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University Degree: Zoology

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  1. Animal Testing Argument.

    However, the fact that we, humans, have the world as it is today gives us some credit. The new life-saving technology, mass communication abilities and anti-dotes to once incurable diseases allows us to live the fast track cosmopolitan lifestyle that we lead...however, the fact that we have these luxuries has a lot to do with animal testing. How did we find these cures to fatal diseases? Yes, through testing the medicines on innocent animals. Another argument for vivisection is that only approximately 5% of medical research is done on animals, if we look at these figures more closely we realise that 5% is a staggering figure.

    • Word count: 1178
  2. The aim of my observational study is to see how monkeys interact with one another.

    I also expect to notice a difference in interaction when I compare one species of monkey or ape to another. Population/Sample Due to a lack of funding for my study and the lack of monkeys and apes having a natural habitat in the United Kingdom I was not able to observe monkeys or apes in there natural habitat. The nearest population of monkeys or apes I could get access to was the monkeys and apes at London Zoo. Observing caged monkeys and apes decreases the validity and representativeness because the zoo animals may be behaving differently in the zoo from what they would in there natural environment.

    • Word count: 1047
  3. You are to speak to a group of local councillors. The proposition is "Fox hunting should be banned". Write out your speech in full, arguing either for or against the statement.

    Foxhunting is most natural way of doing this, and has been for hundreds and hundreds of years. The hound becomes the predator in place of the wolf and so controls the species and keeps the fox population at a sustainable level. Most people in the country will agree to this much. It is here where the controversy begins, that is how to control the fox. Admittedly, there are alternatives to hunting foxes, but all of these can result in a much more painful and prolonged death on the fox's part. The fox could be poisoned, that is poisoned bait could be left in hope that a fox will happily devour it, the only flaw being that rabbits, hedgehogs or even badgers could intercept, therefore killing many other animals than initially desired.

    • Word count: 1314
  4. Discursive essay on evolution.

    The word "evolution", is used to describe the way in which living thing evolve or change, given time. The theory is comprised of three major sections. The first of which is called variation. All living things vary in size, shape, strength and colour and character. No two living things are exactly the same; for example, imagine some green frogs living and breeding in green surroundings. Most of the offspring inherit their parents' green colouring, but some due to natural selection have different colours. The next part of the theory is how these adaptations affect a living things ability to survive and breed.

    • Word count: 1420
  5. Should Animals Be Used in Medical Research?

    "The number of animals used in research has actually decreased in the past 20-25 years. The uses of animal ranges from 20%-50%." (Foundation). Research shows that 82% of animals that can be used for testing are rats, mice, and other small rodents. Fish, amphibians, reptiles, and birds make up only 14% of the animals used. Large mammals make up 2.3%, dogs & cats make up 0.4%, and monkeys make up 0.1% of the animals used in testing and research. The number of cats and dogs that are used are a very small percent compared to the 2 million cats and dogs that are abandoned every year as unwanted pets.

    • Word count: 1124
  6. Charles Darwin.

    In the following years he would develop his interests in the natural sciences. In 1828, with his father's approval Darwin started to attend Cambridge University to become a clergyman.3 Once more he showed little interest in his studies apart from Euclidian geometry and natural theology. For the duration of time Darwin spent most of his time collecting beetles, discussing Botany and geology with the help of his cousin, William Darwin Fox. Darwin made great friends with a man named Henslow.

    • Word count: 1572
  7. Heat Transfer in Animals.

    In this essay, I will first describe the difference between warm and cold-blooded animals. Then I will attempt to answer this question: "What techniques have animals developed in order to keep their body temperature at an acceptable level?" To answer this, I will briefly describe several different kinds of animals and their various means of attaining a stable body temperature. Warm and cold-blooded animals: Warm-blooded animals are animals that are endothermic. This means that their main source of warmth is generated by themselves. These include birds and mammals. Cold-blooded animals rely on the temperature of their surroundings to determine their body temperature. These are ectothermic, and include almost all animals, excluding mammals and birds.

    • Word count: 1083
  8. Physiological Approach Research Method - Biological Methods.

    Also, when using animals, the researchers can damage a specific part of a brain to see what happens. Usually, we can conclude a few things about humans from tests on animals. Disadvantages: The biggest disadvantage of this method is that the actual tests are not carried out on humans. Although humans and other mammals have many similarities, they also have many differences. Thalidomide was a drug that was tested on rabbits, where the results were perfectly fine. However, when they were used by pregnant women, their babies were affected by the drug. Another disadvantage is that when the tests are done on humans, their brains are already damaged.

    • Word count: 1029
  9. The Lion King - Study the opening scenes of the film and describe how the media techniques are used to prepare the viewer for the rest of the film.

    The film begins with an early morning daybreak scene, the sun slowly rises bringing light to the world. It is the dawn of a new day and a new beginning. The African chant music filters through the speakers introducing the sweet sounds of the jungle. As the music increases it is very noticeable that all of the animals gaze upwards toward the light. All types of animals, large and small, in abundance do this which signifies equality and peace to all.

    • Word count: 1037
  10. Use of non-human animals in psychological research.

    By this BPS is referring to living conditions, feeding, surgery and euthanasia. Concerning these topics, BPS states that the social habits of each individual species should be taken into consideration to provide adequate housing for the animals and companionship if suitable. The BPS guidelines also maintain that if the researcher is in any doubt about an animal's condition during research, advice of an expert should be sought, i.e. a veterinary surgeon who has nothing to be gained from the research.

    • Word count: 1242
  11. Influence of land use history on plant species richness

    Apparatus Light meter 20m measuring tape 20cm x 20cm quadrat trees and plants book guides camera pH meter 250 ml beakers (eleven) distilled water electronic weighing scales 50ml measuring cylinder stirring rod Method Two separate sites were selected on the Common: one was a site of ancient woodland, and one was a site of newer woodland. A twenty metre long transect line, going from east to west, was employed on both sites. These lines were started five metres inside the tree line at random points on the eastern side of each stand, this was as an effort to ensure the collection of data from random sampling.

    • Word count: 1987
  12. Argument against vivisection!!

    The other side may argue that all these animals were needed to find cures for cancer. However, in the next paragraph I will explain that most of the time cures are not found or the chemicals cause side effects. The public believe that vivisection is needed to find cures for cancer and illnesses. But this is not true. According to Dr. J.F. Brailsford vivisection has only found ways of causing cancers but it has not found ways to cure them.

    • Word count: 1335
  13. Compare and Contrast two of the five main approaches in psychology.

    Although in Behaviourism it is believed that animals are practically and ethically more convenient to test. The behaviourists believed that the laws of learning were crucial and as there was only a small difference between animals and humans. However the animals were not physically harmed. An example of such an experiment would be Edward Thorndike's, whom also created the 'law of effect'. He said that 'actions that are rewarded are repeated'. Thorndike had to test his theory to see if his hypothesis was right. Therefore he tested it out on a cat. The cat was placed in a box with a lever inside of it that would release an opening.

    • Word count: 1616
  14. Do you believe that it is right to keep animals?

    There are also bad points to zoos and safari parks. As I will explain next. The animals are kept in cages and do not have much room to move around. Also the animals are not in their natural habit. The animals also loose their natural instincts and they become used to being fed. They would not be able to catch their own food if they were released into the wild, so they would probably die. The animals are sometimes not fed well in zoos and safari parks and they get malnourished.

    • Word count: 1185
  15. Is Meat Eating Right?

    This leads to high blood pressure, heart disease and strokes. It has also been proven by scientists and doctors that vegetable protein keeps cholesterol levels at a low rate. The majority of people that I have informed of this information still insist that it is unhealthy to become a vegetarian, but this is not the only risk that eating meat imposes on your health. Scientists doing cancer research have gathered evidence that proves that by eating meat you are greatly increasing the chance that you will develop some form of cancer, especially cancer of the colon, r****m, breast and uterus.

    • Word count: 1804
  16. Human Evolution

    The relationship is apparent from the form of the chromosomes, sequences of DNA, and resemblences in proteins. Evidently our ancestors and those of the gorilla and chimpanzee had a common line for several million years after they separated from what is believed to be our earliest ancestor - the orangutan (Birkett 1982). The earliest known hominid remains dated around 4.4 million years, were discovered in Ethiopia in 1992. They belong to a species call Australopithecus ramidus. The bone remains showed a mixture of chimpanzee-like and later hominid-like features (Fortey 1982).

    • Word count: 1908
  17. Christian and Muslim viewpoints on Animal rights How does the belief of the two religions you have studied affect the attitudes towards the treatment of animals?

    St Frances of Assisi proved this, for instance Christians founded the RSPCA. Many Christians have joined campaign groups to fight against animal cruelty. Christians also argue against experimental cruelty to animals for cosmetics. 'Scientists must abandon laboratories and factories of death.' (Pope John Paul II) Jesus occasionally taught the people on how to treat animals, Christians can read these in the Bible and base their decisions on it, fortunately there was no animal testing in the time of Jesus, but this does cause a problem for Christians who are seeking an answer about animal experimentation in the Bible.

    • Word count: 1779
  18. Summarise those features shared by humans and other primates, describe their general adaptive significance, and evaluate their contribution to human adaptation.

    Therefore, we can glean an idea of the features that are shared by both humans and primates. Yet, studies show that many of the differences between primates, especially apes, and humans are differences of degree rather than kind. By this we mean that there are very few characteristics that are not shared by primates and humans, nonetheless these characteristics have been taken much further in humans. Fundamentally humans are exaggerated primates (Introduction to Physical Anthropology, 8th ed., 2000, p.133). There are certain features that set them above other primates, yet they are not solely a human attribute.

    • Word count: 1576
  19. To what extent are molluscs a group of specialised worms?

    As for the coelomic body cavity, molluscs do have a coelomic cavity around the heart, but this is more widely regarded as a space that the animals have evolved in which the heart can beat, than the remnants of a more extensive cavity serving as a hydrostatic skeleton. It is mostly accepted that molluscs evolved form flatworms, and probably branched off at around the same time as annelids, before segmentation occurred. They have retained a number of features linking them to flatworm ancestry - they are sometimes described as effectively being chunky worms with dorsal protective shields, but the majority of species of mollusc have diverged from flatworms in body form and lifestyle.

    • Word count: 1767
  20. Explain in detail how Christian and Muslim beliefs would affect their behaviour and attitudes towards the use of animals for food, experimentation and sport.

    Animals, being part of God's creation, should therefore also be protected and respected as. In Christianity there has been a growing awareness in the last twenty years concerning the rights of animals. A Catholic Archbishop said that 'God has the right to have all his creatures treated with proper respect '. Even though the Bible does teach that humanity has a superiority over the rest of God's creation, it is still believed that a 'lack of respect for the life and welfare of animals is lowering of man's own self - respect' (Archbishop).

    • Word count: 1922
  21. Animal Testing.Why are so many people against it?

    All these animals helped saved hundreds of lives; their death helps us. Points of View. Animal testing, as well as human testing has found out the affects of smoking. Many humans have died from smoking related cancer and many more will do so. If animals aren't allowed to smoke because it is so harmful and cancer is imminent, why are humans? Surely by now everyone in the world knows smoking kills, yet hundreds of people do. Should I protest for the hundreds of humans forced to smoke? Do they need me to send bombs to the cigarette company owner? Should I go and protest and free them from their life of disease?

    • Word count: 1507
  22. Britain’s Inhumane Treatment of Animals

    Just a few years ago any cat or dog entering Great Britain was subject to a mandatory six month stay in quarantine. The justification for this quarantine was to keep Britain as the rabies free country it had become in the mid-1970s. Quarantine supporters state that a reason for state that a reason for maintaining the current system of complete and arbitrary detention of pet animals is that it is "simple." Even without including the impact on children, lower income families, elder pet owners or those dependent on guide dogs, quarantine does not appear to be "simple."

    • Word count: 1696
  23. Animal Cruelty – fiction

    and the LD50 (Lethal Dose 50) Test which involves force feeding a group of mice or rats until fifty percent of them are dead, hence the name. An important factor about this issue is that there is no law that states cosmetics should be tested on animals before they are released to the public, but there is a law, which was made in 1933 to protect humans from unsafe cosmetics. So it is up to the companies that produce cosmetic products whether they should test on animals or not.

    • Word count: 1125
  24. Compare and contrast the ways different animals respond to osmotic challenges

    The most basic osmoregulatory organ in some animals is the integument separating the organisms? internal environment from the external environment. Amphibians such as frogs have a moist and cool kin, which acts as a free water surface (Schmidt-Nielsen, 1997) where water intake takes place since amphibians do not drink (Withers, 1992). The evaporation rate is high, so amphibians generally live near water and humid environments. Because the body fluids in amphibians living in freshwater are more concentrated than the surrounding water, amphibians gain water and lose salts across the skin.

    • Word count: 1458

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