make quality chocolates but British chocolate is not to the same standard.
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Reasoning behind the European union being set up, and why the UK benefits from membership of this bloc.
nevertheless the aim was eventually to create a full common market. Now there are 15 members of the EU (UK, Denmark, Ireland, Greece, Spain, Portugal, Sweden, Austria and Finland have all joined since 1973.) It was also hoped that by uniting many countries of Europe that the conflicts of world war would never be repeated, and that acting together the EU would be a dominate force against political and economic giants such as the USA. Britain has always been a leading global power. Today, Britain is a more influential power in the world because we are a leader in Europe.
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The benefits for car industries to set up specifically in EU countries which are based in central and eastern Europe is that the cheaper factors of production leads to fall in prices and greater demand for cars, this increase in demand which then leads to increased output and better resource exploitation and therefore increases economies of scale and global competition and hence increased profits for the car industry. An example of where car manufacturers have exploited these harmonised rules made by the EU are Skoda who are producing cars in Czech Republic and Fiat who produce their cars in Italy and Poland.
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Explain why Britain did not join either the ECSC or the EEC in the 1950s but then changed its mind about Europe in the early 1960s.
Within the EEC the six amongst other things also agreed to create a council of ministers who would begin by each exercising a power of individual veto but would later take effective decisions by a qualified majority of 12 votes out of 17 each minister having a number of votes determined in accordance with the economic weight of his country. In 1955 Britain missed the chance to join the EEC and having it tailor-made for her requirements and in fact did not even send an observer to the Messina Conference where the plans of the six took final shape.
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To what extent has control of the economic policy passed from British Governments to non-elected bodies both home and abroad?
This also means interest rates are depoliticised and increases the bank's credibility with the market. Although the bank has a degree of control in reality the government still has some constraints over them. The Prime Minister, for example, appoints the Governor (currently Mervyn King) and the Chancellor appoints most members of the MPC. The MPC have to publish details of their interventions with the market so is held to account better than the European Bank. The Governor also has to appear before the Treasury Select Committee (TSC). The TSC and the Parliament also scrutinises the Bank's report to the House of Commons.
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The organisation of the League of Nations was seen as a reason for its failure to maintain peace - How far was the organisation of the United Nations more likely to succeed in keeping world peace?
The League of Nations looked weaker; this was because they didn't have so many powers as members. The United Nations has a leader figure called a Secretary general. The Secretary general makes sure that the United Nations legislation is enacted, they are usually from a neutral country. A famous and successful Secretary general was Dag Hammarskjold. Dag Hjalmar Agne Carl Hammarskjold was secretary-general of the United Nations from 10 April 1953 until 18 September 1961 when he met his death in a plane accident while on a peace mission in the Congo. Hammarskjold was elected two terms and served 8 years as UN Secretary general.
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Winston Churchill was again involved when the United European Movement was created in May 1947. Through the year of 1947 many movements were created, movements such as the Socialist United states of Europe. In June of the same year the Marshal plan was set up for the revival of Europe is announced. Towards the end of 1947 the European Union Federalists Congress was held in Montreux, Switzerland. In December of the same year the Unionist and Federalist organisations met within the International Coordination of Movements for the Unification of Europe Committee. That meeting turned out to be a positive and successful one.
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No member states are allowed to borrow more than 3% above their GDP. The Germans imposed this strict rule, as the Euro was set on their strong Deutsch Mark. It is ironic though, as Germany are having major difficulties economically and consequently are borrowing more than 3% of their GDP. This was due to the joining of rich West Germany and poorer East Germany when the Berlin wall collapsed in Nov 1989. Chancellor Kohl wanted the joining of Germany, the proud German's plan was to unite Germany and make them a leading state within Europe.
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Also being part of the EU has given firms in the UK a lot more customers to sell to. Instead of just having constomers in the UK to sell to being within the EU enables them access into the other countries where they can sell their goods. Another advantage to firms would be that if you want to travel to a different county in the EU to work or live then it is much easier now than it used to be because there is a lot more trust between the countries as a result of the EU and the treaties which each county has agreed to follow.
- Word count: 760
Describe the functions of the Council of Ministers, European Commission, the European Parliament and the European Court of Justice in making and interpreting European Union law.
The council is the principal decision making body of the Union. The meetings are democratic and each country has a number of votes roughly in proportion to the size of its population. For most issues a qualified majority is required where at least 67 of the 87 votes must be in favour. Individual Member States also have a right to veto in certain situations where they consider the proposal being discussed to be of a 'very important interest' of their country.
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Someone who was appointed might be able to work together with the other EU representatives and get things done much easier. B) The European parliament lacks power... Hmmm One of the major problems that I have already spoken on if the fact that since each country has a representative in the EU parliament they are all trying to represent their countries wants and views. This would be a big obstacle to any parliament but it is compounded by the fact that each member has a veto and so if any
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There were no members from the Labour movement present. The miners for their part had three points, No wage cuts, No extension of hours and keep the national agreement over wage bargaining. The government wanted to end the subsidies paid to the coal industry. This meant the owners would cut pay. Big mistake came at the start, Saturday May 1st 1926, when the MFGB handed over the power of negotiation to Citrine and the other ditherers at the TUC. Lines of communication were over extended. The delegates from the miners' districts went back to their areas, leaving Cook to mind the shop in Russell Square.
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'Building Union among people not cooperation between states' (Jean Monnet) - Is this an accurate description of the contemporary integration process?
Nowadays, with regards to Britain, British citizens are free to travel, work, study and live in any other EU country. This has been particularly beneficial to the younger generation of people in Europe. Every year, some 127 000 students in the EU and around 10 000 teachers are involved in mobility programmes so they can see the EU and experience life in other EU countries. This is helping to broaden people's understanding of what it means to be European and is drawing people from different cultures and backgrounds closer together.
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Is Europe evolving to "supranationalism," that is a United States of Europe, or are nationalistic and ethnic irredentist designs creating devolution or splitting of existing states?
On the other hand, many Europeans are against the European Union's notion of one Europe, largely because of nationalistic ideas of the past two centuries. Since 1871, Germany, either in part or in whole, has continued to dominate the overall European economy, and has twice plunged the continent into a world war. This fact frightens many citizens of other European nations, because both were entirely of nationalistic design, with Germany attempting to, in the worlds of Kaiser Wilhelm II, "find her place in the sun." Strangely enough, it's today's Germany that finds herself one of the major proponents of supranationalism.
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To understand how close the candidates are to the "Maastricht criteria" and what joining the EU will give them, it is necessary to know these countries' current economic conditions. Growth among the EU candidates in Central and Eastern Europe and the Baltic region has, in general, been relatively well sustained during the global slowdown. In most of these countries, growth rates of at least 2.5 to 4.5 per cent were recorded in 2002. Further strengthening is forecast for 2003 as the global economy improves.
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However, there are arguments supporting both sides to Britain joining the single currency and whether we go in at all will have to be decided based on the arguments. It is thought that the single currency will make Europe richer because businesses will no longer have to worry about currency fluctuations as a fixed exchange rate will be given to all countries in the single currency by the European Central Bank and this means fluctuations and bank charges will no longer be an issue.
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Another of these rules concerns the flow of goods from countries inside the EU to countries outside of the EU. Before we entered the EU Britain was allowed certain agreements with other countrys, if for example we agreed a deal with Japan, where by any goods that were imported or exported to our country we would forget about the tariffs and taxes that had to paid on those goods and vice versa then this was OK. When we entered the EU any special agreements we had with other countries had to be stopped and so the prices of some products sold in the UK now rose as a result.
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European Powers captured colonies and exported goods to colonies in order to solve the problem of excess productivity. * Source of material and natural resources - Large amount of material and natural resources were needed by European powers for economic use and also support their military force. * Sign of hegemony - Colonies were also a sign of hegemony, national glory, power and strength. Major colonial states in Europe before the World War Two: * Britain - colonized India, Malaya, Pakistan, Burma, Ghana, Kenya, Zimbabwe, Hongkong, Gibraltar, Ski Lanka, etc.
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They improved working conditions, pensions, wages and organized trade unions. These things affected peoples` everyday lives. The state of the health system improved. This was to the Leagues advantage because there was a noticeable improvement in people's general standard of living after the war. Another area of success for the League was the way in which they helped the mandate commission. The League governed the land taken away from Germany and Turkey fairly until it was ready to be independent. The League did not ignore Austria when it asked for help from them. Instead of refusing, the League helped them solved their problems; this was another of their major earlier successes.
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In many countries farming was very important. By 1957 at the Treaty of Rome it was recognised that agriculture was declining as industry grew. The CAP was necessary because food has a low price of elasticity demand meaning that consumers will not necessarily but more food because it is cheaper because people can only eat so much so therefore on a good year farmers may receive a lower income therefore there is no incentive to boost production the next year, they may even cut down the production and in turn this could cause a shortage and the prices to rise again.
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The Maastricht Treaty, Amsterdam Treaty, Nice Treaty * * In December 1990 the community's leaders formally convened two intergovernmental conferences, the first to map out the steps need to establish economic and monetary union and the second to deal with obstacles standing in the way of a political union. * * The outcome of the two conferences was the Treaty on European Union signed by the member States in Maastricht on 7 February 1992. * * Before it could be enforced on 1 November 1993 the treaty had to clear several hurdles.
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Some of the document's most contentious points included music software, Internet dial-up access, broadband Internet access and integrated broadband content.1 However, the Europeans' fears about the pending partnership's potential to dominate the online delivery of music prevailed as the single most important obstacle to the deal's success. According to an article on The Wall Street Journal Online, this was mainly because the combined companies also intended to acquire EMI Group PLC, which is the world's largest music publisher and third largest recording company.2 Furthermore, since the commission strongly believed the ability to access digital music online would be a nearly irresistible draw to new users, they understandably did not want that particular field monopolized.
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I have been asked by the chairman of Squaresoft to create a website to expand on their famous Final Fantasy theme, but with a twist. They feel that they need knew ideas, and they want to give the world what they want.
have five clubs across England that is not able to share data between them. Their situations are as follows: The fact that only three of the five clubs use modern computer databases for handling their member's data prevents information from being properly, efficiently and conveniently synchronized, updated, edited and stored. In the last year over two thousand members have complained about the bad management, and found that although they may be a member at one club, if they go to another club they are not recognized as a registered member and must reregister, and over 1,500 have recently left for similar reasons.
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35% of the total budget goes on structural measures or funds. Financial Support A regional development grant is one of the types of financial support that the EU provides. This may help some countries to reduce unemployment. A regional development grant is given to a business by the government to start up in an area of high unemployment. The business will put a sum of their own money to start up. The agreement that will take place will be that the business will try and reduce unemployment.
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(b) How might the increase in female employment and decrease in male employment be explained? Factors which help to explain the rising female participation ratio include: The structural changes in the UK economy with the relative decline in the primary and secondary sectors of the economy which are ones predominately with male employees given both some explicit expectations of males being required in farm and factory based jobs. The growth of the tertiary sector, which has offered in particular, increased possibilities of female participation in the workforce. Some employers have favoured using part-time employees to minimise costs of employment that would follow if full-time staff were employed as a result of legislation that has tended to give more protection for full-time employees.
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