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AS and A Level: European Union

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  1. What impact has Europe had on the process of Constitutional reform in the UK?

    Referendums may appear to be a relatively small constitutional reform its effects have been far reaching, from the original use of a national referendum in 1975, referendums have since been directed at various controversial issues and have been used under the guise of direct democracy to attempt to settle disputes about issue such as devolution and the antiquated question of Irish Home Rule. With regard to the EU's impact on these there have also been other examples of the same type of use, a proposed referendum on Economic Monetary Union and on the single currency, other issues that would inevitably have an impact on the UK constitution through their further integration of Europe and European politics.

    • Word count: 647
  2. 'The European Single Currency project was a bad idea from the start and ought to be abandoned.' Critically examine this statement.

    The single currency is thought to bring Europe closer politically and economically. It is an ambitious and risky project as it is the first example where sovereign states launch a single currency project. From the introduction of the ideas about the Euro there have been mixed views regarding its success and benefits to the countries.

    • Word count: 353
  3. House of Lords Reform.

    The House would then be free from the constrains of the adversarial politics and all members of the House would be able to check the governments policies without party interference. Elections to the House: Elections should happen every 10 years in the middle of a Commons cycle. The elections should be on a PR basis, using the AV system.

    • Word count: 500
  4. The Council of Ministers

    The actual composition of the Council of Ministers varies, depending on the nature of the matter to be considered. When considering economic matters, the individual states will each be represented by their finance minister. If the matter being discussed were to be related to agriculture, however, the council will be made up, as you'd expect, of the member states' agriculture ministers. The organisation of the various specialist councils falls to the president of the Council of Ministers. The post of president is held for 6 months, and is predetermined. As the president of the Council of ministers, he / she would effectively be able to control the agenda, and focus on aspects which they feel are important to their country.

    • Word count: 575
  5. What has been the effect on English law and law making of UK membership of the EU?

    The issue of direct effect has also come around with membership of the EU. The two types of direct effect are vertical and horizontal, vertical direct effect has evolved over the years of EU influence to a point where it is relatively easy for an individual to take a state to court and win. In the case of Marshall v. Southampton Area Health Authority. Mrs. Marshall wanted to work till she was 65 like her male counterparts, but she was made to retire at 62 because of the lower retirement age for women.

    • Word count: 836
  6. How similar are the Policies of the Conservative and Labour Parties?

    Election campaign, that early release scheme prisoners had committed 2 rapes. Politics of the last 10 years have increasingly been edging away from the extreme wings and have been collecting in the centre regions of the spectrum. Does this mean that soon we will be faced with two identical manifestos, with only the name to tell them apart? How similar are the policies of the Labour and Conservative parties? Labours economic aims where to encourage sustainable growth, i.e. to create long-term markets, rather than short-term booms.

    • Word count: 735
  7. Should We Join the Euro?

    1961- The United Kingdom formally applies to join the European Communities. 1961- Ireland formally applies to join the European Communities. 1961- Denmark formally applies to join the European Communities. 1967- The United Kingdom re-applies to join the Community. It is followed by Ireland and Denmark and, a little later, by Norway. General de Gaulle is still reluctant to accept British accession. 1971- Applicant countries to the European Communities, namely Denmark Ireland, Norway and the United Kingdom, outline their respective negotiating positions.

    • Word count: 669
  8. To what extent have international courts and tribunals been successful in upholding human rights?

    It was the first time an international court has found Moscow guilty of serious violations in Chechnya. The judges said Moscow had breached an article of the European Convention on Human Rights guaranteeing the right to life. The six plaintiffs received approximately £94,000 in compensation from the Russian government. However, this small fine is very unlikely to act as a credible deterrent to Russia committing human right abuses in the future. Russia is a significant actor in the global political arena. Arguably the most successful is the ECHR. For example in 2010 the ECHR successfully pressured Bosnia into reforming its constitution because it discriminated against the Jew and Roma population.

    • Word count: 871
  9. Types of Democracy and Ways of Participating.

    However in a representative Democracy the government tries its best to be socially representative of their nation 3a) Define Liberal Democracy Liberal Democracy is a form of Representative Democracy. According to the rules of a Liberal Democracy. Elections should be free and fair and the political process should be competitive. Meaning whoever wants to create a political party can create one and run for election for example the elections in Britain are free from corruption, there is an independent election commission that oversees elections and makes sure they are fair, however some people believe that voting under the first past the post system isn?t fair.

    • Word count: 671
  10. Why are Asymmetrical wars, such as Iraq and Afghanistan so difficult to win?

    Within these wars many civilians often get accidently hurt as Mark Curtis states in Unpeople: Britain?s Secret Human Rights Abuses ?an estimated 10,000-50,000 people including soldiers and civilians have died in Iraq. An estimated 10,000 were civilians.? Asymmetrical wars ask for a different strategy than the military is used to. Fighting insurgency includes fighting the propaganda spread by these forces, and consequently winning the ?hearts and minds? of the populace. One of the main reasons these wars are so hard to fight is that civilians often feel a sense of injustice and of course don?t like the notion of their country being invaded.

    • Word count: 783
  11. To what extent have recent EU developments had an impact on the UK?

    This caused a rift in his party and therefore led to a loss of faith. It was arguably this involvement in Europe which was instrumental to him losing the election, causing another large change as it was then Labour who came in to power in 1997. Moreover, the factor tame case of 1991 established the European law has supremacy over statute law in the UK. This effectively led to a loss of parliamentary sovereignty as a power shift was caused.

    • Word count: 659

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