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University Degree: Zoology

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  1. Marked by a teacher

    What is a species?

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    In other words the individuals of a species are determined by their potential of being reproductively compatible; "This biological species concept defines a species as a population or group of populations whose members have the potential to interbreed in nature and produce viable, fertile offspring, but are unable to produce viable, fertile offspring with members of other populations." (Campbell and Reece, 2005, p.473). Despite the BSC being a commonly universal definition of species, there are some problems with the concept.

    • Word count: 1480
  2. Malassezia Dermatitis

    � � Clinical Signs � Malassezia most often begins in summer and/or very humid months, much like allergy season. "Over 70% of the dogs have concurrent dermatoses, especially allergies, keratinization defects, endocrinoptathies, and bacterial pyodermas" (D.V.M Scott, V.M.D. Miller, Jr., and D.V.M. Griffin 363-374). Like many dermatological disorders, the most common clinical sign of a Malassezia infection is an extreme pruritus. The pruritus may be "partially responsive to corticosteroids and antibiotics (D.V.M. Patterson, and D.V.M. Frank 612-622) and can potentially cause further trauma to the skin (Veterinary & Aquatic Services Department, Drs. Foster & Smith). Other signs area alopecia, and in chronic cases, hyperpigmentation and lichenification (D.V.M Scott, V.M.D.

    • Word count: 1258
  3. The Implications of the UK's Climate Change Policy on Biodiversity

    is essential to point out the dangers and chances for biodiversity conservation, from improvement of climate change over a short and long period. The ecosystem approach shows an ideal system to update the expansion of climate change policies, giving better choice, financial valuation, incentives, ecosystem purpose and thresholds, and reinforce the case for implication and improvement. There is an increasing awareness of the popularity of large-scale approaches to nature conservation in the UK that aim to deliver more functional ecosystems with extensive areas of semi-natural habitat and larger connectivity for wildlife.

    • Word count: 1192
  4. Animal welfare essay

    Pigs housed in stalls comprised of vertical bars showed the highest levels of aggression (Barnett, Hemsworth, Cronin, Newman, McCallum 1991). Mental status suggests that neither health, lack of stress or fitness is sufficient to determine that an animal has good welfare. An animals feelings is a major factor. Naturalness suggests that welfare also considers nurturing and accomplishment of animal's nature. An experiment was carried out studying the behaviour of pigs in social family groups, in the natural environment of a Scottish woodland.

    • Word count: 1417
  5. Free essay

    Explain, using evolutionary arguments, why social living is common among mammals

    Mammals must also weigh this up with the drawbacks of social living. The bad aspects include the giving away of position of predators and for prey. Social living also increases competition for resources and food and eases the rate at which diseases can spread. Without much explanation, these all seem fairly weak reasons for societies among mammals, but it is important to stress that the topic is too wide to be fully discussed here. One feature of social living and social interaction that I find particularly interesting is an aspect only recently explored by scientists, altruism.

    • Word count: 1549
  6. English GCSE Media

    During the stories people have submitted, pets are often talked about as if they were humans. Another example of the love the people have for their pets is shown within the story of Sabrina, a cat whose owners took her to the University of Pennsylvania for a full medical work up. The article doesn't mention the cost of this, as do none of the other stories, which brings forward the question of how much it does cost. The webpage contains a lot of positive points about animal testing, and there is a lot of persuasive language used which attempts to

    • Word count: 1142
  7. The Hare and the Tortoise - The Modern Day Version

    "I enjoy my inertia and would rather just sit and watch the world go by." "Ooooh, how can you be so content?" fumed the hare. "You're just so smug (huff-huff), I challenge you to a race to show you the consequences and (preen-preen) health risks of such a sedentary lifestyle." The tortoise was appalled. "A ... competition?" He almost choked on the word. "Just to prove that one of us is somehow better than the other? What kind of example is that to set? I'll have no part of it." Some other animals that were standing nearby overheard this conversation and began to listen with interest. "What's the matter (preen-preen), are you . . .

    • Word count: 1933
  8. Is Animal Testing ethically right

    For example Germany give �4.2 million a year in grants while this country only gives �2 million so do we not care as much? Could the amount of money that we put in affect how many alternatives we have? The most known about alternatives are stem and embryo cell testing. However scientists can now work out how a certain group of people would react to things via computer.

    • Word count: 1644
  9. Should Animals Have the same Rights as us?

    This means simply that humans are subject to freedom within their life and security or safety within their society. Others involved the capabilities of humans and therefore how they should treat others and be punished accordingly for wrongdoing. For example: 'They (humans) are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.' This illustrates the roles of human interaction and also firmly states that every human is capable of making their own decisions and taking the consequences. This in its own way presents potential problems for animal activist arguments. Do animals have a conscience?

    • Word count: 1432
  10. Drawing on examples from the key concepts, discuss the extent to which animals and humans have an innate predisposition to learning.

    When they hatched he kept the ones who were separated from the mother with him and left the others with the goose mother. All the hatchlings were then put together in a box and allowed to mix, when they were removed from this box they separated to their respective guardians. Lorenze believed that the developments learned during the critical period were irreversible and long-lasting. The consequences are split up into short term and long term points. In the short term this bonding is necessary for food and safety and in the long term it produces a template for reproductive patterns.

    • Word count: 1208
  11. Examine Jonson's use in Volpone of animal imagery

    I think Jonson illustrates the fable directly in this quotation as the fox is laughing at the crow for dropping his presents and singing his out his declaration of cuckoldry to the court. The animal imagery in Volpone is very obvious immediately to the audience as he names most of the characters after birds or animals and suggests the depravity inherent in each of the individuals, whist at the same time creating caricatures of them. I think in doing this Jonson wanted to draw attention to the animalistic side of society and show how people's behaviour can be no better than animals, which prey on each other.

    • Word count: 1541
  12. Antibiotic use in domestic animals - knock on effects to the environment IntroductionAntibiotics are extensively in livestock, fish

    Large volumes of antibiotics (50% of the total global consumption) are administered to food-producing animals for prophylaxis, treatment and growth promotion purposes. About 80% of these prescriptions have been reported to be unnecessary. The rising occurrence of antimicrobial-resistant infections in hospitals and the wider community has led to the question being raised as to the relationship between this growing resistant and the excessive use of antimicrobials in humans and livestock but more particularly in domestic animals such as cows, pigs, sheep, and chickens.

    • Word count: 1596
  13. Discuss the importance of human activities in maintaining the biodiversity of semi-natural ecosystems. Include the importance of man-made habitats in promoting biodiversity.

    However, conservation management of fen is relatively inexpensive and simple. It is the low fertility of fen soils that keeps their biodiversity high. It is essential, therefore that nutrient enrichment does not occur, or biodiversity will decrease, as dominant species will out compete the rarer sepcies. An example of the negative effects of nutrient enrichment on fens can be seen at Crymlyn bog Fen. Oil leaked from a near by power station and all the species near by were killed.

    • Word count: 1812
  14. If you were participating in an experiment, would you object to being deceived? How concerned would you be about invasion of privacy? Under what circumstances, if any, would you regard it as ethical to use animals in medical experiments? Psychology

    Being a participant in an experiment I would definitely object to deception. Deception, or manipulation is disrespectful towards participants. They are self-determined to take part in an experiment to help in the advancement of science. In my point of view self-determination is the right of the participant and deception jeopardizes this. Participants have the right to know exactly what they are helping to achieve. Negative effects due to deception may also cause distress or discomfort to participants or psychological "damage".

    • Word count: 1407
  15. Comparing the Processes of Osmoregulation and Nitrogenous Excretion Between Insects and Mammals. Due to the unforgiving nature of the natural environment

    Another accelerant of 'drying out' is the movement of air. As moisture evaporates off a vapour limited system (e.g. skin of most mammals), the movement of air (less dense) takes away the evaporated water molecules. This in turn allows for more water molecules to evaporate off, leading to 'drying out'. On a membrane limited system (insect cuticle) the outer layer of the animal is waterproof; therefore evaporation under 'normal' conditions does not occur. If these animals were not water permeable then there would also be a limited capacity for oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) to pass through the epithelium.

    • Word count: 1798
  16. An ivestigation into animal foraging.

    The animal may also consider the possibilities of mate search and aggressive interactions. If an animal can learn the locations and types of patches in an area, a patch can be accepted or rejected before it is encountered, thereby saving valuable search time. However, Smith and Dawkins (1971) found that titmice do not allocate all of their time to the area with the greatest abundance of food (as would be expected), but instead allocated the most time to the best area, and progressively less time to progressively worse areas.

    • Word count: 1551
  17. Animal Rights.

    Universities around the world conduct vigorous research that has led treatments for cancer, penicillin, and many other medicines. However, these benefits have not been seen as advancement by everyone. Activists, such as the group Animal Liberation Front, have become malicious and destructive, even to the point of sabotage. In 1999, the Animal Liberation Front broke into several laboratories at the University of Minnesota and ruined lab equipment, stole lab animals, such as rats, mice, and salamanders, and painted graffiti on the walls of the buildings. Damages were estimated to be over $750,000, including set back of research. The criminals responsible for the atrocity were caught on tape, wearing masks, and pursued by an investigation led by the FBI and local law enforcement (Thomas 1).

    • Word count: 1059
  18. Which major developments in human behaviour might be witnessed in the Natufian in the Levant

    the Jordan River, continuing into the Jordanian-Syrian plateau. I will shortly mention the subjects of the Kebaran lifestyle A suggestion has been made that the sea-level of today is higher, than at the time of Kebaran. At least very few sites have been found, and one of the largest is even 200 m. below sea-level. The sites are small, about 100 m2, and with very few hearts. Only two sites show the sign of building structures, and they have obviously been settled for longer periods.

    • Word count: 1633
  19. Language and Apes

    system is not the only thing necessary for the understanding and usage of a language. The manner in which the words are structured is the morphology. Words are than used to make up phrases; the way in which this is done is governed by syntax. In addition a deep knowledge of the meaning and sounds of words, known as semantics, is necessary for the understanding of a language, as is knowledge of the words themselves, the lexicon. Although there is at any given time a finite number of words in any given language there is an infinite number of combinations, or phrases, that can be produced.

    • Word count: 1828
  20. Why do we strive to achieve?

    These findings support the expectation that induction of highly cross-reactive HIV-1 primary virus-neutralizing activity by vaccination may be realized." (Quinnan Jr 1) In the grand scheme of things, value must be placed on things in order of importance. Animals are important. There is no questioning that fact. However, I would not rate a lab rat in the same category as a dying grandfather or deathly sick mother. The humans are forever more important. If it comes down to saving my grandfather or a rat, I take my grandfather over the rat every time. I believe everyone would make similar choices.

    • Word count: 1474
  21. Helping The RSPCA Investigate Circuses.

    Their sole purpose is to entertain. The RSPCA has no power to act. Local vets cannot inspect them. The Police are not allowed to investigate them. In Europe animal circuses are still seen to be a place for enjoyment. The truth in most countries is contrasting to that. There are tortures, pain, and anger exuded here out of the public eye. In the U.K. many councils (the only governing body that allows circuses to perform in the UK by licence) will not allow circuses to perform in their region if they use live-animal acts. Many anti-animal circus groups have formed in order to combat and reveal the mis-treatment of animals.

    • Word count: 1437
  22. How have Human Beings evolved to their current position in the world

    There are two variations of this moth, the light coloured variation known as typica and the dark variation known as carbonaria. In his publication, the Elephant Book, British ecologist H.B.D. Kettlewell states that prior to 1848, dark moths constituted less than 2% of the population. By 1898 however, the number of the dark variation of the moth increased to 95% in Manchester and other highly industrialized areas. The frequency of dark moths in rural area was much. The moth population had changed from being mostly light coloured moths to mostly dark coloured moths.

    • Word count: 1714
  23. Discuss the use of Animals in research and The ethical issues associated with it?

    This is fair enough to believe but what if the principle of using animals in research, can be justified by the importance of the findings? According to Coolican (1994, p.485) "comparisons across the phylogenetic scale are invaluable in helping us develop a framework for brain analysis based on evolutionary history". He also states that, "a seemingly useless or mystical piece of the nervous system may serve or have served, a function disclosed only through the discovery of its current function in another species".

    • Word count: 1416
  24. 'How do animal communication systems differ from humans and can primates acquire language?'

    An interesting parallel in terms of vocalizing actions is found in birds. The bird song is verbal and functional; part learned and part generic, (similar to humans) marks territory and courts a mate. There are also regional dialects in bird song proving it is not all generic. If we consider language synonymous with speech, and speech an essential form of communication then we will inevitably conclude that animal communication methods are basic and in some cases non existent. However, while human communication is largely verbal, animals tend to communicate through displays.

    • Word count: 1846
  25. Evolutionary Arms Races.

    not just herbivory), or the insect may have had its detoxification mechanisms in place before encountering the host plant in question. Where two species are co-evolved but have a mutualistic relationship, this is termed mutualistic coevolution. However, where two species are co-evolved but are either competitive or parasitic towards each other, their relationship is termed antagonistic. This is also known as an "evolutionary arms race", because both groups involved are under selection pressure to out-compete the other. The extent with which predators and prey will interact with each other is the major determining factor of evolutionary arms races.

    • Word count: 1661

"It is a good morning exercise for a research scientist to discard a pet hypothesis every day before breakfast. It keeps him young."

-Konrad Lorenz

If flowers and bacteria make you yawn, but orangutans and elephants thrill you, then a university degree in zoology might be the right choice for you. From microbiology and genetics to animal behaviour and evolution, students of zoology can study anything related to the animal kingdom. But before you can study bee swarms, or discover a new carnivore like the olinguito, you'll have to put in years of hard work.

To do well, you'll need to explain complicated ideas with streamlined simplicity, and keep your writing organised. If you need guidance, check out Marked by Teachers' collection of biological sciences essays. Here, you'll find all the techniques you need to reshape your writing into something truly elegant.

Depending on the degree and the university, you might spend hours in the lab, or go wading out into the field. Some degrees even offer a year's placement in industry. At the end of your studies, you'll be ready to get a higher degree in the field, or pursue any number of careers in government and conservation.


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