Are pressure groups good for Democracy? Whether or not pressure groups are good for democracy depends if their activity is looked at in negative or positive terms. Most recently pressure groups have been subject to a lot of criticism in recent years for reasons such as the "iron triangle" and having too much power. However others contest that pressure groups are indeed good for democracy and help the process because they provide congressmen with specialist knowledge and enhance political participation for the members of the public in and between elections. Pressure groups could be argued to be good for democracy as they provide legislators with specialist knowledge. Some may think this is not necessary as Congressmen have their own 'staffers', however the interest groups can offer detailed or technical knowledge that they would otherwise lack. This could be in the form of feedback about reaction in the country to government polices and proposals for legislation. There have, however, been suggestions that the increase of pressure groups within recent years has led to a decline in their usefulness as sources of information. It has been argued that Congressmen are increasingly uncertain about which group has credibility and deserves attention and in turn means that they do not want to be associated with them. This means that pressure groups are not necessarily good for
Evaluate the reasons for and against the use of primary elections in the selection of presidential candidates
Primaries essay Evaluate the reasons for and against the use of primary elections in the selection of presidential candidates Primary elections are elections held before the presidential election used to determine which candidates from each party would be competing in the presidential election. Primaries come in varying degrees of participation. There are closed primaries, which allow members affiliated to a party to participate. This gives more choice than the caucuses, which reserve this choice to party members only. There are also open primaries, which allow party members to vote either Republican or Democratic regardless of their party affiliation. The widest level of participation is the result of a blanket primary which allows all constituents to vote whether they are affiliated to a party or not. The alternative to using primary elections to elect presidential candidates is the caucus system whereby the vote for a candidate was reserved to party members only. Only some states still use this system such as Iowa and North Dakota. It could be said that the use of primary elections enhances the democratic process. Primaries have been known to encourage political involvement, voters feel that they can play an active role in the decision making process and as a result turnout at presidential elections have increased. This was seen in the state of Michigan from
Examine the extent to which Nietzsche’s ideas provide a coherent alternative to liberal democracy.
Examine the extent to which Nietzsche's ideas provide a coherent alternative to liberal democracy. The work of Friedrich Nietzsche offers a very different form political philosophy from those works that liberal democracies worldwide have built themselves around. It is perhaps this alternative view of the world that has lead to such a great interest in his works. A closer review of the practical nature of the ideas put forward however may suggest that the ideas may not be able to form a coherent alternative to liberal democracy. It can be argued that the main ideas on which liberal democracy are based are the notion of a social contract, a belief in progress, the faith placed in material wealth, human rights, equality and of course a belief in democracy (Owen 1995 p5). At some stage during his writings Nietzche attacked all of these aspects. Nietzsche sights that the whole political process is just a mask to cover the will of political leaders to gain power for themselves thus making Liberal Democracy a sham. The main focus of Nietzsche's political writing is on the idea that politics is simply a way for people to exercise power over others (Clark 2000 p139). For Nietzsche all human activity is used to provide people with the feeling of power, for example the gaining of knowledge is only done in order to feel that you have more knowledge than others thus you feel more
The Supreme Court is a peculiar organization in American politics. Our representative democratic government specifically reserves substantial authority for a judicial body that is not elected or subject to popular recall. The Supreme Court has substantial authority for a judicial body that is not elected or subject to popular recall and I believe that the Supreme Court has shown time and time again that it has the up-most intentions on using this authority wisely. "Above the west portico of the Supreme Court building are inscribed the words EQUAL JUSTICE UNDER LAW. At the opposite end of the building above the east portico, are the words JUSTICE THE GUARDIAN OF LIBERTY." (Janda, Berry, and Goldman, 2008: 433). The Supreme Court is faced every day with the incredible task of upholding the Constitution and making sure that both justice and freedom are the basis for every decision they make. On average, the Supreme Court only accepts between 110-130 cases a year, that's between 1-2% of all cases proposed to them. Of those 110-130 cases, nearly every one of them has gone through both State and Federal courts to reach the Supreme Court's docket. A case usually makes it to the Supreme Court level because it touches on issues that are not clearly defined in the Constitution and it is up to the Supreme Court to interpret that particular issue in a manner they see best fit
'Nehru is responsible both for the achievements of Indian democracy as well as its flaws.' Jawaharlal Nehru was the first Prime Minister of independent India. He was a man of vision and maybe an innovator in his handling of foreign policy. He wanted to give an international influence to India. He wanted his country to play an eminent role in the international sphere by being an important economic and political power, a global force. This idea globalisation seemed to be far fetched at the time of the Indian independence, but today this conception is well reflected in the growing between countries economies'. India has been known for a long time as the 'largest democracy of the world' with now nearly one billion of inhabitants. We will try to understand to what extent was Nehru responsible for the achievements of Indian democracy, and on the other hand we will try to appreciate how some of his policies failed to succeed. Even in a modern India where Information Technology and Nuclear Power possession can be compared to the first worlds' standards, India is a country where disparities and inequality are substantially visible. Nehru said : ' India's tryst with destiny had happen' to welcome the independence. His will was to eliminate poverty and illiteracy, to provide quality medical care and equal opportunities to all. In fifty years of independence, what has the Indian
Westminster International University in Tashkent Research Methods 2011 - 2012 To be completed by the student Student's ID number 00001403 Module name RM Module code UZB505 Tutor Jahongir Khaydarov Individual assignment V Group assignment ( Submission deadline 2.12.2011 For Academic Registrar use only Efficiency of the parliament as a legislative branch in Russia. Abstract: Since the fall of Soviet Union and until now Russian economic and political systems are changing. The old system was not effective enough to compete with modern world market. And whole population of ex Soviet Union wanted freedom and full protection of their rights. They wanted to have a right to choose political party, to play at least small influential role in political live of their homeland. And with the new government people finally witnessed these changes through Constitution of the Russian Federation 1993. Since that time Russia started a transition to new democratic system. This transition was going really hard, as everybody know, 1990s were a harsh times for all aspects of life, for politics, economics, social life. But after Boris Eltsin, the new president had come. And then, I could say that chaos stopped. Putin started to restore the order with Parliament. One of the most important parts of Constitution of the Russian Federation is chapter 5, which is about Federal
As Soon As Deng Xiaoping Gained Political Power of China In 1978, a Better and Brighter Future Was In Store For the Chinese People.
As soon as Deng Xiaoping gained political power of China in 1978, a better and brighter future was in store for the Chinese people. Deng promised the people a free land with a modern economic state in order to gain public support. During Deng's reign, a series of economic reforms were made. These reforms had major impacts on both Chinese economy and society. Although historians have argued that Deng was leading a totalitarian regime, they tend to overlook the idea that the Chinese have different ideologies and morals than people in the west. Chinese intellectuals who looked to the west as a model for democracy absorbed themselves into the western culture, and believed that everything that China stood for was 'backward.' This view of the Chinese society forced the people to hold resentments against Deng, which led to Democratic uprisings and movements. Deng wanted to create a better economy for the Chinese people to live in according to Chinese values, but society did not see it this way as an inflow of western attitudes and beliefs had been embedded into their minds. He knew that China's problems were coming from within the political system and so he attempted to solve them. However, Deng resorted to ruling an authoritarian regime rather than a democratic regime when he realized that these problems could not be solved. After 1978, China's society faced a whole new
Does the focus upon Biblical thought, Republicanism, and Liberalism present a convincing case for the concept of American Exceptionalism?
Does the focus upon Biblical thought, Republicanism, and Liberalism present a convincing case for the concept of American Exceptionalism? POLS 217 - The American Presidency Banner Code: 08 20902 Seminar Tutor: Dr Robert Watt Student ID: 1024193 The principle of Exceptionalism stems from the idea that America is 'unique', in so much that the feudal histories of Europe are not a factor in the workings of the USA; America's roots as a British colony that gained its independence through revolution (McKay, 2007: 41), only to become the global hegemony only emphasis how the state was "created differently, developed differently, and thus has to be understood differently" (Lipset, 1991: 1, Shafer, 1991: v). Biblical thought, Republicanism and Liberalism are all key concepts embraced throughout the history of the USA and the understanding of them is integral to the understanding of American culture and the growth of its political system. This essay is going to analyze the idea that the concept of American Exceptionalism, strictly in the form of being 'unique', is rooted in the three aforementioned elements of American thought and will attempt to conclude whether a convincing case for Exceptionalism can be formed from them. Overall, each of the three elements that are potentially the basis of Exceptionalism may have specific points that give a case for this concept of 'uniqueness'
It wasn't until the 19th century that people finally started to see that democracy was a good thing.
Chris Lackore Political Science 230 Essay 1 2/12/02 It wasn't until the 19th century that people finally started to see that democracy was a good thing. Aristotle's classification of governments defines democracy as governing by the many in the view of ones own self. The whole idea of democracy is based on the decision making process. The biggest question being who should make decisions. In order for a democracy to be able to achieve the maximum results this question must be answered. Citizens must also know what is required of them in order for the democracy to survive. There has been many people throughout history that have stated their views of democracy, some of which were for the better others for the worse. Such people as Alexis De Tocqueville who feared democracy because of its equalities of conditions. One example being how people in the US owned their own land compared to those in Europe where they had nobles. He also saw the lack of a difference between the rich and the poor as a problem along with the idea that the majority rule. Then there were people like John Stuart Mill who believed that democracy would make a citizen better because of their involvement in the political system. One of Tocqueville believes of democracy as stated in "Political Ideologies and the Democratic Ideal" is: "The people who join with their neighbors to settle common
Public Law A - Essay Question "The ultimate safeguards for our democracy are undemocratic". Discuss. To be able to state whether the ultimate safeguards for our democracy are undemocratic, it is important to be able to define exactly what democracy is. Many leading theorists, including Aristotle and Beetham, provide such a definition. Aristotle suggests that the basis of a democratic state is liberty. He goes on to state that democratic justice is based on majority decisions, to the point that in a democracy the poor have more power than the rich, as there are poor people than rich. Democracy also embraces the idea of individual freedom in that a man can do as he likes. Beetham takes a more rule-based approach, stating that democracy is a mode of decision making about collectively binding rules and policies, over which people exercise control. Democracy is most effective when members collectively enjoy equal rights to take part in such decision-making. Next, the safeguards for democracy must be identified. They come in four primary forms, of which each will be discussed in turn: the Separation of Powers, the Rule of Law, the European Union and Parliamentary Sovereignty. Firstly there is the Separation of Powers. This constitutes of three powers: the executive, legislative and judicial. As power is shared between the three, no one power can be too powerful, thus