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AS and A Level: Healthcare

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  1. Medicine - Additional

    * Patients are competent if they are able to: o Understand information about their condition & Rx. o Remember this information. o Deliberate about the therapeutic choices posed by the information. o Believe that the information applies to them. * >16yo can give valid consent. * If <18 & refusing life saving Rx, talk to parents & your senior as the law is unclear - may need to contact duty judge. * Vast majority of patients with psychiatric illness are competent to consent to refuse Rx.

    • Word count: 3169
  2. Research In Clinical Practise

    Practitioners should be encouraged to identify the needs and opportunities for research presented by their work. Research is fundamental to achieving evidence-based practice in nursing. Evidence-based health care aims to promote clinical and cost-effective care/treatment through the explicit, conscientious, and judicious use of the currently available best evidence from research to guide decisions (Sackett et al, 1996). Recently, there has been an increasing emphasis on evidence-based practice. The NHS information strategy, the development of the NHS net and the National Electronic Library for Health all testify to the NHS commitment of bringing research evidence closer to clinical decision makers (Thompson et al 2001).

    • Word count: 9478
  3. Nutritional Immunology

    However we can try to prevent the disease with a powerful Immune System that exists in our body, a defense mechanism that can be strengthened and improved through proper care. The function of the Immune System is to protect the body from disease and infection. Because in the fact, most of today's degenerative diseases are the direct result of immune dysfunction and can often be traced to poor dietary habits. What are degenerative diseases? The dictionary defines "degenerative" as: adj.: of illness; marked by gradual deterioration of organs and cells along with loss of function; "degenerative diseases of old age".

    • Word count: 3320
  4. 1.2 Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Thus chronic bronchitis is defined in clinical terms, whereas emphysema is defined pathologically. A group of synonyms have arisen, which in the UK include chronic obstructive bronchitis or chronic obstructive bronchitis with airways obstruction; in the USA, COPD, chronic obstructive airways disease (COAD) and chronic obstructive lung disease are favoured. However, the term 'chronic bronchitis and emphysema' has often been used loosely to define a patient with chronic cough and associated airflow obstruction, although airflow obstruction does not appear in the definition. The most widely used term is COPD, which has been accepted by the British Thoracic Society (BTS)

    • Word count: 4018
  5. Understanding Diverse Offending Behaviour

    The law will be examined, and an analysis of how substance abusers are accommodated by society will be made. The stereotyping of drug users is often based on information being given to the public, whilst other information just as significant, if not more so, is withheld. This point is made by Joseph D. McNamara, D.P.A. (September 2000). He says of this stereotyping- 'These cherished misconceptions are the enduring and erroneous foundations of the ill-conceived "war on drugs."' This statement is an attack on the 'foundations' created by society. The word 'enduring' is significant; once an idea is put forward to a group, and 'illusory correlations' (McNamara, 2000)0909 are made, sub-typing and self-fulfilling prophecies quickly enforce misguided ideas.

    • Word count: 3130
  6. Learning Team Operations Management Plan

    The null hypothesis states that changes in the processes of triage, registration, evaluation, treatment and disposition will shorten waiting times and improve efficiency (mu= changes in process). The alternative hypothesis states that changing in the process of triage, registration, evaluation, treatment and disposition will not change or improve waiting times for patients (mu not = changes in process). Flow Diagram Our team will review a current flow diagram that will assist in viewing the present processes that exist at King Drew Medical Center Emergency Room.

    • Word count: 3692
  7. Health Care Industry In India

    Its growth has profound implications for the existing character of the Indian health care system and its future course. Recent studies indicate that private health care significantly affects both the cost and quality of available health care services in India. Although cases of superfluous and high cost of services rendered by private physicians and hospitals have been reported, there is no evidence that these result in any greater use of public facilities. Significantly, despite the problems resulting from the growth of the private sector, there has been little effort to draw up appropriate market or regulatory mechanisms to ensure its desirable growth.

    • Word count: 3915
  8. Alzheimer's Disease: The Gradual Death

    When he dissected her brain, he discovered coiled deposits around the nerve cells, called neuritic plaques. He also discovered twisted bands of fibers, or neurofibrillary tangles, inside the nerve cell in the brain. However, even after this discovery, the disease still wasn't recognized as a major disease until 1970, when neurological research began to expand. This degenerative brain disorder has since, been named after Dr. Alzheimer. Even today, doctors use the same technique that Dr. Alzheimer used to observe the plaques and tangles in the brain. (2) Studies show that the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease increases with age.

    • Word count: 3313
  9. How does dystonia work in the brain?

    This small change is not found by medical tests or pictures of the brain on an MRI scan. Even if this deep area of the brain is not working the right way and dystonia occurs, the areas of the brain that have to do with thinking and learning work normally. Once researchers understand what the problem is in this part of the brain, they will be able to come up with ways to allow persons with dystonia to control these unwanted movements. Can dystonia come about overnight? Are there any warning signs? Dystonia generally develops gradually. Occasionally the dystonia may occur suddenly, as in the acute dystonic reactions related to the administration of antipsychotic drugs.

    • Word count: 6518
  10. Drugs and their effect on the limbic system of the brain.

    As drugs appear in nature they can be addictive. However, it is technology which makes them very addictive. Opium, a drug which occurs naturally in the white poppy plant, is classed as a narcotic. A narcotic drug relieves pain and induces sleep. The brain has neurotransmitters which controls our perception of pain. These neurotransmitters are called endorphins. Within the brain, endorphins mask pain and make us feel good. All opium products are chemically similar to endorphins and have their pleasurable effects by substituting for endorphins in our brain. Opium has been used and abused since the beginning of recorded history.

    • Word count: 3017
  11. Discuss the interplay of infectious agents and the immune system in pathogenesis of arthritis.

    In this environment, the production of host-derived extracellular matrix proteins that aid in joint healing (e.g., fibronectin) may promote bacterial attachment and progression to infection. The virulence and tropism of the microorganisms, combined with the resistance or susceptibility of the synovium to microbial invasion, are major determinants of joint infection. Aerobic gram-negative bacilli such as Escherichia coli rarely infect the synovium except in the presence of an underlying and compromising condition. S. aureus, Streptococcus spp., and N. gonorrhoeae are examples of bacteria that have a high degree of selectivity for the synovium, probably related to adherence characteristics and toxin production.

    • Word count: 3269
  12. How plastic is the adult brain?

    Cameron and McKay 2001 (3) suggested an important role in brain plasticity was the NSC. Thousands of cells, which are repeatedly being formed, of which most of them incorporate as new functional neurons. Gould 1999 a (3) research also supports the previous study and that application of these findings, could be applied to other species. Also environment, genetics, and drugs alter neurogenesis in a manner that is consistent with NSC having an impact on plastic processes such as learning and mood (Duman et al.

    • Word count: 4100
  13. Doctor-patient relationhip: study and analysis

    Early doctors practiced no scientific medicine but they related treatment to sorcery, thus most of their practices were useless and superstitious. Until people like Hippocrates showed up nearly 1600 years ago when they started to establish a strong foundation of the modern medical science. In the near 600s A.D with the emergence of Islam, Muslim doctors made a wonderful work to enhance and improve medical science especially anatomy and surgery. Doctors like Al Razi, Ibn Sina, Ibn Rushd, and many more had their major impact on the study of later western doctors and scientists.

    • Word count: 3628
  14. This essay is compose of four domains. The four domains I will be reflecting on are professional and ethical practices, care delivery, care management and personal/professional development.

    The first day of my six week placement, I was introduced to the acute ward by my mentor. She showed me the emergency cardiac arrest and rapid response phone numbers. I was shown the fire exits and was told what to do in case of fire. I followed registered nurses around and participated in caring for the patients. A patient was allocated to me to care for, my mentor and other team member supervised me to ensure that adequate care was given to the patient. I have the opportunity to learning advantages and experience in sharing with others.

    • Word count: 4640
  15. Bulimia Nervosa

    Bulimia affects 1-2.8% of the population, yet it is estimated that 20% of adolescent girls (2.5 million) exhibit less extreme bulimic behaviours (Graber et al, 1994). However, Morris & Summers (1995) highlight the difficulty in identifying the prevalence of eating disorders due to the diversity in which these disorders are defined and measured in research. The bulimic sufferer periodically consumes huge amounts of food in short time spans, with little control over consumption and with fearful thoughts about their inability to stop. An average bulimia sufferer performs secret binges of 2,500 calories or more within a two-hour period, although reports range from 1,200 to 55,000 calories (Johnson et al, 1982).

    • Word count: 3617
  16. NURSING:: Critically examine an incident from recent practice whilst using a model of reflection.

    (Wilkinson 2001). Marks-Maran and Rose (1997) view reflection as an activity to develop personal, practical and intuitive knowledge. The quality of patient care can be enhanced by reflection and it helps to develop the self-awareness and professional practice of the nurse. (Wolverson 2000). Marks-Maran and Rose (1997) describe the following three types of reflection. The first is reflection-before-action is concerned with thinking through a situation prior to taking any action. Secondly reflection-during-action is when we are taken unawares and temporarily pause and observe something unexpected, the situation is then analysed which may lead to a change in the planned course of action.

    • Word count: 3323
  17. The Human Rights Act 1998 incorporates into domestic law the ECHR to which the UK has been committed since 1951. The Act modernises relationships between people and the State.

    The extent of the public authority's obligation, however, is limited to that which is reasonable2. In the Osman case, the applicant alleged an omission on the part of the authorities in their duty to protect the right to life against a threat posed by an individual, raising questions about the State's duty to protect an individual from the criminal acts of another private person. The applicants argued that despite the various indications that the teacher posed a threat to the applicant and his family, the failure of the police to offer them adequate protection amounted to a breach.

    • Word count: 4552
  18. The theory of communication.

    In order for an individual to experience total self-actualisation the therapist must express complete acceptance of the patient. Eventually throughout its development Rogers's theory began to be known as "people-centred" due to its expansion beyond physiotherapy. In simple terms he stated: * The individual comes for help * The helping situation is defined. * The counsellor encourages free expression of feelings in regard to the problem. * The councillor accepts, recognises, and clarifies negative feelings * When the individual's negative feelings have been expressed they are followed by expressions of positive impulses, which make for growth.

    • Word count: 3253
  19. Kids and Drugs

    Stimulant (upper) - Speeds up your brain and central nervous system. Eg. Caffeine ( in coffee, tea) nicotine (in cigarettes), amphetamines (in speed, dexamphetamine, diet pills) amyl nitrate, cocaine, nitrous oxide, ecstasy. 2. Depressant (downer) - Slows down your brain and central nervous system. Eg. alcohol (Beer, Wine, Vodka, Gin etc), marijuana/cannabis (dope, grass, weed etc), fantasy, heroin, analgesics, glue, butane, and anti-anxiety drugs or sleeping pills.. 3. Hallucinogen (psychedelic) - Alter the user''s state of consciousness. Eg. trips/lsd,, ecstasy, PCP, magic mushrooms, datura, marijuana/cannabis.

    • Word count: 3713
  20. Cognitive and Behavioural Psychotherapy for Distressing Thoughts in Work.

    The store management did not apologise or offer Ellen her job back. Ellen feels that she was treated unjustly and the union did not do everything it could have done. Ellen has kept a file of letters and press cuttings related to the incident two years ago and the meetings about it since. Ellen now works locally for a well-known national supermarket and is happy with her work - she feels that she is good at her work. Ellen describes, however, that she suffers from stressful "incidents" when "small things" set her off.

    • Word count: 4155
  21. Cognitive Behavioural Therapy and Family Interventions for Psychosis.

    Psychosocial interventions are aimed at empowering patients, and, as Slade & Haddock (1996) have pointed out, 'since the 1980s, the task of the therapist was no longer to "change the behaviour of the patient" but rather to "help the client to change their own behaviour, if they wish to do so"'. This chapter provides an overview of family interventions and cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for psychotic symptoms. There has been a lot of research and clinical interest in the effectiveness of CBT for patients with psychosis. Unfortunately, the provision of family interventions in routine services has been disappointing, despite vigorous training programmes.

    • Word count: 8550
  22. What are the effects of smoking on the human body?

    Cancer must be one of the worst diseases in the world because there is little anything that can be done about it and there is a lot of pain and suffering involved with or with out treatment. Even with all the warnings people still smoke. To understand cancer and what it does to the lungs you need to understand what the lungs are and what they do. The lungs are two spongy pieces of tissue. They are used to take in oxygen from the air breathed in and pass this oxygen to where it is needed in your body.

    • Word count: 3056
  23. 'The essence of a satisfactory health service is that the rich and poor are treated alike, that poverty is not a disability and wealth is not advantaged.' To what extent has Bevan's vision for the British national health service been realised?

    In this essay it will be argued that Bevan's vision of an equitable health service has been eroded by the processes of rationalisation, privatisation and politically motivated distributions of health funding. However, it will be then be suggested that equity of healthcare provision is but one factor controlling inequalities in health, and that other factors outside the traditional remit of the NHS (such as income inequality) also need to be addressed in order to achieve Bevan's ideal. Lastly, it will be suggested that other structural forces such as gender and ethnicity should also be considered in the achievement of Bevan's goal of equity.

    • Word count: 3700
  24. Analyze, using available data, and field research, the advantages and disadvantages of Laser technology on the human eye for visual correction of Myopia (short-sightedness), Hyperopia (long-sightedness) and Astigmatism.

    At the front of the eye the sclera becomes transparent and is regularly shaped to form the cornea, or "window of the eye" which allows light rays to enter the eye and is responsible for most of the bending or focusing of the light rays. D-0666-045 The lens is a flexible, transparent structure making the final focusing adjustments of light rays so they are sharply focused on the retina.The retina absorbs light rays and changes them into electrical signals that are passed to the brain and interpreted as visual images.

    • Word count: 4503
  25. Appraising Research Evidence for Practice.

    The majority of the research tended to be based around the dietary problems or the physical aspects of anorexia. In order to try and find more appealing research I searched the web page Netting the Evidence. This site searched a variety of published research literature, and gave users the choice of carrying out a search in Medline and PubMed. I used PubMed to search the title 'anorexia nervosa' and retrieved a plethora of research in adolescents and adults. To limit my search I used the required Boolean term and searched for 'treatment' AND 'anorexia nervosa'.

    • Word count: 3162

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