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AS and A Level: People & Operations Management
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How to manage people successfully
- 1 A business needs to be clear on their recruitment needs and then use recruitment practices to ensure that they find them.
- 2 A business must train their staff in the right way. This is likely to include a mix of off the job and on the job training.
- 3 Staff must be appraised so that the business ensures that they are performing the job correctly. This appraisal process will often include objective setting for employees and then judging whether they have performed to this standard.
- 4 Staff need to be managed so that they are motivated to do a good job.
- 5 One of the main measures of the effectiveness of staff is to look at their productivity. This measures the output of individual workers.
Five motivation theories
- 1 Identifying where you see examples of the below theories in action can give big analysis marks. Motivation is not all about money. Money gets people to work but only in certain circumstances does it then lead to a more motivated workforce.
- 2 F. W. Taylor believed that all that was necessary was for the management to decide on the most efficient means of production and then pay workers to do it.
- 3 Elton Mayo said that workers work best when their group needs are considered and they are treated as human beings rather than as machines as in Taylor’s theory.
- 4 Frederick Herzberg discriminated between hygiene factors like pay and good working conditions which did not motivate in themselves but the absence of them demotivated and the motivators like praise and interesting work which did motivate.
- 5 Maslow said that we have a hierarchy of needs and we are motivated by the next unfilled need. Most workers in developed countries have sufficient money to eat so you will not motivate them just with more money but by meeting their needs and by work that is fulfilling.
Five key concepts in operations management
- 1 Operations management is about how and where businesses produce their product e.g. labour or capital intensive, in-house or outsourced.
- 2 Capacity utilisation is the percentage of total possible output a business is actually producing. Too low and capital is not being used fully, too high and there is no slack for machine breakdown, sickness or new orders.
- 3 Economies of scale are the benefits accruing to a business for being larger e.g. it is likely to be able to buy goods in bulk, have more specialist managers and workers, produce on a larger scale.
- 4 Lean production is where a business reduces waste as much as possible. Just-in-time, where businesses hold minimum stock and produce to order is a key element of this.
- 5 Ensuring quality might be through quality control (checking at the end) quality assurance (all staff responsible for quality) or Total Quality Management where the whole ethos of the business is centred on quality.
- Marked by Teachers essays 8
An assessment of an individual's achievement and an expected distribution of performance levels within Tesco. These would also include employee goal setting. The value of such a system serves to deliver a variety of value to both Tesco and the employee whose performance is being assessed. The benefits for the Tesco employee and Tesco- � Work plans and performance targets can and will drive desired goal attainment � Periodic performance assessment provides the opportunity to focus and develop talent needed to enhance career opportunity � Work plans and performance appraisal demonstrate personal interest in individual contribution and may foster a
- Word count: 1645