• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

AS and A Level: United Kingdom

Browse by

Currently browsing by:

Meet our team of inspirational teachers

find out about the team

Get help from 80+ teachers and hundreds of thousands of student written documents

How to become a successful politics student

  1. 1 Enjoy the subject – Politics is all around you so make sure you watch the news, read newspapers and look online at what is happening in the world. Sign up for updates from news organisations.
  2. 2 Read around the subject – There are lots of political books that will help you to gain a wider perspective of the subject, these range from autobiographies of past Prime Ministers to how varying British parties have developed.
  3. 3 Watch TV – There are lots of politics programmes which will help up to understand how politics works in reality and help to gain your own examples.
  4. 4 Make sure you know enough for the exam – Remember you will always need to know and be able to understand more than the limitations of any specification.
  5. 5 Use political vocabulary correctly – Try explaining new words and concepts to friends and family so that you get used to the using the new language.

Five things to remember when answering essay style questions

  1. 1 Make sure you focus on the question being asked. It is tempting to include everything you know in an answer but the test is what you select in relation to the question.
  2. 2 Ensure you understand what is meant by the ‘command word’ – Every question contains a specific command such as ‘Distinguish between...’, ‘To what extent...?’, ‘How effectively...?’, ‘Discuss’.
    Learn what is expected for each command word.
  3. 3 Make sure you have planned your answer so that you have a clear structure. You need to define three or four areas to be dealt with systematically. Remember that each point or area or discussion should be easy to identify.
  4. 4 Provide relevant evidence to illustrate points being made – Students often struggle to get the right balance between theory and evidence, either making their answers over theoretical or just writing one example after another. You must remember to use the evidence to support claims you making.
  5. 5 Make sure you have explored different viewpoints, theories and concepts as this will help to make sure that your answer is balanced. Do not allow your answer to be subjective.

  • Marked by Teachers essays 27
  • Peer Reviewed essays 1
  1. How, and with what success, have governments attempted to improve the provision of health care in the UK since 1992?

    There were also allegations of unfairness and talk of a health service rationing was in existence. This overall led to the crucial weakness that the patient's quality care lost priority to balancing books by managers whom ran the NHS. Hence overall, this was not a successful attempt to progress the health provision. It was the failure of the Internal Health Market which led to Tony Blair famously telling voters they '24 hours to save the NHS' on the eve of the 1997 election. During the first 2 years of government, New Labour continued Conservative spending and no attempt was placed to reverse policies such as charges for both dental and optician services and prescription charges rising with inflation.

    • Word count: 3701
  2. Government & Politics Revision Notes

    Representative's maybe local councilors in the town halls or MP's in the House of Commons. Advantages of Direct Democracy * Generates Interest and Knowledge- Direct Democracy creates better informed and more knowledgeable citizens, this would have educational benefits. Direct and regular popular participation in government encourages people to take more interest in politics and better understand their own society, both how it works and how it should work. * Legitimate and Stable Government- Direct Democracy ensures that rule is legitimate, in this sense people are more likely to accept decisions they have made themselves. When Citizens make political decisions directly they have to take responsibility for them, there is no else to blame.

    • Word count: 7364
  3. Constitution and Politics

    * Federal: sets out how much power/influence regional and central has * Fresh start (after revolution, war, defeat) Key Terms Preamble: introduction sets out purpose and aims Amendment: procedure for constitutional change Bill of rights: statement of individual freedoms and rights Organisational section: main institutions of government Federal: Country where power is divided between central and regional governments. Executive: the branch of government responsible for directing the nation's affairs and initiation of laws Legislature: responsible for passing laws and being a watchdog over the government Separation of Power: Power divided between Judiciary, Legislature and Executive Common Law: is a body rules that has evolved over a long period of time (judge's precedents cover ambiguities)

    • Word count: 3400
  4. Democracy and Voting

    Representative Democracy: citizen indirectly involved (they vote and people make decision on behalf of them, participation of direct = minority) * Parliamentary Democracy (UK): This when the government/executive is appointed by legislature/Parliament (subject to reviews). Automatic labelling dependant on votes: PM = leader of majority party. * Liberal Democracy (US): Any decisions made are subject to the rule of law * Other types: Pluralist (anyone can stand), Totalitarian (co-ercive), Socialists (help the people), Anarchists (direct) Political Participation: Relates to the range of activities by which individuals attempt to influence who should govern and decisions (made by those who do govern).

    • Word count: 3883
  5. What is the main reason for the loss of faith and interest in our Political System?

    And finally special consideration and thanks must be given to Sarah Giles, George Tyrell, and Paul Hughes, all of whom helped to motivate me and to re-assure me during the stressful times. Thank you all. Executive Summary: The following piece of work is a study into some of the reasons why Britain has seen such a decline in the interest of Government and Politics, and the effects that this dis-interest has caused, including some raw data showing recent general election turnouts.

    • Word count: 6909
  6. adult education

    Or it can include a set of ideals and values: adulthood. (Tight, M. 1996) An accepted definition of 'adult' in adult education is not and cannot be clear. It is very difficult to specify or classify this sector of education. It is hard to call it a sector at all, but it definitely includes formal education or training leading to a qualification. On the other hand, there are wide range of informal learning opportunities are also available, which are significant sources of skill and knowledge development. The focus of policy is widening to include informal with formal learning and non- vocational with vocational learning.

    • Word count: 3266
  7. priministers power

    The British Constitution o There is no codified constitution and so there are few formal limitations on the British executive. A Prime Minister exercises significant discretionary powers. For example, by convention, a Prime Minister exercises the monarch's powers of ministerial appointment and dismissal. He needs no approval from parliament. The Prime Minister also assumes the monarch's powers as Commander-in-Chief and there are no formal constitutional checks as in the USA; so parliament does not need to ratify treaties or even declare war.

    • Word count: 5998
  8. Arguments that the British Prime Minister is an elective dictator are arrant nonsense. The Prime Minister is constrained by his or her cabinet colleagues, the will of Parliament and the decisions of the judiciary. Discuss.

    The relationship of the Prime Minister with his cabinet is central to the workings of the executive. In this context, central to Prime Ministerial power is the ability to hire and fire. The cabinet is the body that is ultimately appointed by the Prime Minister and assists in the running of the government. The Prime Minister appoints over a hundred ministerial posts covering cabinet, non-cabinet and junior ministers and also Parliamentary Private Secretaries. He or she has the power to "ask ministers to resign, recommend the Sovereign to dismiss them, or with their consent, move them to other offices"1.

    • Word count: 3031
  9. The Assassins A man, who is about thirty years old, was sitting at an almost empty bar. The man looked out of place for he was wearing the most expensive garments and gears. His silk tie and shirt, jet black jacket

    Most unfortunately the action of the bartender resulted in broken wrist and a broken neck. The last man standing was the old man. He was in the corner, crouching and shaking. The killer, who didn't even seem to be out of breath, walked towards the old man and asked almost fondly "How old are you?" "Ninety four..." the old man replied pleadingly, hoping that this man had a drop of mercy left in him. "Well you lived long enough." The killer concluded and he thrusted his knife into the old man's heart.

    • Word count: 3031
  10. How and why has the role of the prime minister changed over the post-1945 period?

    The flexibility of an unwritten constitution has therefore prompted the belief that "the office of the Prime Minister, is what its holder chooses and is able to make of it" (Asquith, as in King, 1991, p34). Therefore a prime minister can still in theory act as he chooses, and define his own role when entering office. However he is constrained by the expectation to perform certain roles, such as appearing in parliament for prime minister's questions and attending international summits.

    • Word count: 3084
  11. "To what extent have west European prime ministers full control of their cabinets? Discuss with reference to at least Three European states?"

    Many Western European states are governed under A Parliamentary system. The most important aspect is described by Kaare Storm- "the parliamentary democracy is a particular regime of delegation and accountability that can be understood with the help of agency theory, which allows us to identify the conditions under which democracy agency problems may occur." In Storm's article quoted from Begot (1867), Begot identifies that the Parliamentary democracy focuses on the dependencies between the executive and the parliament, he also defined parliamentarism as the form of constitutional democracy in which the executive authority comes out from and is responsible to legislative

    • Word count: 3111
  12. Evaluate the above statement and consider the extent to which you think it is true.

    The role has, as briefly discussed below, evolved quite significantly from its earliest form to the present. One of the key concepts behind the British system of government is the doctrine of Parliamentary supremacy3, and one of the key principles of this doctrine is the freedom of each Parliament to legislate as it pleases. It is not bound by its predecessors in any respect, and nor, theoretically, is it even bound by its own decisions: nothing that has been done is above being undone, nothing that has been said is beyond contradiction. There are no "higher" areas of law beyond the scope of Parliament's power to alter, and no areas of law in which special protocols must

    • Word count: 3952
  13. The Labour Party.

    The important figures of the Labour Party: * Tony Blair: Leader of the party and Prime minister of Britain. He was the reform leader who got the party re-elected to government after 18 years in opposition, however he has compromised many basic principals of the Labour party. * Gordon Brown: He was the right-wing Chancellor of the Exchequer. He was seen as the second most powerful person in the party with many predicting that he will take over and Blair steps down.

    • Word count: 6026
  14. New Britain. Now: TV Network Studio.

    Still, Nicholas never took the plunge into politics until that faithful morning of Wednesday 19th November 2005. As Nicholas comfortably lounged in his chauffeur-driven Bentley back at the Blackpond House Estate, Nicholas's dear wife Linda was robbed at gunpoint. As Linda sat at the enormous beautiful antique oak table a masked intruder burst through the doorway to the lounge area. "Stand up to the wall, move, get up, stand up by the wall, move" The loudness of the intruder, if there were anyone elsewhere in the house they would almost certainly have heard him. But there wasn't anyone else in the house.

    • Word count: 3232
  15. Political Awareness

    In 1997, at 43 years, Tony Blair was the youngest person to become Prime Minister since Lord Liverpool in 1812. He began a second term as Prime Minister after his party's victory in the 2001 General Election. Deputy Prime Minister and First Secretary of State-The Rt. Hon. John Prescott, MP Born in Prestatyn, May 1938, John Prescott went to school in Cheshire, leaving to work in hotel catering at the age of 15. In 1955 he joined the Merchant Navy.

    • Word count: 9386
  16. Apart from referendums, explain three ways in which democracy in the UK could be improved.

    I have observed select committees forced to resort to the Freedom of Information Act to get hold of government papers, and still be refused them. This is constitutional nonsense and should be corrected by parliament at the earliest opportunity. Tools: Evidence checks Most inquiries take the format of a committee deciding on a topic, putting out a call for evidence, cross-examining some witnesses ? the last of whom are from government ? and then writing a report with a bunch of recommendations.

    • Word count: 3783

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • Extent to which leadership effected the 2001 federal election outcome.

    "In conclusion, leadership was a very important factor in determining the outcome of the election. However, the two events outside the control of either of the candidates, those of the Tampa crisis and September 11, were used as a vehicle by the Liberal party to show John Howard's capabilities as a leader. These events allowed Mr. Howard to shine; in times of crisis the party with the advantage of incumbency become very popular, and a change of Government is undesirable. Beazley was on a sure path to success, but Tampa and September 11 rendered a Labor victory all but impossible. It was clear from pre-election polls that after these events Labor's substantial popularity was completely reversed in favour of the coalition. Each party's campaigns also showed the value placed on leadership, this being the most substantial issue dealt with in television advertising."

  • To what extent has the Prime Minister become Presidential?

    "In conclusion, the Prime Minister may sometimes appear to be distancing himself from Parliament but unlike the President he is constantly answerable and remains accountable to Cabinet. On the other hand, many powers of our Prime Minister are less restrained than those of a President such as patronage, the support of a strong party system and the ability to exercise a large number of prerogative powers. These powers are largely flexible due to the lack of a legal framework defining the office (influenced by the fact Britain has no codified constitution). The Prime Minister has certainly appeared to become increasingly presidential and we are moving away from Cabinet government and toward Prime Ministerial government; however I disagree that it is conforming to the American model. Blair is continuing a recent trend of particularly dominant Prime Ministers, for example Wilson and Thatcher. By taking full advantage of Labour's huge parliamentary majority and continued popularity, he appears to be pushing the Office to its limits, further enhancing the control of the Prime Minister over policy making."

  • Discuss the view that today Parliamentary Sovereignty exists more in theory than in practice.

    "It is therefore my conclusion that I am in agreement with the statement that "Parliamentary sovereignty exists more today in theory than in practice". There are too many limiting factors against the view which is supporting that Parliament is wholly autonomous and sovereign of any higher authority; the EU being a glaringly obvious example of a supranational state which has become deeply federalised and, in more cases than not, ruled against the UK's own decisions in individual circumstances. Another instance which has highlighted the flaws of the conventionalisation of the legislature is the Human Rights Act (1998). Sadly, it binds the future actions of any successor government to itself. It should be held that any future parliament can be permitted (and hold the supreme right) to debate and execute the re-introduction of corporal punishment, for instance, but the HRA effectively prohibits that, as the EU's implementation of the HRA also will supersede any vacancy left by the repealing of the Act; a damning indictment against the position upon which the UK has suddenly found itself."

Marked by a teacher

This document has been marked by one of our great teachers. You can read the full teachers notes when you download the document.

Peer reviewed

This document has been reviewed by one of our specialist student essay reviewing squad. Read the full review on the document page.

Peer reviewed

This document has been reviewed by one of our specialist student document reviewing squad. Read the full review under the document preview on this page.