• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Which is more effective at improving performance, positive or negative feedback?

Extracts from this document...


Which is more effective at improving performance, positive or negative feedback? The aim of this investigation is to discover which form of feedback, either positive or negative, is most effective in serving to improve performance. Based on my own experience and anecdotal evidence, my initial opinion is that positive feedback is more effective at improving performance than negative. Feedback Feedback is essential in order to reassure performers that what they are doing is correct so it will be repeated, or telling them what they are doing wrong so they can improve. There are several types of feedback that can be used, the most appropriate methods to be used vary between individuals and sports. The different types are; * Positive & Negative * Intrinsic & Extrinsic * Terminal & Concurrent * Knowledge of results & knowledge of performance Positive This is essential for learning as we need to know what is correct in order to repeat it. If positive feedback is not given, performers are likely to change their technique until told it is correct. Positive feedback is also motivational, which is essential at early stages as beginners may be less enthusiastic and can become de-motivated when struggling. ...read more.


KR is the method most performers are thought to prefer and deem more relevant as it is more immediately obvious, and allows them to gauge their success. However, KP is becoming more valued amongst more elite performers as it allows them to understand the results they have received, for example a sprinter may watch video footage of a race that may aid them in identifying errors in technique which, when improved upon may help to improve their time. KR alone, however much it is valued, is not enough to improve performance as it does not serve to identify why performers have received the score, time or position they have. It is also thought that feedback alone is not enough, and requires reinforcement to be at its most effective. Reinforcement Reinforcement is a form of feedback that is required to allow a performer to develop. It is aimed at building on the positive elements of an performance and eliminating the negative. Reinforcement may be anything that increases the likelihood of a performer repeating a skill, movement or overall performance. It can take four main forms; * Positive * Negative * External * Internal As with feedback, the most appropriate form of feedback to use is dependant on the performer, the environment and the activity being undertaken. ...read more.


to de-motivate the performer, also most feedback would be external as their skills are not developed enough to rely upon intrinsic feedback, also there would be no use of KP or KR as the performer would be unlikely to have any interest at an early stage. In contrast to this, an expert badminton player would require more negative feedback so as to make them aware of any errors in technique, without the risk of de-motivating them Despite having a highly developed intrinsic feedback system, they may also require extrinsic feedback in the form of video playback to perfect slight errors in technique to further improve performance. To further investigate and prove my findings, my next step would be to conduct a practical investigation involving two separate groups of performers, both of equal ability. I would begin by having them perform a series of skills, with one group receiving only positive feedback and the other receiving only negative feedback, they would then repeat their previous activity and I would then gauge whether either group made any significant improvements. Also, another way of gathering further research would be through a questionnaire to gauge peoples opinions on what type of feedback they prefer and find most beneficial to them. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Acquiring, Developing & Performance Skill section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Acquiring, Developing & Performance Skill essays

  1. In what way or when (under which circumstances) will goal setting be effective in ...

    be lost and performance may not improve, and in fact, may deteriorate. There have been many goal setting principles proposed and the ones highlighted in this discussion are those that were regarded as key for effective goal setting by several researchers (Locke & Latham, 1990; Kingston & Hardy, 1997; c*x, 1998; Weinberg & Gould, 1999; Gould 2001).

  2. Self analysis of weaknesses in table tennis - Comparison to elite model 2

    will allow me to be able to learn how to return a ball whilst under a game play situation. Allowing me realise how to return the ball and be able to keep the rally gain so that I am on top throughout.

  1. Analysis of Performance

    (Adrian & Cooper, 1995). - Automatic timing devices must be used for recording time during the competition. The device must also be approved by the IAAF Automatic timing devices must be used as they are more accurate as opposed to manual, the device must be approved as accurate by the IAAF, this is to ensure sprinting times are officially accurate.

  2. An Investigation Into The Performance Of A Basketball Player

    Pivots to face basket to threaten the defender. Sport - Basketball Analysis of Core Skill 2: Dribbling / moving with ball with both hands. My Performer: Top level Performer: Right Hand Preparation Feet shoulder width apart, so on balance. Knees slightly bent. Feet shoulder width apart, so on balance.

  1. Pe written investigation

    The toes were plantar flexed. When returning to the bed the legs were not held in position and didn't stay together. This would make it harder for the performer to keep a routine going in the centre of the trampoline Follow through/recovery Good control of the performance, had consistent height,

  2. National Governing Rules and Regulations - Practical Performance

    The Return & Order of Play When returning the ball it should be struck so that it passes over or touches the net and then touches the opponent's court. The order of this play starts with the server making the first service with the receiver making a return shot and

  1. Free essay

    stress and risk

    An online course has no face-to-face instruction but may use the face-to-face setting for assessment." (Brown, Lied Holm, 2004, p.491) Internet research is not only concerned with the study of online behavior, i.e. what people do in virtual and mediated environments.

  2. Analysis of Performance

    - When an attacker is passed the ball in the half that he is scoring in, there must be at least two players from the opposition closer to that goal than him, if not he is ruled offside, and a free kick is given to the opposition.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work