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AS and A Level: International History, 1945-1991

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  1. Gorbachev undeniably precipated the fall of the Soviet Union by ending the Cold War

    Eastern Europe had been brought into the Soviet sphere of influence as buffer states against any possible western invasion. With nuclear technology, Eastern Europe's role as a buffer state has ceased to be of any significance. Moreover, Eastern Europe proved to be a long-term economic drain on the Soviet Union. On one hand, concessions were made to Eastern European states to keep them Soviet-friendly, draining resources. On the other, under the Brezhnev Doctrine, Soviet military forces were required to enter Eastern Europe to quell any uprisings of sort, as can be seen from the 1956 Hungary uprising and the 1968 uprising in Czechoslovakia.

    • Word count: 928
  2. In the period 1945-50, the USA and the USSR were equally aggressive towards each other and thus equally responsible for the outbreak of the Cold War. How far do you agree?

    Thus, I disagree with the statement to a large extent. The USSR's actions in 1945-46 was definitely more aggressive than the US'. One example included Stalin's breaking of the agreements he had made with Roosevelt at Yalta about the holding of free and fair elections in Eastern Europe after the end of WWII. Stalin's actions reinforced the legitimacy of the Riga Axioms that the USSR was inherently aggressive and cannot be negotiated with, which then provoked a US response of aggression in 1947.

    • Word count: 1009
  3. Free essay

    Problems Faced by newcomers to Canada

    Identity evolves from adapting to new environments throughout life. Sometimes an identity stays the same and sometimes it constantly changes. The reason why many immigrants face many challenges trying to fit in is because their cultural identity suffers some sort of rejection or intolerance coming from Canadians who are afraid of changing and evolving their culture rather than accepting new ones and treating them with compassion. This unfair treatment causes a foreign person to feel inferior because of cultural roots and therefore, lack self-esteem. This also forces a person to assume that their own culture is not good enough, and they pretend to be something they are not in

    • Word count: 679
  4. Free essay

    Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand

    There had been assassination attacks on Austrian's before, when General Vasesanin was about to open parliament in Sarajevo, the capital of Bosnia und Herzegovina (Simkin, 2002) . Ferdinand went to Serbia because he was asked to do so. In 1914 the Governor of the Austrian provinces of Bosnia-Herzegovina invited Ferdinand who was the Inspector General of the Austria-Hungarian Army to look at his troops and direct army manoeuvres in close by mountains. During this invitation he mentioned that he was welcome to bring his wife Sophie with him, although his wife was usually not welcome on such events and also was not favoured by the royal family.

    • Word count: 1025
  5. A b****y Revolt: The Kikuyu Reaction to Colonization

    Eventually, the setters demanded more and more days from the Kikuyu, while steadily decreasing their income. All of this led to a bitter hatred of the Europeans by the Kikuyu, and ultimately, a revolt. The revolt started off small, with simple civil disobedience. Organized by the Kikuyu Central Association (KCA), this first form of protest was largely ineffective, and only encouraged speculation on the strange ritual oaths of the KCA, which were traditional among the Kikuyu, and bound the members together, often involving animal sacrifice or the ingestion of blood. Next, the Kenya African Union presented a list of demands to the British Colonial Secretary, demanding the removal of discriminatory legislation to the inclusion of 12 elected black representatives on the Legislative Council.

    • Word count: 1306
  6. Free essay

    "The USA got out of Vietnam because of the unpopularity of the war with the US electorate" To what extent do you agree with this interpretation? (1965-73)

    Agent Orange was a chemical which was designed to kill plants, including tree's and crops, and this didn't have a positive effect on the hearts and minds of the South Vietnamese peasants, the people who were in the firing line for Communism. After these events the war became increasingly dirty and barbaric. Events such as such as the CIA's Operation Phoenix in 1968, which consisted of VietCong suspects, often on bad evidence and the torture of them. Most famously, for the wrong reasons, the incident in My Lai in 1968 where US troops wiped out an entire village with extreme brutality.

    • Word count: 1232
  7. UN Middle East 1947

    But the answer is plain: there was no other alternative. The only other option was the unitary state. However, the Committee had determined the need for two separate states. A unitary state would have led to a complete halt to immigrant absorption and probably to the complete lack of rights afforded to the Jews.7 The Arab minority in the proposed Jewish state would also become less of the population because of the expected immigration. There is also another problem in saying that the whole of the Mandatory should have been allotted what they wanted: where do you draw the line?

    • Word count: 1216
  8. How important were developments in Eastern Europe to the collapse of the Soviet Union?

    Also, the USSR had completely withdrawn all its troops from Afghanistan, a center of Cold War tensions. Domestically, however, Gorbachev was losing public support - it was at an all time low of 21%. The Soviet Union too faced pent-up economic problems in the implementation of perestroika as glasnost swept the federation. A year after the NATO declaration in 1990, the Soviet Union, United States, and almost all other European nations signed the Charter of Paris. The Soviet Union and the United States joined forces militarily during the Gulf War, signifying a new era of Soviet Union - United States relations.

    • Word count: 3040
  9. What were the main issues relating to Germany that caused Cold War tension?

    also causes these German issues to become more important and immediate. This then provokes a reaction on both the East and the West, which leads back to the increased Cold War tensions. This essay will focus mainly on economic issues in Germany. German economic issues formed a major part of the increasing Cold War tensions. This was as the economic state of Germany affected the rest of Europe both ideologically and economically, as well as the Allies' domestic economies. One of the issues that caused Soviet dissatisfaction with the West was in their disagreement on the economic recovery speed of Germany in terms of deindustrialisation.

    • Word count: 3055
  10. Changes in the last 100 years.

    Notes:Amelia Mary Earhart born July 24, 1897 - missing July 2, 1937, declared dead January 5, 1939 was a noted American aviation pioneer, and author. Earhart was the first woman to receive the Distinguished Flying Cross awarded for becoming the first aviatrix to fly solo across the Atlantic Ocean. During an attempt to make a circumnavigation flight of the globe in 1937, Earhart disappeared over the central Pacific Ocean near Howland Island. Fascination with her life, career and disappearance continues to this day Who?- Amelia Earhart What?- disappeared over the central Pacific Ocean Why?-Crash and sink theory Many researchers believe the Electra ran out of fuel and Earhart and Noonan ditched at sea.

    • Word count: 1536
  11. "The Change in Poland Over the Past 20 Years: Communism to Capitalism"

    The Polish Communists, led by Gen. Jaruzelski, hoped to co-opt prominent opposition leaders into the ruling group without making major changes in the political power structure. In reality, the talks radically altered the shape of the Polish government and society. The events in Poland precipitated and gave momentum to the fall of the entire Communist bloc and the Yalta arrangement also collapsed soon after the events in Poland. Political changes As a result of achieved compromise Poland was transformed into democratic country with parliamentary system Poland could held its first competitive elections since before World War II, and in 1989, Solidarity formed the first noncommunist government within the Soviet bloc since 1948.

    • Word count: 1158
  12. Lenin's View of Economic Policies in Russia

    The War Communism policy was adopted to keep the Red Army supplied. During War Communism the government took control of industry, and told factories what to produce; and the government would take any grain that was produced by the farmers. The Cheka would steel the grain that the farmers produced, this made the farmers angry and they no longer had any incentive to grow crops because the crops would just be taken away from them. Also money became worthless, wages were paid in food or other goods, and many people bartered goods instead of using money.

    • Word count: 1032
  13. "America went to war over Vietnam in 1965 in order to uphold her credibility as a Great Power" How far do you agree with this judgement?

    Of course some strategies such as rolling thunder were carried through but these failed and such failures were another sign that America would be forced to go to war against Vietnam. There is some merit in the statement since upholding her credibility as a great power was part of the reason why America went to war. America had to be seen by her allies but even more so by the communists as a serious force to reckon with being strong, commanding and dominant in the world.

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  14. Examine the claim that Hoover was responsible for the dramatic collapse of the economy after the Wall Street Crash.

    However there is also evidence to suggest, that Hoover has done everything he could to help the situation. He involved himself more in the country, more than any other president before and in fact there were other factors involved that were beyond Hoover's control. However despite his continuous effort to face the problem America continued to fall into Depression. Although the situation of the country before the Wall Street Crash was extremely difficult to mange, after the collapse of the stock exchange the economy suffered even more.

    • Word count: 1567
  15. To what extent was Hitler solely responsible for the Holocaust

    Hitler seemingly blamed Jews for every negative aspect in his life, even blaming them for his failure to get into the Vienna art academy, thus showing that Hitler was 'gripped by a pathological hatred for Jews'. 1 Hitler also began to associate the Jews with certain forms of Bolshevism and Socialism, where he merged his hatred of the Jews with his own anti-Marxism. He even went as far to blame the Jews for Germany's military defeat in World War I, claiming that the Jews were the culprits of Imperial Germany's downfall.

    • Word count: 3153
  16. Throughout history Napoleon was portrayed in many different ways, to some people he was a hero, and to others he was a political tyrant.

    He treated all his soldiers equally, which improved their moral and made them an effective fighting force. This great bond proved beneficial when his old soldiers chose to go come back to him before the battle of waterloo, to fight along side him. This event showed that he was incredibly forgiving and understanding. Napoleon was able to look past their disloyalty, and treat them as if nothing had happened. He even welcomed back his former general who had traded allegiances to become a minster to the king. Napoleon believed that they should all focus their energy on defeating the British and less on trying to overthrow the political opposition in France.

    • Word count: 812
  17. How far do you think b****y Sunday was a turning point in the course of the troubles of Northern Ireland?

    The result of the shootings ended with 13 marchers, all apparently unarmed, being killed. Many historians argue that b****y Sunday should be seen as a turning point in the course of troubles of Northern Ireland because of the conflict and violence it caused between the British and objectors of the march. However it can also be argued that b****y Sunday was not a turning point down to the fact that something similar to it was more likely to happen sooner or later anyway because there was no stability or order within Northern Ireland. Also the amount of violence and conflict was growing in Northern Ireland already and b****y Sunday simply added to it.

    • Word count: 2778
  18. How did the USA escalate their involvement in Vietnam?

    The Vietminh fought with primitive weapons and tactics against the French who used modern weapons systems supplied by the US. The Vietminh fought an asymmetrical war; such struggles often involve strategies and tactics of unconventional warfare, the "weaker" combatants attempting to use strategy to offset deficiencies in quantity or quality. They fought using "Guerrilla" tactics; the US was coming round to this type of fighting having experienced it in the "Island hopping" phase of World War Two, by starting to use Special Forces teams, but was still majorly inexperienced in this area.

    • Word count: 922
  19. Korean war - Domestic pressure an devents in asia

    These two leaders wanted to unify North and South Korea into a unified Korea that was ruled by one of them. The war between North and South Korea started out as a civil war with border skirmishes since 1949. Many of the events in Asia caused domestic pressure on the Truman Administration back home. The US Administration came under heavy domestic pressure in 1949 , after feeling very happy for winning the Berlin airlift, When in august 1949 the USSR developed their own Atomic b**b , The world was living in fear of a new world war with nuclear weapons.

    • Word count: 1135
  20. Assess the reasons why the USA reacted strongly to Castro(TM)s revolution in Cuba.

    In the cold realities of superpower rivalry, having a pro-Soviet regime so close to the USA was a humiliation, especially as the US public felt they were losing ground to the USSR in the Cold War throughout the 1950s. American prestige was at stake. Castro did not come to power intent on seeking economic and military assistance from the Soviet Union. His early statements and policies did not betray that he was a communism waiting to out himself. In many respects American reactions to Castro forced him closer to the Soviets and into declaring Cuba a communist state.

    • Word count: 1082
  21. Assess the reasons why American military intervention in Vietnam increased from 1954

    The United States were not present at Geneva and did not accept the terms presented, though there was little they could do except give support to the South and ignore the issue of the forthcoming elections. The USA were aware that Bao Dai, the Vietnamese Emperor ruling the South, would be incapable of presenting a valid alternative to Ho and encouraged the accession of Ngo Dinh Diem to lead the South. In many respects, the US failed to understand the local context, the war against French colonialism was inspired by nationalist zeal and much of the later conflict was more motivated by removing foreign (i.e.

    • Word count: 1034
  22. Assess the reasons why the USA intervened in Korea 1950 to 1953.

    Without the spoiling tactics of the Soviet veto, the USA had much freer rein to take the UN along with it in taking decisive action. The cloak of the United Nations and the support of the World community lent greater legitimacy to US actions and the moral sense of mission for Truman. Korea had been divided after the war into two zones of occupation divided by the 38th parallel. In the North under the supervision of the occupying Soviets, a communist government was established by Kim Il Sung while in the South a pro-American regime was led by Syngman Rhee.

    • Word count: 1012
  23. Was USA losing cold war

    American citizens no longer felt as safe and this was one of the key reasons for US anti-communist paranoia and the perception of losing the Cold War in the early 1950s. Eisenhower came to power in 1953 stating that he would be more vigorous in the challenge towards communism than the democrats had previously been. His Secretary of State, John Foster Dulles, took a tough line on containment and the roll back of communism. This was after the failure of this policy in the Korean War where American efforts to push communism out of Korea under general MacArthur failed and containment was all that was achieved by the armistice in 1953.

    • Word count: 1272
  24. Who was responsible for the outbreak of the Cold war to 1946?

    With the memory of the Great Depression still fresh in many Americans minds and the high cost of the war, the USA, under Roosevelt, needed to stimulate economic growth and sustain the economic boom triggered by the war. Roosevelt decided on adopting an occupation policy of rehabilitation instead of one simply based on punitive punishment, another reason why America treated the countries of Eastern Europe so well was the need for them to buy American exports and keep the US economic boom going. The American actions in occupied Germany contradicted those of the Russians who began to strip there territories.

    • Word count: 1450
  25. Free essay

    A Deadly Orange

    Other testing was conducted in the early 1960's in Thailand. The manufacturers who produced Agent Orange in the military were Dow, Monsanto, Diamond Shamrock Corporation, Hercules Inc, Uniroyal Inc, T-H Agricultural and Nutrition Company, and Thompson Chemicals Corporation. The product was called Agent Orange because the fifty-five gallon drums had orange identifying bands when the product was shipped. Other herbicides used in Vietnam were also color coded, such as Agent White, Agent Blue, Agent Purple, Agent Pink, and Agent Green.

    • Word count: 672

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