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University Degree: Applied Sociology
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Discuss the claim that the best way of life for children today is one that combines school and work. Throughout, reference will be made to the 1999 research of Martin Woodhead, which suggests that a large majority of children envisaged a combination of wo
Work has been the main focus in children's lives throughout the pre-industrial world. In Europe- in conjunction with introduction of compulsory school, increase of family income and new cultural ideas - its importance declined and a romantic discourse of childhood fuelled outcry against 'child labour'. While until the late 1970s organizations such as the International Labour Organisation (ILO) and UNICEF aimed for complete elimination, worsening global economic conditions and emerging 'rights-based' approaches are forcing a more pragmatic response to the issue of children's work.
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Suicide in Canada. The suicide rate for Canadians, as measured by the World Health Organization, is 15 per 100,000 people. According to numerous studies, rates are even higher among specific groups.
According to the World Health Organization , someone around the globe commits suicide every 40 seconds. In the year 2000, 815,000 people lost their lives to suicide - more than double the number of people who die as a direct result of armed conflict every year . For people between the ages of 15 and 44, suicide is the fourth leading cause of death and the sixth leading cause of disability and infirmity worldwide.1 Suicide is a significant and underestimated cause of death in Canada.
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2.1 The UK Economy The UK government is also responsible for collecting various taxes. Health care, education, free meals and various benefits are provided by the Government through taxes paid. The UK economy is one of the largest 7 economies globally, therefore recognised as a developed country. The majority of countries in the east are seen as developing due to their lower economy, except Australia, New Zealand and Japan as detailed in Figure 1 (Fribbance, 2009, p. 18). The UK has various regions which are measured for its Gross Value Added (GVA).
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Consider when and how researchers might use qualitative and quantitative approaches in their research about children and young people. In this essay I will compare and contrast the qualitative and quantitative approaches adopted by Coates and Takei in th
The term 'quantification' means to measure on some numerical basis, therefore whenever we count or categorise, we quantify. In comparison, qualitative research does not focus on the collection of numerical data, but is far more interested in 'real life' situations. 'Qualitative research is empirical research where the data are not in the form of numbers'. (Punch, 2005, pg.3) A qualitative study tends to rely on anecdotal data and because of this the research is often undertaken on a smaller scale, where it is possible for the researcher to become immersed in the study. For example, an area where qualitative research can be useful is in testing people's response to different advertising.
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Discuss the ways in which the media and particularly television have had a dramatic impact upon childrens lives.
"Too much exposure to the media is commonly seen to lead to violence and delinquency, sexual promiscuity, educational underachievement, obesity, apathy and cynicism, and a whole host of anti-social behaviors. At times these anxieties rise to the level of 'moral panic', in which the media are seen to be the primarily responsible for the demise of moral standards and civilized behavior." (Barker and Petley, 2001) Now-a-days it is not possible to understand contemporary childhood without taking into account of the media.
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The focus is not on the past, but how the person perceives the world as 'here and now'. Maslow's hierarchy of needs is often used to summarize the belief of humanistic psychology. It assumes that we are all born with certain needs that need to be met. Without meeting these needs we are unable to continue with a healthy life and move upwards on the hierarchy. The needs are unconscious rather than known; each level is instigated as people are unsatisfied at each level. Needs at lower levels are fulfilled before later levels. People can be 'fixed' at one level.
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From this theory, aggression could increase if violence was both rewarded and observed (like in violent media). People experiencing aggression at high levels can cause harmful effects for society, including criminal behavior. A longitudinal study involving 856 youths concluded that violence seen on television during early childhood was positively related to the youths' antisocial behavior 10 years later (Eron, et al 253-63). This analysis does not intend to imply that aggression is solely determined by violence in the media. According to Hogg and Cooper, the primary causes of aggression are a convergence of situational instigators like aversive conditions and several personal characteristics such as hostile world schemas (277-279).
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Discuss how Paul Willis has examined the purpose of education in Learning to Labour (1977). You must direct your response to issues in Education Studies.
For the fourth theme, I have opted to philosophize about the psychology behind Paul Willis' results and the influence it has on education today. Why was 'Learning to Labour' such a landmark study? For the fifth theme, personal motivation is the underlying motif that is laced through the entire subject matter. I challenge the reader to consider this during the reading of this paper and also to contemplate the power of personal motivation in regards to each of the four key themes.
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The relationship can be summarized in one single statement: prosperity versus primacy. Challenging the reader to consider the effects of multiculturalism upon this subgroup, I will lace this objective throughout the exploration of the four subject areas which are, and within an educational and societal framework: the hidden curriculum; life chances; society & culture and; Britishness & citizenship. In addition to all of this, I invite the reader, whilst working through the subject areas, to consider such themes as: integration; assimilation; prosperity; primacy; tolerance; and superiority. Due to the word limitations of this essay, it is impossible to account for all cultural groups such as race, sex, religion, sexual preference, age etc.
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To what extent does the strength of kin relations depend upon proximity? This essay will most importantly focus on kinship relations and how they are maintained across the globe. In addition, this essay will touch upon issues concerning families and the
Sociologists, for years have attempted in giving a unique explanation for kinship. For some, Kinship is about the ways in which people assemble and categorise themselves as compared with the existent, accurate, natural facts of consanguinity and affinity (Schneider, 2004:258). Kinship ties in Giddens terms are links between individuals, acknowledged during marriage or through the lines of descent that connect blood relations such as mother, father and grandparents (Giddens, 1997:140). For many of us an identification with a kin group is a major aspect of identity from birth, and for many it is also the most enduring and permanent social group.
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Is the notion of underclass merely another name for the most underprivileged people in the working class?
It is therefore clear that ones definition of the 'underclass' then defines whether socially they are considered a separate class of their own or merely the most underprivileged people in the working class. Although sociologists disagree about the characteristics that define the 'underclass' whether it be through economic distinctions or cultural and behavioural differences from the rest of society, one thing that they do agree on is the conditions that need to me met in order for someone to be part of the 'underclass' .
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This essay will explain what social divisions are and why interrelationships amongst them are significant. Then using chosen article Using Focus Group Research in Exploring the Relationships Between Youth, Risk and Social Position this essay will tr
(Macionis & Plummer, 2008). Social divisions are socially created rather than 'natural' (i.e. skin colour takes on significance in our society and does impact upon the way those of African origin are treated, but eye colour, hair colour are not important). They are the outcome of previous social interactions, events, decisions, stereotypes and struggles (Moore, 2001). Social divisions have at least two categories, each of which has distinctive material and cultural features, where one category is better positioned than the other and has a better share of resources because it has greater power over the way our society is organised.
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Descartes' work became a central theme in the Enlightenment by sketching a background for rational thought (Hamilton: 21). Another theme was the idea of empiricism - through the works of Galileo and Newton (Evans 2007:24). These themes were further developed by the philosophers. One important development was the establishment of the Encyclop�die (Hamilton: 28). Another, no less crucial, is the emergence of the social science through the work of Saint-Simon and Comte (Hamilton: 56). Later on, Comte's ideas were to reappear in Durkheim's development of Sociology, and of other thinkers' approaches such as Weber, Marx, Mill and others (Hamilton: 57). One central consequence on western history is the separation of the educational system and the state from religion.
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Durkheim's work is a major milestone in the study of sociology and has influenced research ever since. Engels, F. and Marx, K. (1969) 'The Communist Manifesto' in Selected Works, Volume One, Moscow: Progress Publishers, pp. 98-137. The Manifest is a declaration of the power and ideology of Communism, and analyzes the problems of class struggle, capitalism, and their contributing elements. The bourgeoisie's formation of free trade transformed non-bourgeoisie society into sectors of labourers, while controlling and mastering their modes of production and social statuses.
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The idea of childhood is under constant change along with history. It is not always synonymous with innocence, fun and purity, in fact it can be considered as one of the most important inventions of after the industrial revolution. Children used to have no autonomy, separate status, privileges or any forms of social right that were entirely their own.1 There was no separate world of childhood. Not only do they used to share the same lives with adults, also they were expected to participate in work as soon as they could.
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This means that while the work load/ demand remained the same they chose to work harder and more efficiently. Not only physically but also mentally, they changed their personal role concepts. Furthermore, there were factors that influenced their decision making in choosing the coping strategies. Some of these factors also affected the effectiveness of their coping. Personal and situational resources such as self-esteem, spousal and social support was seen to actually reduce the mothers' stress hence increased their coping effectiveness. The extent of the women's career involvement and the amount of social support they received, greatly affected their choices in deciding which strategy to take in order to satisfy the demand of their roles.
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He then had to see a therapist in order to learn how to connect what he saw and what he already knew by his sense of touch. This made me realize that we take our eyesight for granted. Most of the eye conditions the author mentioned can be controlled or treated with corrective lenses or surgery. Out of all the condition, Glaucoma is the scariest aging conditions to me.
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It will look at the different forms of social constructionism with discussion focusing around opposing theorist's views and perspectives. "The cultural world is not only collectively produced, but it remains real by virtue of collective recognition" (Berger 1966), this can be applied to the idea that reality, culture and social differences are produced and manufactured through the means of recognition and acceptance of that construct by society. For example, in terms of gender; we are automatically known individually as either a male of a female, this is collective recognition (Burr 1995).These divisions between genders are reinforced and entangled within everything in society; from something as basic as a colour (the "tradition" being blue for boys and pink for girls)
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The following essay will focus on consumption and consumerism in relation to food consumption in modern society. Focusing on how mass production created Mcdonaldization of society and also how conspicuous consumption has filtered down through the classes
The way in which McDonaldization has been accepted into modern society is that whilst people's lifestyles become more and more hectic it offers a quick and simple way of changing from "hungry to full" in just a few minutes (Waters 1996 Cited by Ritzer 2006). The theory is looking to take control of consumers, taking away individuality in order to spread its own source of consumer culture, whereas the consumer culture that is the norm is that the consumer is expected to have choice (Ritzer 2006).
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An 'education' is therefore something that everyone experiences, although there can arguably be huge differences in the quality of education received. Society accepts and agrees to the legal constraints placed upon it's members and school becomes an important societal structure, not only in its function as provider of knowledge, but also in the process of socialization. However, Durkheim states that education is 'only the image and reflection of society. It imitates and reproduces the latter in abbreviated forms: it does not create it' (Durkheim, 1951).
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In the United States, out of 17,000 reported murders, only about 110 were sentenced to death (Schaefer, 2008 p177). Whether or not capital punishment is a deterrent is widely debated. There have been several studies done and researchers believe, as suggested in Sociology: A Brief Introduction, that the death penalty does not serve as a deterrent. Such studies quote the murder rate in states that utilize the death penalty with those who do not, which show that states without are below the national average, generally speaking.
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He brought attention to the Protestant faith, with their belief in good work ethic and saving. This was important and relevant to the study of sociology because it showed the collective consequences of the individual's personal beliefs. He believed that the protestant faith was the birth of capitalism and inclusiveness of religion had effects on society as a whole, even non-members of the religion (Schaefer 2009, p 329). The individual in the religion views the world thru their respective religious "lens." They see and interpret everything that happens in the context of their beliefs and also their past experience.
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Since girls were allowed to attend school, there were divisions in subjects. There were grammar and technical schools for boys, but not for girls, until feminist raised the issue of gender inequalities in schooling during the 1960s and 1970s. Girls were underachieving boys in these subjects for many years, but in the 1990s the statistics showed, that girls had better results than boys. (Woodward, 2004, p.63) Social divisions could also be seen in family lives. In 1950s the most important factor for a "healthy" society was to have traditional nuclear families, which consisted of a mum, dad and their children.
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This massive production of knowledge could be seen to make decision-making easier, but in some cases not. Medical knowledge has been developed through the centuries. Different theorists had different approaches to knowledge. For example Karl Popper was questioning the knowledge which was available at the time, he tried to falsify or verify what was found. (Woodward and Watt, 2004, p.21) Thomas Kuhn argued that most of the time scientists were copying procedures, which were introduced by earlier researchers. They developed paradigms, which are sets of assumptions, laws and methods, which are accepted by scientists and have set the standards to how the inquiries are conducted.
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These kind of out come stimulate the teenagers not to go for marriage and have and physical relationship before marriage. Most of the teenager is involved in such kind of relationship but they are not informed much about the outcome of this relationship, which may result in Pregnancy and in teenage they become parents. (Fulcher 2007, p.30-31) In some societies there is a trend of delayed marriage which eventually leads towards the before marriage sexual relationships as they have to fulfill their sexual needs.
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