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AS and A Level: Other Historical Periods

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  1. "The most important factor in Martin Luther's survival was Frederick the Wise" discuss

    Born in 1463, he became elector of saxony in 1486 when he succeeded his father. In 1502, Frederick founded the University of Wittenberg. This is where Luther began his teaching and the development of his ideas. This was the first crucial part of lathers survival. The university gave Luther the intellectual freedom and academic resources to develop his thinking about the catholic church. It allowed Luther to write his 95 theses as well as gain academic allies within Wittenberg. Despite not playing an active role, Frederick the wise was still a reliable protector of the home and intellectual centre of the reformation movement.

    • Word count: 888
  2. To what extent did Colbert succeed in reforming the French economy and finances?

    It took a whole ten days to travel from Paris to Lyon by coach- heavy goods needed far more efficient transport. Colbert was powerless to stop the outdated collection of péages for goods being transported through France, originally intended when local landowners had to maintain the infrastructure themselves. It was financial and political traditions of the ancien regime like this that made sensible taxation so difficult. He was very successful in his reform of taxation, specifically direct taxation. He reduced the direct taxation, a highly popular move among the Third Estate.

    • Word count: 921
  3. Missionary activity was the main reason for the growth of British interest in Africa in the late nineteenth century. Explain whether you agree or disagree.

    A letter from British Foreign Office had stated that the indigenous people of East Africa were the most corporate of all Africans and wanted to learn ?British values?. Explorer and missionary David Livingstone had been traveling through West Africa with the help of traders. From this, we could assume that many missionaries had wanted to explore Africa due to philanthropic principle but British traders for their own sake of finding new trade markets. Although missionary activity was a strong factor in the growth of British interest in Africa, economics was the most important.

    • Word count: 680
  4. In calling the first crusade, Urban 2nd was primarily motivated by a desire to extend the power of the papacy. Discuss

    However Urban wanted better than this and the Crusade was his cunning plan to once again extend the power of the papacy. The fragmentation of the church was due to a series of events before his time. As Pope Gregory the 7th had a major degeneration in relation with Henry 4th, Emperor of Germany. This was because Gregory was a very pious man and did not agree with many of the appointments which were sold in what amounted to little better than organised corruption.

    • Word count: 1140
  5. who was to blame for the sack of Constantinople in 1204?

    Thus putting themselves in a very difficult predicament of repaying the venetians. After negotiations it was decided that the Crusading forces would act as the Venetians foot soldiers in order to repay their great debt. This is shown as the Crusaders sack the disputed and Christian lands of Zara under direct orders from Doge Dandelo. Unfortunately the riches of Zara were not satisfactory to repay the venetians completely and after a period of time Constantinople seemed the ultimate choice. The Crusaders can also be blamed as they started the fire in Constantinople in the winter of 1203 and attacked the city in 1204 despite Mourtzouphlos allowing them to leave the city.

    • Word count: 831
  6. Why were the Normans able to extend their control over southern Italy and Sicily so successfully between 1050 and 1100?

    Yet this was not always positive as this could lead to Normans pitched both sides of the Battlefield, as was the case during the crucial siege of Bari in 1071. However it is likely that these men were of low importance as such not to heavily swing the favour of the battle against the Normans. If lowly Norman warriors were rated at such a high value, one can only imagine the effects of the heavy armoured cavalry. The charge of the Normans horses had become both feared and famous.

    • Word count: 964
  7. 'Enlightened and tolerant of religious difference.' How far does this statement accurately describe Sicily under Roger II and his successors up to 1189?

    Roger merged Muslim and Byzantine art with that of Christianity on several occasion within many prominent and famous buildings. We can see this merging of different artistic ideologies on Roger the II?s coronation mantle, featuring a lion killing a deer, with Arabic lettering surrounding the outskirts. A lion would?ve been alien to Europeans so has must?ve resulted from North African, likely Muslim, contributors. Likewise this can also be seen on the ceiling decoration in the Palatine chapel, Rogers personal prayer space.

    • Word count: 914

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