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AS and A Level: Other Historical Periods

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  1. To what extent was the Crusaders success at Antioch due to the leadership of Bohemond?

    But Bohemond was not secure in the possession of Antioch, even after its surrender and the defeat of Kerbogha; he had to make good his claims against Raymond of Toulouse, who championed the rights of Alexius. He obtained full possession in January 1099, and stayed in the neighbourhood of Antioch to secure his position, while the other crusaders moved southward to the capture of Jerusalem.

    • Word count: 560
  2. What Problems Did The Kingdom Of Jerusalem Face In The Period 1174-1187?

    Runciman says Amalric was ?The last king of Jerusalem worthy of his throne?. From his death onwards there was a constant fight for power between the ill, young and protectorates. It stemmed from Amalric?s repudiation of his wife in 1163 essentially creating two factions after his death, those from his original wife?s side and those from his second?s. During Baldwin IV?s reign there was constant rivalry between his sister and half-sister over succession of the throne. This infighting and rivalry meant that issues in court were not decided on judgement but on one-upmanship, this understandably led to a poor administration.

    • Word count: 722
  3. How far do you agree that by 1763 the ties between Britain and the American colonies were already strained?

    This ensured that foreign trade was unlikely to become dominant, as the ships had to be owned in England. Also it meant certain commodities could only be exported directly from the colonies to England. Again this shows how Britain tried to have a monopoly on certain products from the colonies. Acts like the Woollen Act (1699) stated that woollen yarn could not be exported outside the colony it was produced in. Britain did not want the colonies to become too powerful and rich. The acts did benefit the colonies. American products had a protected market in Britain and the colonies imported British manufactured goods.

    • Word count: 1268
  4. Why is establishing the date of the Theran eruption so important for the chronology and archaeology of the Eastern Mediterranean in the Bronze Age?

    the radiocarbon results are derived from "hard science," and thus should take precedence over all the protests of the archaeologists, it remains a matter of practical observation that virtually no one has been able to apply this principle to the history of the ancient Near East. To illustrate this, it is only necessary to examine the dates given to Egypt's New Kingdom (Dynasties 18 through 20) in any current reference work, either book-bound or in one of the online encyclopaedias.

    • Word count: 1031
  5. How accurate is it to say that the controversy over indulgences were merely the trigger than the fundamental cause of Reformation?

    The situation of the German states was not helped with the numerous taxes the papacy forced on the Germans including the Tithe, especially as the Church was not for filling its duty. Martin Luther ideas were also not the first to attack the church, but new humanist ideas were beginning to spread across the educated in society, including the writings of Erasmus. The significance Luther's Indulgence controversy played a large part in the cause of the Reformation as it provided a platform and a clear understandable argument against the church that played to a wide array of peoples feelings.

    • Word count: 1536
  6. In the context of India in the 1840s to 1947, how far can independence be accredited to Gandhis campaign of civil disobedience in the 1920s and 1930s?

    Such curtailments were regarded with great bitterness. This led to particular acts of unrest, in 1806 and in 1824 at Barrackpore. These smaller acts of unrest reflected growing discontent, which was present before Gandhi?s campaign of civil disobedience began. Social and cultural reform came slowly as the British attempted to westernize the Indian people. The British tried to undermine the Hindu religion, by banning local religious practices such as Sati, as well as English becoming the language of teaching in schools, after Bentinck?s reforms of 1828 to 1835.

    • Word count: 4144
  7. How significant was the slave trade in the growth of the British empire in the years 1680 1763?

    One way slavery was significant in the growth of the British Empire was the control exerted in West Africa. Slaves were brought to the coast and transported through the middle passage, this was the most difficult part of the journey as they could easily be attacked and many slaves died on this long journey as it took up to 6-8 weeks to get to the West Indies. Therefore it was seen as an area to protect from European powers, like the Dutch or Portuguese. Forts were built up and down the coast of Africa ?Forts were both a display of strength and an unmistakable white frailty?[2] this increased the growth of the Empire as the forts were used to spy on traders which gave the British a foothold in the continent.

    • Word count: 1376
  8. To what extent was Yuan Shikai responsible for China descending into the chaos and disorder of the warlord era?

    As the central state began to decline the threat of provinces declaring independence also started increasing. Yuan shikai was responsible for the collapse in power of the Chinese state as he used brute force and used his military power to undermine the central state. He intimidated the national assembly when the GMD criticised him for co-operating with imperialist powers in 1913 when the imperialist powers agreed to give Yuan a loan in order to economically modernise. He reacted by surrounding the national assembly with troops in order to insure he gained the votes he needed. This undermined the power of the national assembly and highlighted that Yuan shikai's army was one of the strongest.

    • Word count: 593
  9. Do you agree with the view that it was largely as a result of the work of Florence Nightingale that medical care for British soldiers improved during the Crimean war? (Use sources 1,2 and 3 and your own knowledge.)

    ?Her kindly presence is an influence for good comfort even amid the struggle of illness and death.? This source presents a tradition view of Florence, the melodramatic tone emphasise her caring nature and good will, from my own knowledge I am aware that Florence Nightingale gained a lot of good publicity from The Times, and they even managed to raise money for scrubbing brushes and cleaning equipment. Thus, the melodramatic style of writing could perhaps have been used to fulfil the above.

    • Word count: 1015
  10. Reaction essay on the article From Black Africa Arose the Pharaohs, by Richard Po

    There is a constant struggle between the euro centric thoughts versus that of african scholars. The article sparked my interest and inspired a more in depth research of the issue at hand. Through my research I learned; before Egypt was deemed the name Egypt it was known as Kemet. Kemet was a civilization entirely built and ruled by african americans. The way history is told we are mainly thought to believe that subjects such as calculus,engineering,astrology, and architecture are brought to us by the Greeks.

    • Word count: 830
  11. Colonial America. Both the Chesapeake and the New England regions were developed with the same basic influence from England, once they arrived these two regions became very different in their development.

    Not only did they bring their families but some also brought their servants over along with their servants? family. The average age for men that came over to this region was about 35 to 40, these men brought along with them several children helping start the next generation who would be controlling the region. Thus shows that the New England colonies would become a family oriented region compared to other regions. In the list of emigrants bound to Virginia, it is seen that there are more individuals that came over to Virginia compared to New England.

    • Word count: 847
  12. Archaeology can give objective insights into the question of national identity Discuss.

    They used archaeology as propaganda. The swastika, a symbol meaning well-being was adopted by and associated with the Nazis but Earliest archaeological evidence of swastika-shaped ornaments dates back to the Indus Valley Civilization of Ancient India as well as Classical Antiquity. Swastikas have also been used in other various ancient civilizations around the world. It remains widely used in Indian religions, specifically in Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism, primarily as a tantric symbol to evoke 'shakti' or the sacred symbol of auspiciousness.

    • Word count: 671
  13. The acquisition of Granada in 1492 was the most important factor in securing Isabella and Ferdinands authority in Spain in the early years of their reign. To what extent do you agree with this view?

    Kilsby quotes a contemporary writer saying, ?amongst Spaniards, no foreigner is accounted of importance?. Charles ?foreignness? made them anxious about where his loyalties lay and how much he knew about Spain and its people. He spoke no Spanish at first and he had few Spanish advisers in his retinue. In addition, many of the officials appointed were foreigners. He also put his imperial title first, rather than his Spanish one. There was also concern that Charles? responsibilities elsewhere might need to be funded by Spain; this would mean higher taxation.

    • Word count: 929
  14. Comparing Central American Civilisations with those in the Andes

    Marriages had been prearranged, girls were married around fifteen and boys around eighteen. The Mayan civilization was hierarchal, not one person ran the empire, the empire was ran by religion and social class. The upper class also had flattened their infants heads so they would appear more elongated. The Mayans did lack in certain advances, such as the wheel, arches and ironwork. This made it so there was more intense human labor. In around 800 A.D the Mayan empire began to collapse. There have been many theories such as poor agriculture, tools, wars and disease, but none have been proven.

    • Word count: 593
  15. In What Ways Was The Siege Of Antioch The Turning Point Of The First Crusade?

    Antioch showed that the Crusaders were not an unorganised rabble that would fall into disarray under real Muslim power but actually an effective and ruthless fighting force that could easily match Muslim forces that even outnumbered them. Antioch was a test for the Crusaders, whether they had any chance in the capture of Jerusalem, and there success showed that the Crusaders aim could be achieved and that they had a serious chance of conquering the whole area. Antioch was a disaster for the Muslims and a triumph for the Crusaders.

    • Word count: 685
  16. To What Extent Can The Establishment Of The Crusader States From 1099 1118 Be Attributed To The Leadership Of Tancred And Baldwin I?

    They also succeeded in expanding the crusader states, for example in 1101 Baldwin captured Arsuf and Caesarea and Tancred expanded Antioch capturing land off the Byzantines. Tancred was also victorious in the Battle of Artah defeating Ridwan with 30,000 men; this ?marked a watershed in the history of the northern Crusader states?. This is not to say however that they were perfect rulers, mistakes and lack of foresight was common place. Baldwin was reckless often, for example at the second battle of Ramlah he took only a few hundred knights to face a large Muslim army, this ended in his defeat and near death, he lost all of his army and barely escaped to Ascalon.

    • Word count: 807
  17. To what extent was superior military leadership the reason for success in the first Crusade?

    the Byzantine fleet proved vital, religious zeal ? and the attraction of Jerusalem provided drive, determination and ideological cohesion which proved vital at Antioch in particular. Candidates may discuss some of the following in relation to ?strong leadership?: the role of Urban II in galvanising support; the role of the papal legate, Adhemar of Le Puy ; the roles of Raymond of Toulouse, Bohemond of Taranto, Godfrey of Bouillon, and to a lesser extent Hugh Vermandois, Robert of Normandy, Stephen of Blois, Baldwin and Tancred.

    • Word count: 1264
  18. Why was there a reformation in Germany in the 16th century?

    Divine intercession could be bought if you had lived a sinful life. They also made money by making rich people donate their land to build a cathedral, monastery or abbey on it if they had done something sinful. There was s social division between the clergy and the laity, this division was tense and extensive. The clergy had spiritual power of saying mass. When a priest says mass, bread and wine are changed into the body and blood of the Christ. This power turned out to be socially and economically important as people would pay for masses for people in purgatory, people's wills would have money for masses in them.

    • Word count: 1135
  19. How far do the sources suggest that the days of the Raj were numbered?

    Britain also provided India with modern technology, such as the railway network, electricity and, later, air transport. In short, Britain brought India into the modern world of the 19th / 20th Centuries, raising it from the Mediaeval trough of feudal domination it had been languishing in beforehand, and creating a new, humane and advanced system of running a nation. These good things cannot be ignored. Moving on to the negative effects of British rule over India. Before the Raj, India had the second largest economy in the world and consequently that economy did not grow whilst under ruling.

    • Word count: 1150
  20. Despite frequent changes in policy, Russian and Soviet governments were spectacularly unsuccessful in securing sustained economic progress in the years 1881-1982. Assess the validity of this statement.

    On the other hand, some historians have pointed out that agriculture in Russia during the late Tsarist years were not so destructive. One argument maintains that actually, Russia?s agriculture grew and developed quite substantially pre- revolution. For example; from 1890 to 1913, cereal production per capita increased by 35%[3]. Although this evidence is hard to ignore, it is also difficult to turn a blind eye to the contrasting evidence which suggests that agriculture suffered under the late Tsarist regime and consequently, affected the economy as a whole.

    • Word count: 2535
  21. Why Was War Declared In 1756?

    The French had built many forts in the Ohio territory which threatened the British and was seen to encroach on land that they laid claim to. The events in the Ohio territory were vital to building up tension previous to the war. It is also important to look at the fact that although Britain and France were not officially at war the 7 Years War is seen as a continuation of the War of Austrian Succession,

    • Word count: 595
  22. To What Extent Was Russia Modernised During the Personal Reign of Peter the Great? (1693-1725)

    But another effect of living in this area of Russia was the great influence from the west. This made Peter a modern thinking man for the age, growing up in Preobrazhenskoy it allowed for him to see that rank wasn?t that important to running a country and started to believe that those who were good at their jobs were the ones who should be helping him not only win battles but also help him govern the country. It could be argued that if Peter had not grown up in this area of Russia he may not have wanted to push as many reforms as he did on such a wide area of issues.

    • Word count: 1730
  23. To what extent was Chaing Kai-sheks leadership a failure?

    However, after Sun Yet Sen?s death in 1925, Kai-shek and the GMD (nationalists) government took a in a different direction. Chain Kai-Shek?s leadership was not always a failure. Kai-Shek and the GMD (nationalists) did also have many successes. The GMD (nationalist) government aimed and managed to, overthrow the warlords, gain international recognition and started to work towards the creation of a workable governmental and legal system. Kai-Shek and the GMD government wanted to implement GMD rule as the intermediate stage of China?s modernisation. The GMD government tried to achieve these aims in three main ways, suppression of opposition, the new life movement and five main reforms, which where the legal system, the economic crisis, administrative of the government, diplomatic government and the reform of the military system.

    • Word count: 547
  24. The leadership of Mao was the most important reason why the Communists won the Civil War. Discuss

    As for Mao?s leadership, he had grown up on a farm experiencing China's hardships first hand. He had later enlisted in the Nationalist army around the time of the revolution. He then went to study at the Beijing University where he was educated the ideas of Communism. Mao became heavily influenced by Marxism which prompted him to join the Chinese Communist Party. Mao patriotism and firm beliefs in Communism allowed him to rapidly gain the position of Communist Party leader. He swiftly took advantage of the unstable relationship between the peasants and the Nationalists by gaining the support of the peasants themselves.

    • Word count: 654
  25. The Changing Nature of Warfare - Napoleon

    Additionally, he was insistent and exploited his successes. Frederick the Great Frederick the Great is seen as one of the greatest military leaders in the European history as he was able to transform Prussia despite it being a small, struggling state. I personally think that although he was a significant general his position was made somewhat easier as his father had already doubled the army and they were well trained. Nonetheless, he used this well trained army successfully to his advantage and managed to obtain much more territory and power to enhance the country.

    • Word count: 1371

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