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AS and A Level: People & Operations Management
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How to manage people successfully
- 1 A business needs to be clear on their recruitment needs and then use recruitment practices to ensure that they find them.
- 2 A business must train their staff in the right way. This is likely to include a mix of off the job and on the job training.
- 3 Staff must be appraised so that the business ensures that they are performing the job correctly. This appraisal process will often include objective setting for employees and then judging whether they have performed to this standard.
- 4 Staff need to be managed so that they are motivated to do a good job.
- 5 One of the main measures of the effectiveness of staff is to look at their productivity. This measures the output of individual workers.
Five motivation theories
- 1 Identifying where you see examples of the below theories in action can give big analysis marks. Motivation is not all about money. Money gets people to work but only in certain circumstances does it then lead to a more motivated workforce.
- 2 F. W. Taylor believed that all that was necessary was for the management to decide on the most efficient means of production and then pay workers to do it.
- 3 Elton Mayo said that workers work best when their group needs are considered and they are treated as human beings rather than as machines as in Taylor’s theory.
- 4 Frederick Herzberg discriminated between hygiene factors like pay and good working conditions which did not motivate in themselves but the absence of them demotivated and the motivators like praise and interesting work which did motivate.
- 5 Maslow said that we have a hierarchy of needs and we are motivated by the next unfilled need. Most workers in developed countries have sufficient money to eat so you will not motivate them just with more money but by meeting their needs and by work that is fulfilling.
Five key concepts in operations management
- 1 Operations management is about how and where businesses produce their product e.g. labour or capital intensive, in-house or outsourced.
- 2 Capacity utilisation is the percentage of total possible output a business is actually producing. Too low and capital is not being used fully, too high and there is no slack for machine breakdown, sickness or new orders.
- 3 Economies of scale are the benefits accruing to a business for being larger e.g. it is likely to be able to buy goods in bulk, have more specialist managers and workers, produce on a larger scale.
- 4 Lean production is where a business reduces waste as much as possible. Just-in-time, where businesses hold minimum stock and produce to order is a key element of this.
- 5 Ensuring quality might be through quality control (checking at the end) quality assurance (all staff responsible for quality) or Total Quality Management where the whole ethos of the business is centred on quality.
I will be researching and managing a variety of resources. The three main types are human, physical and financial resources. In this section of my coursework I will explain where I will find these resources and how they will be managed to create a profita
Businesses need to make sure they have a safe and healthy environment. This can include: � Providing and maintain safety equipment and clothing. � Maintaining workplace temperatures. � Ensuring adequate work space. � Ensuring adequate washing and toilet facilities. � Guaranteeing hygienic and safe conditions � Providing breaks in the work time table. � Providing protection for the use of hazardous substances. � Providing protection from violence, threats or bullying. � Providing a relatively stress free environment. Employers of a business are required to write a written statement of the policy on health and safety in the workplace.
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The main aim of the occupational health and safety is to provide for the health and safety of persons at work and to establish an advisory council for occupational health and safety.
The main objectives of this act are: * To secure and promote the health , safety and welfare of people at work * To protect people at a place of work against risks to health or safety arising out of the activities of persons at work, * To promote a safe and healthy work environment for people at work, that protects them from injury and illness and that is adapted to their physiological and psychological needs.
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Speed is also a crucial factor in operations as customers usually have a much lower tolerance for waiting. Short time lags are important in operations between the customer ordering and the delivery. Otherwise the customer may get sick of waiting and move onto a competitor. Overheard costs- This refers to the ongoing expenses of an operating business. Overhead expenses are all costs on the income statement except for direct labour, direct materials & direct expenses. Overhead expenses include accounting fees, advertising, depreciation, insurance, interest, legal fees, rent, repairs, supplies, taxes, telephone bills, travel and utilities costs. Over-head costs can be classes under four titles such as Functional classification, Classification on the nature of expenditure Element-wise classification and Classification on behaviour of expenditure.
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Business Management Approaches. The three management theories, of classical, behavioural and contingency each add something of value for todays manager.
Controlling refers to reflecting on the businesses actual performance compared to the desired performance, as planned. Alterations are made in order to reach the objectives of a business, whether it is changes to production, management or workers. The hierarchical pyramid structure has a high concentration at the top, being the CEO. The manager usually works under an autocratic approach that sees little responsibility given to workers; rather they are told what to do. This usually minimalizes their productivity and external motivation is needed to increase this.
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Employees will gain confidence in their ability to perform tasks and this will impact on the businesses overall performance. This is due to their exhibited determination and initiative in pursuing the businesses goals. Staff involvement allows employees to incorporate their suggestions and ideas, in order to gain success for the business, and in return, reward the employee. A major influence on staff involvement is their working environment. A good working environment maximises employee involvement and satisfaction, therefore obtaining positive results for the business. Through staff involvement a business is benefitted through increased employee motivation and employees giving solutions to organisational problems.
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Thanks to Emma and Sophie for helping to sort this out. The Excel course was attended by 20 members of staff, and all gave good feedback about its relevance and value. KW 5 TEAM AWAY DAY It was agreed at the last meeting that delegates would bring ideas for the team away day. The ideas suggested are these: 1st suggestion by CJ: Thames riverboat trip from Greenwich to Westminster, then afterwards go on the London Eye. And then lastly have dinner in a restaurant on the Southbank, such as Ping Pong, which specialises in Chinese Dim Sum.
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In the case Freedom of Expression in the Workplace Barbara Hill is an employee at American Plastic Products Company. In order to do her job Barbara has to walk down a hallway to a meeting room at least once every day. On the walls of the h
As far as values go it appears that Barbara values equal rights and a high moral standard. It looks as if Barbara values the fact, that although she is working in an environment that appears to be dominated by men, she still has the right to be there and earn an equal pay. She is capable of doing the job as well as anyone else and she deserves to be paid the same as anyone else. Barbara also values a high moral standard in that she does not believe she has to view offensive pictures hanging in the hallway which she must walk down to do her job.
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Illustrate, using examples, the benefits to business of providing good customer service to both internal and external customers.
For loyal customers there should be special discounts to make sure they will use company's service for really long time. Caring for external customers, benefits for the business An external customer is a customer who is not a part of an organisation; an external customer is one who gets a service or product from the organisation. External customers have a choice in choosing company where they buy thing and if something does not 'suit' them they can in easy way find another company in which products or services make them more satisfied.
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Health and safety in construction. Designers shouldnt commence work on a project unless the client for the project is fully aware of his duties under the Construction (Design and Management)2007 Regulations.
Clients; (b) Other designers; and (c) Contractors, to comply with their duties under these Regulations. Contractors Responsibilities (1) like a designer no contractor shall carry out construction work in relation to a project unless any client for the project is aware of his duties under these Regulations. (2) Every contractor shall plan, manage and monitor construction work carried out by them or under their control in a way that ensures, it is carried out without risks to health and safety.
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In this assignment, I am going to show and explain how managing human, physical and technological resources can help improve business performance for Tescos.
This is how they improve there human resources. They also look at how many skills the employee has when they are searching for new employees. They will check whether that person can be used in more then one job position of that store, how many skills they consist of. Coordination of the teams in TESCO is very important in ensuring that meet the targets that the company sets them. When all employees of the team complete their assigned roles the team will run more smoothly.
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Coordination of the teams in different types of businesses is very important in ensuring that they meet the targets that the company sets them. When all employees of the team complete their assigned roles the team will run more smoothly. It is also important that a manager is always there so that they can supervise his staff and also if there is a problem that they might not be able to handle the manager will defiantly being trained to deal with the situation.
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Whether you're employed or self-employed, you have an obligation to provide a safe working environment also safe equipment. The two main regulations that cover working with pressure systems are Pressure Equipment Regulations 1999 and the Pressure Systems safety Regulations 2000. What are Pressure Systems? Pressure systems are equipment or system containing a fluid either gas or liquid under pressure. Pressure systems/vessels could range from boilers to valves, steam traps and filters. The Pressure System safety Regulations 2000 defines three specific systems.
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This will benefit the organisation, once they begin to notice their increase in sales and profit, which are likely to be correlated due to their fully skilled employees. For employees who performed well for the organisation, they might increase they're chance for a promotion or job security. Therefore, it shows on of training could help benefit both employees and the organisations at a low cost. For an organisation knowing that on the job training is effective for their employees based on applying themselves towards the organisation, it is wise that they should to adopt this type of training throughout the firm within the future as it's much cheaper and efficient.
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Within this task I am going to produce data that is going to be included in a job information pack, as part of an advertisement campaign for a new post with a company that my supervisor has asked to to work on.
There are many factors that a company must take into account when opening there business so that they maintain their responsibility of ensuring the health and safety of people involved in the business. The first issue that I will look at is when a business is employing five or more people. In this case the business would have to have an official record of what the assessment consists of, meaning that that the employer would have to have certain plans in order to deal with potential risks.
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It would have been illegal for us to just make up the wage so we had to comply with the law. The location of the vacancy is arisen in Nuneaton. We have all agreed upon those above decisions to further carry out the group task more efficiently and come up with the best documents. Basically we have discuss what should make up a good job description and a person specification. The next step we did was to individually create our own versions of the following documents: * Job description * Person specification * Job advert For the job description, I felt that it was simply straight forward for me to create the document.
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It was miniscule at first and initially placed on the Low Priority list, before it then got worse to the point that the area always became flooded after the toilet was used, therefore becoming a High Priority problem. A professional was called again to look at it, and they turned off the water to stop the leak, but said Ms Weiss must use the toilet in the corridor instead. 1.3 ONGOING PROBLEMS AND COUNCIL'S LACK OF RESPONSE Ms Weiss complained that the toilet had been troubling her for two weeks now, and continuing leaks are resulting in emerging rotting on the skirting and stains on the floor tiles and hall carpet.
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In this task I will be explaining the different types of business information, their sources and purpose. The organisation I will be investigating is Apple Inc.
A piece of information is considered valueless as it can greatly help businesses enhance the business. The Type of Information Describe ? Verbal - This is a statement that represents something in words. E.g. Annual Press Conference - Apple use this to announce new products and software updates, to the press and general public. Company Meetings - Apple hold regular meetings to assess how the company is doing, and how they can move forward. New ideas are discussed in these meetings.
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Developing Teams in Busienss. I will be describing different types of teams and the benefits of teamwork for an organisation; I will be investigating two businesses the first being Waitrose and the second being Apple.
Apple's team would be a permanent team as they would have set researchers and designers however developers would be temporary as they would just need to develop and create the product, within this group designers and researchers would also be present as their input is vital. Waitrose also formal team as they have different levels of authority, from the store manager to cashier. The Waitrose teams would be permanent as they all have day-to-day roles to carry out. Project Teams Project teams are teams which are created specifically for a certain project, an example of project teams are builders who
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A person specification will also include desirable qualities, which are not needed but if the candidate has these qualities it will improve their chances of receiving a job offer. A picture of a job specification is shown below. Job Advert The objectives of a job advert are to attract candidates who are suitable and capable of completing all task that are needed to be done by the position on offer, and to deter unsuitable candidates from the job. For a job advertisement to be a good advertisement it will need to be clear, honest and precise, it should clearly point
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If the company is successful then the share holder will receive a financial reward in the form of dividends. Selling shares to the public will allow the company to raise large amounts of money so they can expand or develop the organisation. A large organisation can consist of thousands of employees, and could possibly have branches all over the world. A large business has many advantages, they can buy a large amount of stock for a cheaper price than what small business will get, (this is called economy of scale) because their suppliers want to sell their stock quickly.
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Accountability Accountability is proven method of monitoring performance because performance indicators are linked with accountability and as a result this enables team leaders to find out which team member is doing well and who is underachieving. Renegotiating/Rescheduling Renegotiating and rescheduling as a method of monitoring performance is highly valued method because it enables the sales team leader to identify where targets are and are not being met. Maintaining Team Focus Maintaining team focus is a decent method of monitoring performance because it ensures that they team leader makes aware of team objectives.
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In a sales team, communication skills are vital. They are vital because good communication skills allow someone to make important contributions to a team.
As a result, this can lead to poor punctuality, low motivation, low confidence and low-esteem. In addition to that, poor communication can lead to employees not knowing their targets and this will result in the company stagnating as they are not reaching their targets. Conflicts can happen all the time. Good communication can go a long way to aid conflict management. Communication can help them members dissolve team issues and establish a way forward. Listening and meeting and through face to face communication. When an issue arises it is important to establish the correct method of communication.
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inside the business and how the organisation is changing itself to cope with new methods of working or new demands being made on it, such as the introduction of technology or new products. It is also a way of considering the new skills that will be needed in the future and those that existing staff already have, so that the gap can be measured. Human resource planning cycle The Planning Cycle brings together all aspects of planning into a logical, unified process.
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Outline how an organisations motivational practices and reward systems are informed by theories of motivation.
Taylor put forward the case that workers were only motivated by money, so work must be linked to payment. A manager should motivate a worker by using pay as a reason or by firing them if they did not work to their best of their ability. The positive side of this form of motivation, which relies solely on money, is that the more you produce, the better your pay is. But this can lead to issues around quality. By rushing to finish products can cause mistakes and faults in products so will not satisfy the customers.
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In this assignment I will describe how the different skills that are needed by employees to do the jobs in the organisation are identified. I will use Toyota as an example.
Toyota must act sensitively towards their staff in order for the employees to give maximum input and output. Skills sets Different organisations will affect the level of human resources needed and also the level of skills. There are two types of organisations, capital-intensive using machinery more than human labour and labour-intensive this is when employees are needed more than machinery. Toyota is a capital-intensive organisation because using machinery is faster and more efficient also it saves more money as 1 machine does 3 men's jobs.
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