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University Degree: Botany

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  1. Spectroscopy of Fast Green Solution and Chlorophyll A and B

    Information about the two intensities can be expressed as transmittance. (Vogelman and Evans, 2002) The transmittance is the ratio of the intensity of the exiting light to the entering light. (Jones et al., 2007) This value is expressed as a percentage. Different materials absorb different wavelengths of light. (Karp, 2010) Therefore, the wavelength of maximum absorption by a material is one of the characteristic properties of that material. (Karp, 2010) The transmittance can be related to the absorbance (A) by the formula A is equal to 2 - (log(%T)).

    • Word count: 1696
  2. This essay provides a brief description of neem, while also focusing on the numerous benefits of it in regards to improving human and animal health. Neem (Azadirachta indica), a central Ayurvedic medicine and rising global panacea, is a fast-growing tree

    These can range from eroded hilltops with infertile lands to stony, flat lands and firm laterite. The best results can be yielded from black cotton soil with a pH lower than 8.5, with deep well-drained soil and good sub-soil water. Neem truly is a miracle plant and most every part of it contains powerful chemical properties being proved useful for humanity. The leaf is known to have antibacterial and antifungal properties, aids in digestion and possesses excellent use as a carminative, delays the clotting time of blood and used as anodyne for fomenting swollen glands, bruises and sprains.

    • Word count: 1220
  3. Describe the major pathways and transformations involved in the atmospheric transport of Sulphur, produced as SO2 in combustion processes. Outline the major impacts of SO2 upon plants.

    These attempted to improve the local environment around them by building taller and taller stacks to disperse the gases higher into the atmosphere. Consequently, gases were spread more thinly, but over a much larger area. Legislative controls on emissions of SO2 have forced the introduction of desulphurisation methods in some countries, amongst which fluidised gas and lime based systems have been used. SO2 is dispersed from high stacks and its residual time in the atmosphere depends on environmental factors such as humidity, solar irradiance, and its solubility.

    • Word count: 1530
  4. Determination of Absorbance Spectra of Photosynthetic Pigments

    Introduction Photosynthetic pigments enable plants to absorb light, a process which is essential for production of energy through photosynthesis. Without this process, life as we know it would not exist. At certain wavelengths of light, pigments absorb photons while at other wavelengths photons are reflected. As a result, the pigments appear coloured with the colour of the pigment relating to which photons are reflected in which colour portion of the spectrum (Knox, 2005). The pigments' pattern of absorption, called its absorption spectrum, is a distinguishing feature of each pigment and one that we aimed to demonstrate in this experiment.

    • Word count: 1223
  5. 'Genetic Engineering: Friend or Fiend'

    Before GM products were developed, there would have been competition between the weeds and the crops for the nutrients and minerals in the soil. This caused the yield of crop production to be lower. [1] The United States is the most profitable country containing the largest amount of GM grown crops. The main modified crops are the herbicides and insecticide resistant plants e.g. soybeans. [2] Insects and pest*s* are a big problem in farming. They reduce the world crop production by over 13% every year. Hence the insecticide resistant plants were produced in aid to stop the decline in production.

    • Word count: 1281
  6. The Effect of Stomata Opening on Plant Transpiration

    Introduction: Transpiration is the loss of water through stomata openings on the surfaces of plant leaves. It is crucial for the survival of plants since it aids in water transport through roots, stems, and leaves, creating a suction force. The stomata, minute pores controlled by guard cells, are also essential for gas exchange. Carbon dioxide enters these pores, and oxygen exits as a product of photosynthesis. Stomata generally open at daytime and close at nighttime. Many environmental factors also affect stomata openings for transpiration. These factors include low humidity, wind, high temperature, and light, which increase the rate of transpiration.

    • Word count: 1908
  7. Investigating the inhibitory effect of reserpine on locomotor activity in mice, and its reversal by laevo-DOPA (L-DOPA).

    plus Chlorpromazine (0.5mg/kg). Test made 100 mins after administration E Chlorpromazine (0.5mg/kg) treated rat. Test made 100 mins after administration Results: Effect of drugs on mouse movement Table 1: showing the number of revolutions performed by each mouse Mouse A Mouse B Mouse C Mouse D Mouse E 1 44 20 8 55 58 2 43 22 3 66 59 3 51 18 2 45 65 4 46 13 7 46 69 5 42 23 6 50 55 Mean 45.2 19.2 5.2 52.4 61.2 S.D 3.56 3.96 2.59 8.56 5.67 S.E.M 1.89 1.99 1.61 2.93 2.38 Graph 1: showing the mean number of revolutions performed by each mouse The graph shows that the administration of reserpine causes a large decrease in the mean number of revolutions performed by the mouse.

    • Word count: 1572
  8. Coconuts (Coco Nucifera) - Origin and Current Locales.

    This explains how coconuts were growing and being used by Old World natives in the Americas before Columbus arrived. Coconuts can be found in any lowland tropical and subtropical region around the world. They thrive where annual precipitation is low and around beaches because coconuts are not affected by salt water of the ocean, like most other plants. Coconuts use the tides of the ocean to their benefit by helping them disperse and germinate, as mentioned above. Their origin was the Indian Ocean region, but, because of their dispersion methods, coconuts can be found around the world. The palm tree naturally dispersed itself into Africa, Central America, and other tropical beach regions.

    • Word count: 1214
  9. History of the Loxley Valley (Near Sheffield, Peak district).

    In 1649, Loxley Chase was described as 'the herbage common and consiteth of great oake timber.' After the enclosure acts of the eighteenth century it was divided into regular walled enclosures and crossed by straight roads, which still remain today. Before the second half of the twentieth century most of the changes in the agricultural forms of the landscape were evolutionary, not revolutionary. But after the Second World War, some of the most dramatic changes have taken place. Firstly, the working horse has disappeared. So now oats, grown as fodder for horses, are not grown. Many features associated with horses and traditional farming have vanished, for example the fields no longer need to accommodate horse driven ploughs and turning circles.

    • Word count: 1365
  10. Adaptations of Aquatic and Tertiary Organism.

    As evaporation precedes from the mesophyll cells the air within the sub-stomatal air chambers develops greater saturation. There will be a concentration gradient dependent on the humidity of the surrounding atmosphere. This will dictate the rate water transpires out through the stomata. Plant species have adapted to suit their environment via natural selection. Plants in dry/arid habitats such as Cacti have cut down the number of stomata, and lowering their evaporating surface areas. In the other direction plants in a rain forest have developed far larger surface areas and greater number of stomata to allow far greater water potential to develop within the plant.

    • Word count: 1476
  11. An investigation into the effect of pectinase on fruit juice production from an apple.

    Table to show how the amount of juice collected changes over time, with and without the enzyme pectinase. Amount of juice collected (cm3) Rate of collection x 100 (cm3/s) Percentage more apple juice collected with pectinase Time/seconds With pectinase Without pectinase With pectinase Without pectinase 60 4.0 1.2 6.67 2.00 233% 120 5.4 1.4 2.33 0.33 286% 180 6.2 1.6 1.33 0.33 288% 240 6.6 1.8 0.67 0.33 267% 300 6.8 2.0 0.33 0.33 240% 360 7.0 2.1 0.33 0.17 233% 420 7.2 2.2 0.33 0.17 227% 480 7.3 2.3 0.17 0.17 217% 540 7.4 2.4 0.17 0.17 208% 600

    • Word count: 1170
  12. Cerealor Sugar Case Studies.

    From this region, the cultivation of rice had spread to Indonesia, the Philippines and northern Australia. Later, traders carried the grain throughout Asia, the Middle East, Europe and finally the New World.(Greenland, 1997) Production Statistics According to Singh et al 2000, China is the largest producer of rice in the world currently and next followed by India. China accounts for 21 per cent of the total global rice production. Please refer to Appendix 1. Varieties Table 1: Rice products and uses for human foods (Esminger.

    • Word count: 1604
  13. Determine the relationship between light intensity and the rate of photosynthesis in spinach leaves.

    The net reaction of photosynthesis is CO2 + H2O + light energy yields (CH2O) + H2O + O2 where (CH2O) stands for carbohydrate. Overall, photosynthesis consists of two sets of reactions: one that is light dependent and one that is independent of light. In the light dependent reactions use energy from light is absorbed by chlorophyll. This powers the release of electrons from water, which are then transferred to the electron carrier, NADPH. Oxygen is a product of the light dependent reactions.

    • Word count: 1311
  14. Fieldwork at Ainsdale National Nature Reserve; Succession in Sand Dunes.

    Blowouts- where protection against the wind is removed, sand is picked up from a strong wind and deposited elsewhere, leaving a 'hole'. Fixed dunes- when the vegetation has developed so that it forms a more or less complete cover of the substrate, the dunes are fixed. During this fieldwork, the following data was recorded. Plant species percentage cover, slope profile, air temperature, soil temperature, soil pH, wind speed, light intensity, and percentage air humidity. The plant species cover was calculated using a basic line transect.

    • Word count: 1587
  15. An Investigation into Microclimate on a Sand Dune System

    I also predict the soil temp will be lower in the troughs than the peaks because they are less exposed to the sunlight. Air Humidity - I predict that the air humidity will at first be high when near the sea and then lower in the mid sand dunes before rising quite a lot in the woodland area. Air Temp - I expect the air temperature to remain quite consistent throughout the investigation. Variations might be due to the time and I expect the air temp to cool down towards the evening or if it rains, but not to be affected by any of the other factors.

    • Word count: 1883
  16. A Short Formal Report Looking Into Setting Up A Chemical Plant.

    Firstly the company will have to pay for the land that the plant will be built on, as well as all of the construction costs, including the building materials and the labour, the human effort, to build the plant. Then the company will have to pay for all of the capital, which is the equipment used in manufacturing the chemicals, as well as the buildings, and the labour used to run the plant, such as scientists. They will also have to pay for the land, which is the raw materials used to make the chemicals, and the transport of the finished chemicals to the customer will also have to be paid for.

    • Word count: 1282
  17. Siting an Aluminium Processing Plant.

    These are purified using electrolysis to make aluminium. Electrolyte- aluminium oxide is dissolved in molten cryolite at 950?C. Cathode is made of graphite (lining of cell) and the reaction is that at the cathode the aluminium ions receive electrons: 4Al3+ +12e- ? 4Al The aluminium atoms collect together, and drop to the bottom of the cell as molten metal. This is run off at intervals. Anode is also made of graphite. This time the reaction is that at the anodes the oxygen ions give up electrons: 6O2- ? 3O2 +12e- Oxygen gas bubbles are given off. But unfortunately it attacks the graphite anodes and eats them away, so they must be replaced from t9ime to time.

    • Word count: 1291
  18. To investigate the soil type found at selected sites on the South West facing hillside and identify the factors important in the formation of the soil types found at these selected sites.

    A Dutch auger was used at each site to bore into the soil. The soil removed showed the differences in colour and depth at each horizon. Soil texture at each horizon was tested using a finger assessment chart. A BDH kit was used to measure soil pH in the different soil horizons. These tests were carried out to determine the soil types and properties at the selected sites. An interrupted line transect was used to sample percentage vegetation cover with quadrats placed at 10m intervals along the transect.

    • Word count: 1274
  19. The legalization of Marijuana.

    William Buckley says, "Pot is harmful, but people should not go to jail for smoking it". Buckley was a college professor at Columbian University and admitted to smoking marijuana on a national television show in 1973. At the time Buckley was quoted to say, "There were a half-million arrests due to pot use in 1973 respectively -this makes the realization that there has been a breakdown in communication between the public and the police". Over two decades later, Buckley's words still ring true today.

    • Word count: 1286
  20. Chemicals and the environment

    It is therefore important to control unwanted organisms that cause disease in order to obtain a good harvest. This is why the use of pesticides is extremely important in farming but also dangerous as observed below. By their very nature, most pesticides create some risk or harm to humans, animals or the environment because they are designed to kill or otherwise adversely affect living organisms. At the same time, pesticides are useful to society because of their ability to kill potential disease causing organisms and control insects, weeds and other pests. www.epa.gov.html (office of pesticide programs) Pesticides may be divided into 3 categories.

    • Word count: 1424
  21. Surveying the Distribution and Abundance of Plants in Different Coppices

    Also, a different light intensity could create different numbers of plants in the coppices, as well as causing them to be spread out over a wider area, creating more competition and causing some species to receive less light than they need for photosynthesis and won't survive. Temperature- Different temperatures may provide optimum conditions for different plant species, and so they will have greater abundance and will be more concentrated than other plant species. Soil Temperature- different temperatures in the two coppices could encourage different species of plants to grow and thrive, and cause others to die out.

    • Word count: 1603
  22. The Effect of Temperature on the Speed of Response of Dionaea muscipula

    APPARATUS: - 5 Venus Flytraps (each with at least 4 open, trigger able traps) - Thermometer - Stop Watch - Human Hair - Heat Lights PROCESS: 1) All 5 VFT's were placed in an environment which had a temperature of 20�C and left for 15 mins to allow the VFT to acclimatise. 2) One VFT was triggered through twice-touching the human hair on the trigger hair located on the inside of the leaf. The period of movement of the VFT from the second touch of the hair until the initial movement of the VFT is completed was timed and recorded in seconds.

    • Word count: 1762
  23. My summer garden

    Before me would lie the carpet of grass, usually brown and withered, which would dampen my mood, but this morbid image would never overtake the entire stretch of grass. The sides of the garden would be lined with plants and flowers as high as me. There was not much variation of colour, but I was content with the lush greens of the large leaves. Overshadowing those were larger trees left to grow at their own will, they obscured the dull fence from sight which I liked; I hated any reminder of humanity whilst I was in my own world of harmonious tranquillity.

    • Word count: 1157
  24. The combination of constant warmth and abundant moisture of the tropical regions demonstrates a successful environment for many plants and animals.

    Although the motion carries then the introduction of predators and parasites in order to control the species. Firstly one should reflect carefully on the actually area of the tropics. It is known to be a hot, moist biome found near Earth's equator. The world's largest tropical rainforests are in South America, Africa, and Southeast Asia. The combination of constant warmth and abundant moisture of the tropical regions demonstrates a successful environment for many plants and animals. Tropical rainforests contain the greatest biodiversity in the world. Over 15 million species of plants and animals live within this biome.

    • Word count: 1417

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