Analysis of the Progress made towards the Millennium Development Goals.

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Examine the progress made with the MDGs regarding Poverty, Child Health, HIV/AIDS and Education.

The Millennium Development Goals consist in eight major points that have been appointed by all of the 193 member states of the United Nations. They have been agreed with the objective of improving social and economic conditions fore the world’s population. These terms were officially submitted following the Millennium Summit in 2000 and have been planned to be completed by 2015.

The first of the eight points regards Poverty and Hunger. I will concentrate on the Poverty section, divided in two elements. Firstly, the UN decided to engage in halving the amount of people living on, or with less, than 1$ per day. In 1990 data was recorded in the developing countries, sustaining that 46% of the population lived with 1$ or less each day. The same survey, in 2005, showed that this number decreased to 27%. Because the goal for the MDGs was to reach 23% the developing countries appear to be on track with the requirements, resulting in a possible substantial overshoot. Another indicator shows the global population living under international poverty line, 1.25$ a day, with an average of 1.8 billion in 1990 and down to 1.4 billion in 2005. The World Bank has therefore stated that, if the pattern is to continue, by 2015 this number should drop to approximately 920 million people. This would represent a near success in the objectives, exceeding by 40 million people (2.222% more than required). This number may therefore not be an extremely significant amount in percentages but, differently, is a major quantity of humans suffering poor economical conditions. Because this indicator considers the poverty limit at 1.25$, instead of 1$ as the MDG goal describes, the excessive 40 million people could be most probably due to the additional 0.25$. This major improvement was forecasted despite the economical breakdown of 2008/09. During this period many countries suffered a severe economical crisis. The employment-to-population ratio (% of the working aged population employed, usually ranging from 15 to 64 years) shows how throughout these two years the job availability decreased or stabilised. This indicator could even be reconnected to the second point stated in the Poverty section: the achievement of a full and productive employment, consisting in decent work, for all. In Latin America the indicator displays a substantial development from 58% in 1998 to 61% in 2008 but followed by a decrease in 2009 to 60%. Similarly in Western Asia the pattern went from an initial score of 47% down to 46% in 2008 and in the period of one single year, in 2009, to 44%. It is therefore clear that these two years have only slowed, if not briefly reversed, the process of economical development.

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As a whole the global economy seems to be developing rapidly and on course. It is though a concern that this evolution isn’t equally spread through the various regions. The majority of the economical growth would therefore have occurred in East Asia: here, over a twenty-five years period, the poverty rate fell from nearly 60% to less than 20%. Dissimilarly, in Sub-Saharan Africa from 1990 to 2005, the poverty rate declined, only slightly, from an initial value of 58% to 51%. The goals, though, are aimed to increase the economy of each singular region, not on a worldwide scale. The ...

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