Las Disqueras (internacionales): Estructura de las grandes disqueras: La producción musical es una actividad sumamente compleja. Hay que componer las canciones, tocarlas, grabarlas, mezclarlas y masterizarlas, promover el disco, hacerle publicidad y, por último, hay que venderlo. Para poder hacer todo esto de manera eficiente las compañías discográficas están estructuradas en diversas divisiones y departamentos. Las grandes corporaciones del mundo del entretenimiento (Sony, Universal, EMI, AOL- Time Warner y Bertelsmann Music Group) poseen, cada una, un conglomerado de empresas subsidiarias y asociadas, muchas las cuales son sellos disqueros que, a su vez, tienen a otros sellos de menor envergadura asociados a ellos, etc. Esta cadena puede llegar a ser realmente larga, pero en términos de estructura organizacional son los grandes sellos disqueros lo que se encargan de mercadear y vender los discos de los sellos más pequeños. Las grandes corporaciones del entretenimiento están organizadas como cualquier otra corporación: tienen un CEO, un COO, un CFO etc. Luego, cada gran sello disquero que pertenezca a la corporación, tiene un presidente. Por ejemplo, en AOL- Time Warner hay un presidente para Warner Brothers Records, otro para Reprise Records, otro para Atlantic Records etc. Debajo de los presidentes de las disqueras se encuentran los vicepresidentes,
Diploma en Marketing Estrategias de Distribución Profesor: Hernán Palacios ESCUELA DE ADMINISTRACIÓN Caso # 1 Masterton Mills Integrantes: Mariela Alvarado Macarena Gallardo Patricia Gallardo Adriana Ubilla Fabiola Negron Santiago de Chile, 20 de julio de 2004 . ¿Cuál es la posición que ocupa Master Mills en la industria? Industria La industria de Alfombras y Tapices en EEUU a la cual pertenece la empresa Masterton Mills ha alcanzado la etapa de madurez, lo cual se ve reflejado en los siguientes hechos: * Disminución de la participación de mercado de la industria de alfombras y tapices en la industria de los cubrepisos en EEUU * Fusiones, adquisiciones y quiebras entre 1985-1995 * Disminución en la demanda y ventas, especialmente en el sector Residencial con una baja de 6% desde 1994. * Exceso de capacidad de fabricación. * Escasos márgenes de utilidad. En 1995, 100 fabricantes de alfombras y tapices se reparten el mercado de los EEUU. El 10% de los fabricantes tenía el 87% de las ventas en dólares de la industria y fabricaban el 75% de todas las alfombras y tapices. El otro 90 % de las empresas fabricantes eran de tamaño intermedio, tenían el 13% de las ventas en dólares y el 29% de éstos se especializaba solo en alfombras, perteneciendo Masterton Mills, Inc. a este último grupo. Las ventas en la industria de las Alfombras y Tapices
Has Neofunctionalism Been Superseded By A New 'Liberal Intergovernmentalism" As Currently The Most Convincing Theoretical Explanation of European Political Integration?
Has Neofunctionalism Been Superseded By A New 'Liberal Intergovernmentalism" As Currently The Most Convincing Theoretical Explanation of European Political Integration? From an ambitious project originally envisaged to remove the catastrophe of war from such a war-torn continent, the European project has proceeded in 'fits and starts'. Since its inception, there has been much debate regarding what forces drive the integration process forward. Why now, when interstate war in Europe seems impossible, do member states continue to 'pool' their sovereignty in so many areas? Two theories have dominated previous attempts to answer the question of "how and why states cease to be wholly sovereign, how and why they voluntarily mingle, merge and mix with their neighbours, so as to lose the factual attributes of sovereignty."1 Neofunctionalism, the idea that the integration process, once started, develops its own momentum for further integration, saw the height of popularity in the 1960s, following the initial success of the ECSC/EEC and the hugely influential theoretical explanation by Ernst Haas. The second theory, Liberal Intergovernmentalism, surfaced in the 1990s and was championed by Andrew Moravcsik. It saw flaws in neofunctionalist thinking and instead offered an alternative account in which the integrative process was always, and remains, in the hands of national governments;
Aneeq Mushtaq Offender Profiling...............USA or UK? Offender profiling aims to present a composite description of a perpetrator, based on biographical and behavioural cues that can lead to the apprehension of that perpetrator. Profiling techniques have been used to narrow the focus of an investigation (by specifying the perpetrators location, sex or age) or to provide suggestions for interviewing suspects (McCann, 1992). As a result of collecting data and analysing evidence, the use of such techniques have led to arrests of serious criminals such as John Duffy (UK), who murdered his victims near railways (Canter 1989). This assignment will aim to compare and contrast the FBI's 'Crime Scene Analysis' of offender profiling with that of David Canter's 'Five Factor Model. The strengths and weaknesses of each approach will be highlighted including the main differences between profiling in the USA and UK. Due to the rapid increase of serial murders and rapes in the USA within the 1970's, the FBI invented the first systematic approach of offender profiling. Counteracting the rising numbers of serial murders lead to the development to the Behavioural Sciences Unit (BSU). BSU interviewed 36 convicted sexually orientated murderers and classified them into organised (average / above average intelligence, crime planned) or disorganised (low intelligence, messy crime scene,
The search of Arnold Introduction A police officer is given the power to stop and search a person under section 1(2) of the Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984, where it states that a constable may search "any person or vehicle, anything which is in or on a vehicle, for stolen or prohibited articles or any articles to which subsection (8A) below applies". A police officer can also be given the power to randomly search people under s.60 of the Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994, without the need for reasonable suspicion. To consider whether the stop and search was lawful, I will begin by determining whether the statutory requirements were fulfilled for a s.1 PACE search, then the alternative means of searching Arnold, and finally questions over the legality of the search in other aspects of the law. S.1 Pace Search The first issue which we must deal with is where the section 11 search takes place. Under section 1 of PACE2, it specifies that a search may take place where the "public has access" or "any other place to which people have ready access at the time", but is not the suspect's garden. In this case it is in The Shires shopping centre in Leicester; this suggests that it complied with s.1(1) and 1(4) of PACE, unless the police officer took him to a part of the shopping centre which was not open to the public. However, this isn't specified in the information
"There is no statutory definition of intention in English law. Indeed, over the past few decades there has been much controversy over the actual meaning of the concept 'intention'". Explain and evaluate this statement.
This essay will deliberate the extent to which the meaning of the concept of 'intention' in criminal law has proven controversial through analysis of pertinent case law and academic critiques. In particular this essay will explore how the concept of 'intention' has changed in various cases in chronological order and the effect this has had. The essay will then focus on the current criticisms of the concept and proposals for reform will be discussed. A conclusion will be made reasoning the extent of controversy that surrounds the concept of intention in both the past few decades and in the present day. In many conduct crimes whereby the defendant's conduct is required to produce a particular consequence, liability can either be based on his intention or his recklessness as to that consequence. The offences that are based on the proof of, and rely on the definition of 'intention' to find liability are most notably the more serious crimes1, with much of the debate on the meaning of 'intention' being centred around the offence of murder2. Nonetheless, intention is not defined in any statute therefore its meaning must be derived from judicial decisions3, thus one would think that such an elementary term would have been definitively defined a long time ago; however this is not the case as we will see. Lord Steyn suggested obiter, in the House of Lords (HoL) judgement of R v
Law of Tort Assignment (i) Since the enactment of the Human Rights Act 1998, it seems that some areas of tort law have been affected by the Act to a great extent. One specific element of tort law that has been affected is 'duty of care in negligence.' The tort of negligence may signify 'whereby persons who by carelessness have caused damage to others and may be held liable to pay compensation.' 1 However, it is not always the case when 'careless conduct which causes damage will give rise to an action.' 2 As this essay will focus on the impact of the Human Rights Act on duty of care in negligence, it is necessary to determine 'whether the type of loss suffered by the claimant in the particular way in which it occurred can ever be actionable,' 3 as this may play a great role in the development of the tort of negligence. Before a duty of care is held to exist, the requirement established in Caparo Industries Plc v Dickman  1 All ER 568 must be satisfied: (a) 'Foreseeability of the damage; (b) A sufficiently 'proximate' relationship between the parties; and (c) Even where (a) and (b) are satisfied it must be 'just and reasonable' to impose such a duty.' 4 The Human Rights Act 1998 gives 'further effect to rights and freedoms guaranteed under the European Convention on Human Rights.' 5 The aim of the Human Rights Act is as stated in section 6 (1), 'courts should
Supervision 2: Examine the reasons for the existence and localities of biodiversity hotspots "I have never experienced such intense delight... such a plenitude of forms, colours, behaviours-such a magnitude of Life! What explains the riot?" - Darwin (1851) "The current massive degradation of habitat and extinction of species is taking place on a catastrophically short timescale, and their effects will fundamentally reset the future evolution of the planet's biota." - Novacek & Cleland (2001) Biodiversity may be regarded as 'the number, variety and variability of living organisms' (MacDonald, 2003: 406). Whilst global variation in biological diversity has long been a source of fascination, it has recently been the basis for increasing concern (Tilman, 2000). Awareness of the extent and rate of the current biodiversity crisis (or the 'sixth extinction', as termed by Leakey & Lewin, 1996) has led to a significant re-assessment of the role of biodiversity in ecosystem functioning and the scope for policy intervention to enable its preservation, exemplified by the international ratification of the Convention on Biodiversity in 1992. The identification and analysis of spatial patterns of biodiversity has been central to conservation goals of maximum preservation at the least cost (Reddy & Davalos, 2003). The hotspots approach is one of many methods for delimiting areas of
'All political parties are prey to the iron law of oligarchy.' Discuss The 'iron law of oligarchy' was a phrase first used by the German sociologist Roberto Michels in his book Political Parties, published in 1916. From historic insight and studies of both the German SPD and the Italian Socialist parties, Michels concluded that all parties, whatever their initial intensions, would be controlled by a political elite or oligarchy, who separated themselves, by the control of the bureaucracy, from the masses of their own party ranks. The reasons for this tendency towards oligarchy were the natural necessity for society to have a ruling class, the self fuelling desire for party officials to gain and retain power, and the effectiveness that centralised parties had in a political environment. Since 1916 Michels' work has gained a huge amount of support, particularly as the pressures of parties to centralise power is becoming more important in an increasingly competitive political world, but it is not without its critics. Opponents claim that Michels and his followers paint too black and white a picture and while there does seem to be a strong tendency for oligarchy to form, it can not be said to be an 'iron rule', as there are a number of examples where political parties have not taken on such a form. Much of Michels 'iron rule' theory was influenced heavily by Karl Marx'
Discuss Kohlberg's theory of Moral Development, use psychological evidence and refer to at least one other theory in your answer.
Discuss Kohlberg's theory of Moral Development, use psychological evidence and refer to at least one other theory in your answer Moral development in psychology is the study of how we form beliefs and acquire knowledge to determine what is wrong or right. It is also a study of how we apply these beliefs to our actions. Kohlberg is a prominent figure in moral development, his main focus in his investigation in to moral development was on our reasoning behind moral judgement rather than the judgments made. He believed that we develop moral reasoning during childhood and adolescence; it is not something we acquire in one big step. Like Piaget, Kohlberg chose to investigate the reasoning behind moral development, by using moral dilemmas. Kohlberg carried out a study with group of males, some of which he followed up 3 times over 20 years. He gave them a moral dilemma and questions designed by Heinz. Heinz's story stated that a man's wife was suffering from a rare illness, her only chance of survival was this one particular type of drug that the man could not afford and the chemist would not let him have it cheaper or let him pay for it in instalments. The questions were on whether the man should steal the drug for his wife, whether the man should steal it if it was for a stranger, is it against the law to steal it and does that make it morally wrong. From analysing the