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AS and A Level: Global Interdependence & Economic Transition

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What do I need to know to get a top mark?

  1. 1 In order to understand this topic it pays to learn which countries are MEDCs (More Economically Developed Countries), LEDCs (Less Economically Developed Countries) or are somewhere in between (NICs - Newly Industrialised Countries)
  2. 2 To understand the current global economic situation it is worth learning more about the past. Study the history of global economic development, including colonialism and slavery, in order to understand the present.
  3. 3 Whatever your point of view, it is important to recognise that there are positive and negative aspects to globalisation.
  4. 4 Although this is largely an economic topic, it is important to understand the social, political, environmental and cultural aspects of globalisation too.
  5. 5 Learn the definitions for key indicators such as GDP, GNP, GNI, HDI, PQLI.

Common student errors that you should ensure you avoid

  1. 1 Some students seem to think that GDP per capita is the income that each person in a country actually has. It is just the total value of the goods and services produced by a country in a given period divided by the number of people in the country.
  2. 2 Don’t forget that even the richest countries contain some very poor people and the poorest countries contain some very rich people.
  3. 3 Just because China produces many industrial goods, does not mean that it is a More Economically Developed Country. It is better to call it a Newly Industrialised Country.
  4. 4 Some students continue to use the term “Third World” to describe less economically developed countries. This is now out of date and is probably best avoided.
  5. 5 The wealth of a country is not necessarily based on quantity of natural resources which it has. It is much more complicated than that!

Key global interdependence and economic transition facts

  1. 1 The USA is the world’s largest single-country economy, followed by China. If the European Union is taken as a single entity, it has a larger economy than the USA.
  2. 2 Economic growth in China has averaged more than 10% per year over the past 30 years.
  3. 3 The global economy was by the UNDP estimated to have value of over US$ 60 trillion in 2010.
  4. 4 The UNDP also estimated that there were over 10 million US$ millionaires in 2010, while more than 3 billion people earned less than US$ 2 per day.
  5. 5 The BRIC countries are Brazil, Russia, India, and China. They are major NICs which are thought to be at a similar stage of newly advanced economic development, without yet being classed as MEDCs.

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  1. Examine the causes and consequences of the rise in manufacturing in NICs

    Examine the causes and consequences of the rise in manufacturing in NICs This essay will attempt to outline the causes for the rise in the manufacturing sector in Newly Industrialising Countries (NICs), examining both the factors that pushed production away from now developed economies and the reasons the NICs were attractive to the manufacturing industry. The impacts of this shift on developed countries, the NICs and global consequences will also be discussed. Arguably the most dominant factor in causing the shift in the location of manufacturing industries is the peak from the 1940s and then rapid decline in the 1970s in the success of the Fordism strategy.

    • Word count: 2687
  2. Census data AS geography

    any problem(s) that may occur due to traffic)> as they are people who either live or are visiting the village they will be able to give an opinion on such issues and if an overall trend appears within the responses for each question then I will be able to determine what is likely to be the answer to each issue in the questionnaire. This could give me an insight into how tourism affect the village economically, for instance, if the results say that the roads into the village get pretty jammed up during the summer months then I will be

    • Word count: 1794
  3. Threats to antarctica

    This is something that we cannot risk but tourism has a plus side. For instance it will provide another source of income that could help scientific equerries and if the proposed tourist building is built it will allow the scientists to work and do something different apart from research. It is hoped that this building would help tourism to expand from the present 2500 tourists a year. But how to protect animals from tourists? Is a very good question and a set of rules has been developed so that visitors can get a good experience without disturbing the wildlife too much.

    • Word count: 1214
  4. Events Provision

    (www.mphshow.co.uk) This event can be categorised under the mega events typology group. The reason for this is that the event has the potential to attract over one million visitors. A further reason that this event can attract a vast amount of large visitors is that well-known motoring expert Jeremy Clarkson is hosting it. Due to the motor show being taken away from Birmingham, The MPH Show can be its ideal replacement and generate a high level of economic and tourism impact into Birmingham. Theorist such as Getz 1997 states, "Mega events, by way of their size or significance are those that yield extraordinarily high levels of tourism, media coverage or economic impact for the host community and destinations."

    • Word count: 2510
  5. Geography GCSE Welsh board Coursework

    Since 'mere' means 'lake', referring to Windermere as 'Lake Windermere' is tautologous, though common. Windermere railway station offers train and bus connections to the surrounding areas, Manchester, Manchester Airport, and the West Coast Main Line, and is about a fifteen-minute walk from the lakefront. Both Stagecoach and the local council provide frequent connecting buses from Bowness Pier; Stagecoach's open-top double-decker buses travel through the centre of town and continue to Amble side and Grasmere, while the council's wheelchair-accessible minibuses run around the edge of town. The area has something to offer visitors at all times of the year, in all seasons.

    • Word count: 2678
  6. To what extent were the 1920s a time of economic boom in the USA?

    Some of the successful industries in the 1920s, like steel and construction, were old industries which had been modernised. Other industries like the car and the aircraft industry had been in a pioneering stage in the 1900. The most important development was the introduction of electricity which became widely available for the first time. Whilst 16% of homes had electric power in 1916, 63% of homes had it by 1927. Many new products were developed for the American homes. There was a great boom in newly invented labour-saving devices - such as vacuum cleaners, washing machines and toasters. Kitchens were increasing with electric ovens and refrigerators.

    • Word count: 831
  7. Brazil Case Study

    Its landscape also benefits the tourism factor of the city, because of its beautiful cloud capped mountains and plateaus, aswell as the glistening golden beaches along the coastline of the Atlantic Ocean. Life expectancy here is about 71 years old, probably due to the good healthcare service and living conditions. According to the K�ppen climate classification, S�o Paulo has a "humid subtropical climate". Daily temperatures average about 23�C in January, and about 16�C in July. Now Manaus is a city in the North region, inhabiting about 2million people.

    • Word count: 1452
  8. Ordesa National Park is situated in the Pyrenees of Huesca, Aragn (Spain), in the centre of North Eastern Spain.

    Be prepared for sudden changes of weather!! At any moment the Ordesa Valley hiker may be surprised by a shower of rain or snow, depending on the time of year. Five vegetation types have been described: submediterranean, collinean, montane, subalpine and the alpine type. A total of two million tourists visit the site each year. Ordesa is a place for people to get close to nature. There is a very wide variety of animals to meet as well as many possibilities to spend energies by climbing, hiking and walking while meeting this park.

    • Word count: 791
  9. 20- using a range of examples examine how tourism has had both positive and negative impacts on local culture.

    Anthropologists use the term to refer to the universal human capacity to classify experiences, and to encode and communicate them symbolically.2 A goal of developing the tourism industry in a community is maximizing selected positive impacts while minimizing potential negative impacts. It is essential to identify the possible impacts. Tourism researchers have identified a large number of impacts. Here is a table outlining the general impacts of tourism on local culture and communities; 3 Positive Impacts Negative Impacts * Contacts with other people and cultures - educational experience * Modernisation of social attitudes * Revitalisation of traditional crafts, art forms

    • Word count: 798
  10. Antarctica - Managing the Impacts of Tourism

    * Provide introductory information on the people and ecosystems to be visited in predeparture packages. Stress the importance of reading pre-departure information, such as selected bibliographies, and review additional resources for each destination * Offer visitors the educational materials they need to learn about the places and people to be visited and introduce the importance of contributing to the conservation of places being visited. * Provide general travel ethics addressing standards for behavior in natural areas and with local cultures.

    • Word count: 1259
  11. Using case studies from DCs and LDCs, assess the impacts of tropical cyclones in these countries.

    As a result, fatalities are high and effects on economy can be crippling. Bangladesh is a frequent target of tropical cyclones. Its vulnerability to destruction from tropical cyclones lies much on the fact that it is a bowl shaped alluvial plain and much of the country lies only a few feet above sea level. The 1991 Bangladesh Cyclone (category 5) resulted in 138,000 deaths and much destruction. The cyclone resulted in a storm surge of over 20 feet high. The low elevation of much of coastal Bangladesh allowed this surge to reach extremely far inland and hence caused much damage.

    • Word count: 905
  12. managing special event

    I carried out set my surveys eight of ten surveys and got the answers for them at Clipsal500 through people where from metropolitan Adelaide, 1 from interstate and 1 international. Through this I saw that the majority of people came from metropolitan Adelaide. This showed that the local people came to Clipsal500 not just the interstate and international people. In fact more people came from the local parts of town then other places. From the eight people from metropolitan Adelaide four answered that they had previously been to Clipsal before.

    • Word count: 1350
  13. Impacts of Tourism on Antarctica.

    On the other hand according to Diggins, the numbers of tourist have increase by more than 600 percentages. She mentions with the data that the total number of tourist visiting Antarctica exceeds the combine number of scientist and the supporting personal which are in Antarctica program. Baurer mentions that tourist ship which arrived to Antarctica is aboard cruise ships, which do not require land base infrastructure; on the contrary there is no information of shipping accidents in Antarctica which is given by (Diggins, T.1994:02). (Horgon, J.1993: 03) visualise the effects of scientist on Antarctica, by describing the present situation of a station in Antarctica.

    • Word count: 831
  14. Sustainable Tourism in Australia

    "Sustainable tourism development meets the needs of present tourists and host regions while protecting and enhancing opportunity for the future. It is envisaged as leading to management of all resources in such a way that economic, social, and aesthetic needs can be fulfilled while maintaining cultural integrity, essential ecological processes, and biological diversity, and life support systems" The quote above about sustainable tourism was taken from World Tourism Organisation (WTO) it is very similar to what the National Geographic Online has to say about sustainable tourism.

    • Word count: 4605
  15. tourism impact

    There is no doubt that tourism affects the coastal sites in a positive and negative way. Many people spend their annual holidays at the seaside. Coasts are fascinating places because of their wild life, scenery and opportunities for water sports, such as swimming, water skiing and wind surfing. A survey shows that Torquay attracts a high amount of daily visitors (6%), staying visitors (87%) and touring visitors (7%). The major amount of visitors consists of adults without young children and young people. From the survey one can see that the main percentage of visitors is 55+ with 63% but if you go to Torquay nowadays you hardly see any elderly people.

    • Word count: 2949
  16. Exxon Valdez essay

    Unfortunately, the cleanup effort was hindered by an inadequate cleanup plan that had been created during the 1970's. Unfortunately, the plans were good on paper only. A spill of this size had not been anticipated. Therefore, the response teams had been demobilized, and the equipment that was supposed to be ready at all times was either too far away or nonexistent. Precious hours were also wasted as Corporations, the Alaskan State Government, and the National government argued over who should take control of the situation. The arguments ensued after debates over who would pay for what, who was responsible for what, and who would do the best job.

    • Word count: 1711
  17. The External Marketing environment

    Regardless of what headings it is divided into on paper, the reality is that all external factors are very real forces which are inter-linked and unavoidably affect all businesses thus needing to be examined. For the purpose of this essay the headings used will be: Economic, Competitive, Technological, Social/Cultural, Geographic/Demographic and Political. The Economic Environment Affects the way resources are utilised by the company in question and by the economy as a whole and is dependant on all the other parts of an external marketing environment. Due to an ever fluctuating economic environment, changes in marketing strategy are often vital.

    • Word count: 1730
  18. Core and periphery of Brazil

    Unlike the North the South is fortunate to have a warm, temperate climate with a distinct cooler season along the coast. Development is easier in these Southern conditions, compared to the difficult climates of areas such as Sert�o, in the North, where there are frequent droughts. Also the Core's location is beneficial too, being near the coast; large ports are possible and ports such as Santos in S�o Paulo are very important for importing and exporting for Brazil. These ports are built close to mineral resources and industry, for products to be exported.

    • Word count: 2060
  19. Pros and Cons of Tourism in Windsor

    There are also increasing numbers of peoples working part-time (especially in retail businesses) or in self-employment who are able to enjoy even more leisure time if they choose to. Perhaps the most significant boost to tourism has been the development of low-cost, long-distance air travel. This allows previously distant locations to be reached in ever-shorter times. In 1934, for instance, a flight from London to Bangkok in Thailand took eight days and involved no fewer than sixteen stops in between! By 202 the same flight could be made directly in only ten hours.

    • Word count: 3909
  20. The Tourism industry in Kenya operates within a liberalized economic environment that is characterised by active partnership

    * The Kenya Tourist Board which is charged with promotion and marketing of the destination both locally and internationally. * The Kenya Wildlife Service which is not an integral part of the Ministry of Tourism, is vested with the responsibility of conservation and management of wildlife, and the maintenance of infrastructure, within the National Parks and Game Reserves. (vii) The Ministry co-ordinates Kenya's Tourism Promotion worldwide; and (viii) Co-ordinates bilateral and multilateral relations in tourism with other Governments, Non-governmental Organisations as well as other Donor Agencies. In addition, the Government provides such basic infrastructure for tourism development, as roads, educational programmes and the requisite security.

    • Word count: 3624
  21. There are many types of tourism like sustainable or eco tourism. Sustainable tourism is tourism of the future

    The current growth of tourism is unsustainable and changes are going to have to take place. Despite a large number of visitors from Medc's who go to Ledc's tourism is still in concentrated in the richest countries. Eight of the top ten countries for tourist arrivals are in Europe and North America. Tourism is often the biggest income for the most Ledc's however much of the money raised by tourism in Ledc's often finds it way back to Medc's as many tourists buy things or use the services of companies based in Medc's for example coca cola.

    • Word count: 341
  22. account for the development of the global eonomy and the associated network of cities

    In the colonial era, many cities of the 'southern' unindustrialised cities became colonies to the industrialised 'north'. Their economy was to provide raw materials to the north. The post colonial era of the 1950's saw the colonial bonds breaking and an expansion of slum and squatter settlements as indigenous people migrated to cities in search of employment. Many cities in the south remain relatively poorer than those in the north. Globalisation began with the emergence of capitalism as the dominant mode of production in the sixteenth century. Since the late 1960's, it has integrated the global city networks by breaking down trading barriers and improving communication.

    • Word count: 1263
  23. Does Kenya Get the Full Benefit From its Tourist Industry?

    You would expect the temperature in Kenya to be constantly high as it is an equatorial and so the sunlight hits the earth vertically and with more concentration than at latitudes away from the equator all year round, but the average temperatures in Kenya are relatively low compared to other equatorial African countries due to the variation in altitude. Only the low lying coastal areas of Kenya experience constant high temperature associated with equatorial locations. There are two rainy seasons; March - May and November - December and two dry seasons in between.

    • Word count: 2535
  24. The Bahamas aspired to global leadership and recognition as a "Center of Excellence" in the delivery of services. Excellence is not a skill it is an attitude. Explain what you think this means, providing examples.

    If we want a strong continuity of tourism we must provide the services that we have to the tourist with quality, distinction and superiority. For example, seeing as we provide beautiful beaches to our tourists, we cannot leave the beach unclean or polluted. We must keep the beaches clean so that more tourists would want to come back to our country. We also have to keep in mind that even though out country is very unique from other places, we are still in competition with them, if we don't provide exceptional services then our tourists will go to places that do provide exceptional services.

    • Word count: 564
  25. how has cardiff bay been redeveloped

    Successes and failures When the Development Corporation was wound up in March 2000, it had achieved many of its objectives. The whole area was unrecognisable from just ten years before. Much private land was now open to the public, although the walkway across the barrage remains incomplete, to the dismay of some. Private capital had come from many sources: insurance company Atradius, hotelier Rocco Forte, many housebuilders and retailers. New homes and jobs had been created, the National Assembly for Wales was based in the Bay, the barrage had created a world-class environment.

    • Word count: 851

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