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AS and A Level: International History, 1945-1991

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  1. Bletchley park

    Source C is primary source and contains a description of work involved in Hut 6, written by one of the code breakers. It tells us that the code breakers decoded the enigma codes but were not actually informed of the results of the important messages they had translated. This shows Hut 6 members were kept in isolation to prevent information leakage and only the imperative members of B.P. knew exactly what was happening. This sense of privacy in source B supports source A as Hut 6 members were kept in isolation just like the Hut 3 members because they did not know what was happening outside their involvement.

    • Word count: 2236
  2. platoon vs jarhead

    Platoon's impact was both criticized and liked. The film however portrayed the Americans as violent and sometimes sick. Jarhead was credited for its unique portrayal of Gulf War Marines who battled more boredom and a sense of isolation rather than enemy combatants. Anthony Swoff Swofford is sent to the 1st gulf war to fight but tackles boredom and isolation rather than enemy combatants. Jarhead was based on the memoirs of the real-life Anthony Swofford, who did serve as a sniper in the 1991 Gulf War; the title comes from military slang for a Marine enlistee.

    • Word count: 2048
  3. Which of the following problems do you consider to have been the most serious threat facing American society in the 1920s: a) Organised crime b) Racial and religious intolerance c) The growing divisions between the rich and poor.

    In 1919 two communist parties were established in America, a strictly capitalist country. There was also a wave of bomb attacks by anarchists known as the reds. Between 1914 and 1919 prices had doubled, yet wages had hardly risen at all. Workers demanded higher wages but their employers new that they had the upper hand due to the high amount of unemployment at the time. Employees were not hard to find and jobs could easily be filled, especially due to the 4 million soldiers returning to America trying to find work. Violent waves of strikes happened during 1919 as a result of this problem.

    • Word count: 2666
  4. How far were White weaknesses responsible for Red success in Russian Civil War?

    For example, the Kadets pushed forward their idea of "A Russia Great, United and Indivisible" while the Don Cossacks, who agreed to fight to counter the Bolshevik threat, wanted their own independence. Much of the population under Denikin's rule consisted of non-Russians who had no interest in returning to the oppression of the Tsarist "prison house of nations". Thus, it was not uncommon for them to keep their units separate and to disobey orders from the central command, resulting in the damaging of the Whites.

    • Word count: 2948
  5. How was opposition to the Vietnam War portrayed in contemporary literature, film and popular song

    The song also tells us that a lot of soldiers were dying because at the start of the song it says "we were sharp" and at the end of the song it says "they were sharp" so this tells us that of the soldiers that went out together not many of them returned home together. Anybody who was against the war would have used this song to show that they wanted there sons back before they were killed. 2: How do Sources A, B and C show support for the war in Vietnam?

    • Word count: 2071
  6. When and Why Did the Cold War Start? Was any Individual or Power the Primary Cause of the Cold War?

    As we see the differences laid bare between capitalist USA and communist Russia for all to see once their attentions were no longer diverted to Germany. A realization by Stalin himself: ' The alliance between ourselves and the democratic faction of the capitalists succeeds because the latter had an interest in preventing Hitler's domination...at present we are with one faction against the other , but in the future we shall be against this faction of the capitalists as well'. [Leffler, M.

    • Word count: 2445
  7. why did a crisis develop over cuba in 1962

    They believed every one benefited this way. Fairness and equality for all, along with having a lower standard of living, but (in theory) everyone's equal this was another statement of communism. It also states that there should be only one part of government they felt that there was no need for anymore. Economy was also controlled by government. However America was capitalism.

    • Word count: 2273
  8. Should Britain eliminate its nuclear arsenal?

    Nuclear abolition from this realist perspective, would impact directly on ideas of sovereignty, national autonomy, prestige and security. Conversely, advocates of nuclear disarmament and peace researchers have a vision of co-operative relations and collective security and would view Britain's complete disarmament as a realistic and achievable goal. To provide an effective answer to this complex question the argument must be attempted in a two- fold manner. First one must explore and establish Britain's' incentives to reach and implement a goal of eliminating nuclear weapons. Secondly a counter argument needs to be formed, outlining the advantages and disadvantages of preserving the contemporary situation of nuclear deterrence.

    • Word count: 2299
  9. How crucial a role did war play in the downfall of the Romanov dynasty in 1917?

    Meanwhile, internal unrest grew in Russia as the Tsar remained out of touch at the front. Empress Alexandra's increasingly incompetent rule drew protests from all segments of Russian political life and resulted in the murder of Rasputin by conservative noblemen at the end of 1916. It can be seen that the First World War caused significant unrest in Russia. Many Russians died in the fighting and the economy was severely weakened due to the huge war effort the country was involved in financing. The War was a disaster and lead to the communist party eventually coming to power.

    • Word count: 2011
  10. Must a defensible theory of the morality of war must integrate moral reasoning with institutional theory

    Last, the criticisms of just war theory will be critically compared against Michael Walzer's account of just war theory. This will in turn enable this essay to reach a conclusion of whether or not a defensible theory of just wars needs to incorporate institutional theory. As mentioned in the introduction, just war theory is seen as the middle course between political realism and pacifism. Realism simply regards war as war, and denies that there can ever be any distinctions drawn.

    • Word count: 2708
  11. What Broke the Stalemate Stalemate is the word used to describe the situation on the Western Front from December nineteen fourteen

    time until Germany ran out completely, so the best option was to give one big push that would hopefully end the war. Before dawn, six thousand big guns burst out in a shattering bombardment for a duration of five hours. Mustard gas was used to blind and suffocate the Allies in their trenches. Then, operating under the cover of dense fog, seventy German divisions moved forward in the direction of the British lines on the western front. Because they were out numbered and bewildered, the British got up out of their trenches and fled.

    • Word count: 2125
  12. Assess to what degree war was inevitable in France at the end of the 1930s

    Looking at both opinions on the French governments at that time and the situation of European countries closely, I think that the turmoil of events following the First World War was rather expected. France was confused and vulnerable; hatred was felt everywhere and another disaster was most probably yet to come. In fact the bloodshed of the First World War has aggravated the demographic problem in which France had struggled with since the end of the eighteenth century. The great lack of young people and generally ageing population seemed to be only one of the many factors presenting the France

    • Word count: 2051
  13. The Sinking of the Lusitania A Justifiable Act of War, or an Immoral Attack on Civilians?

    This issue is debatable. The first article that answers my why question is one written by Harry V. Jaffa. He states that since the Lusitania was armed and carrying munitions to Great Britain, the Germans had every right to attack and sink it. "The Lusitania was, in fact, an armed cruiser, loaded with munitions. The Germans had every justification under internation law for sinking her." (Jaffa, 5) He recounts rumors that there were guns and other explosives stored in the great liner.

    • Word count: 2024
  14. The Cuban Missile Crisis

    It is with this knowledge in mind, then, that we proceed to examine the complex set of factors that brought the world to the brink of a cataclysmic war. The years leading up to the Cuban Missile Crisis had seen a number of significant changes in the Cold War conflict. Things were very unstable, as new faces became prominent, new nations were born, and the rivalry between superpowers reached previously unvisited levels, both high and low, as Soviet and American governments experimented with foreign policy.

    • Word count: 2728
  15. Analysis of Political Cartoons

    sees as USA's "emergent global empire", has rapidly changed in the years after the September 11th attacks. Chappatte is of Swiss nationality, so the cartoon is portraying a European vision of public opinion on America and one that is politically neutral. Thus this vision is from a relative ally, making the concept portrayed even more intriguing. Agnew (2003) suggests that the events of September 11th signalled an "increasingly brazen imperial strategy" (Agnew, 2003: 883) and a change to a "new ideological commitment to empire rather than to other means of securing hegemony" (Agnew, 2003: 883) from America.

    • Word count: 2718
  16. American Society today is a rich, powerful and highly populated

    This is an example of America introducing laws preventing people from certain countries gaining entry to America. Two years later the immigration restriction league was set up. This league claimed that America was in danger of being flooded with immigrants and began a campaign for a literacy test. Eight years later the federal immigration act increased restrictions on certain groups of people including prostitutes, people suffering from diseases and convicts. Between this year and 1918 there followed three more laws which aimed at preventing Japanese immigrants from entering America.

    • Word count: 2794
  17. The Home Front - source related study

    Furthermore the source states that the children also think they are 'better off than before'. This source supports A and B to an extent. Source A mainly agrees with source C as it implies that women favoured factory life to domestic service. Source A also states that the wages were preferable, earning about �20 a month as opposed to the previous �2 in domestic service. Similarly in Source C it is learned through children that they too were much better off than before as there was so much extra money coming in. Source A is also written by a former factory worker in the war and this makes the evidence of the factory owner more plausible.

    • Word count: 2194
  18. Another aim of wartime propaganda was to get the British to think that they were 'morally superior'

    have been killed or anything in the least that may have traumatic and upsetting for people in the home front to know about. This shows it was censored to only show how the British were 'morally superior' to the Germans. I think the authors motives were to report information on the battle of the Somme and to also provide a type of propaganda, for the Government whom he may have been working for. The purpose of this source was to encourage people to think that they were 'morally superior', so they would believe they were better and had a right to fight and join the army.

    • Word count: 2221
  19. Who is to be blamed for the outbreak of the First World War?

    Additionally, according to interpretation put forward by Australian historian L.C.F. Turner, the real cause of the world war breaking out, was a "tragedy of miscalculation". Most of the leading rulers and politicians seemed to be incompetent and made bad mistakes. Besides the reasons mentioned above, all of the states suffered from serious internal problems and it could be argued that war was seen by some soldiers and politicians as a temporary diversion from these domestic dangers and as providing the national rallying cause. However, every state bears an individual part of responsibility for this what happened in the summer 1914.

    • Word count: 2279
  20. The Vietnam War was a war of communism against Capitalism. The North of Vietnam and a small number of people from South Vietnam wanted Communism to become the way that Vietnam was run whereas the south of Vietnam

    This was going to be hard for the Americans to win the war because they were fighting in a strange country with different surroundings. They needed to end the war as soon as possible because the Ho Chi Minh Trail meant that it was easy for the Vietcong to replace injured men and get new supplies whereas it was much harder or America to do this. The VC began the war using guerrilla warfare. This was a large disadvantage to the Americans because they did not have a traditional uniform.

    • Word count: 2143
  21. International Relations Assess the arguments for and against the proliferation of nuclear weapons

    Waltz says that deterrence is different from dissuasion.4 Dissuasion is, in the NW related understanding, the gathering of defenses (as stated above) whilst deterrence is stopping something via causing fear. Deterrence, on the other hand is the "commitment to retaliate, or to exact retribution if another party fails to behave in a desired, compliant manner"5 Deterrence is achieved not through the ability to defend, but through the ability to punish.6 Thus deterrence depends on the ability to cause fear in order to stop someone from doing something.7 Therefore, having no defenses is neither a necessary nor sufficient condition that a state may be considered to be of little threat.

    • Word count: 2603
  22. Describe the historical claims of Britain and Argentina to the Falkland Islands

    are given by the Spanish or Argentinians to prove it. Another claim is that Ferdinand Magellan, whilst on his voyage around the world, was the first to sight the islands. However this seems impossible as the records of his route show clearly that he sailed along the South American coast rather than over 1000 km into the Atlantic. In 1690 the first recorded landing on the Falkland Islands was made by the English captain John Strong heading a British expedition.

    • Word count: 2546
  23. The First World War was the result of a badly mismanaged Balkan crisis in the summer of 1914 rather than the product of long standing rivalries between the great powers" Assess the truth of this opinion

    Also the royal couple drove around in an open-top car with no armed guards surrounding them despite there being an early attempt to assassinate them. The assassin, Gavrilo Principp, was a member of the terrorist group Black Hand and he could not miss when the driver of the car got lost and reversed in front of him. Germany issued the "blank cheque" to Austria on 6th July, telling the Austrian ambassador that he could count on German support. Austria then sent an ultimatum to Serbia but broke off relations when it received Serbia's assertive reply and declared war.

    • Word count: 2038
  24. The Origins of the Cold War.

    The period between the change in leadership for both superpowers in 1953 to the Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962. Events included the 1956 Hungarian Revolution, the erection of the Berlin Wall in 1961 and the Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962. [edit] Cold War: Cuban Missile Crisis In May 1962 Khrushchev conceived the idea of placing intermediate-range nuclear missiles in Cuba as a means of countering an emerging lead of the United States in developing and deploying strategic missiles. He also presented the scheme as a means of protecting Cuba from another United States-sponsored invasion, such as the failed attempt at the Bay of Pigs in 1961.

    • Word count: 2881
  25. "The main cause of the American civil war was undeniably slavery". Assess the accuracy of this opinion on the causes of the outbreak of the American civil war.

    This slip stream of rumours originated from the giant contrasts in ideology of the northern and southern states. Several historians have argued the relation between the ideology of each north and south and the growth of sectionalism. E. Foner found hostility towards slavery in the north and also towards expansion through territories. As well he found that northern people were dedicated to their system and values and had full confidence that it was superior. Northerners started to feel stronger about the cessation of slavery and southerners were growing in determination to defend their 'peculiar institution'.

    • Word count: 2199

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