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AS and A Level: Other Historical Periods

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  1. 19th Century Nationalism

    It is at this point that nationalist movements began to succeed in China, during the Chinese Revolution. Nationalism in Italy was directed around internal conflicts and was liberal, while Chinese nationalist movements often arose in opposition to colonialism from European countries, but both Italy and China were able to achieve the common goal of unity. Nationalism in China is somewhat contradictory to nationalism in Italy. Both Italy and China wanted to be self-governed and self-ruled, and the situations that led to the unification of these places are quite similar. However the reasons for turning to nationalism are slightly different.

    • Word count: 749
  2. Early Modern Europe and the Scientific Revolution

    The philosophies of the Enlightenment developed the scientific revolution, which rectified the views of scientific thought, and established a basis for modern science. The scientific discoveries of the 16th - 17th centuries brought upon a fundamental change in the ways Europeans viewed the natural world. The scientific revolution was a period when new ideas in all areas of science led to the rejection of previous statements that had prevailed from Ancient Greece through the Middle Ages. In the middle ages, the main purpose of science was that it offered a possibility of a better understanding of the working's of God.

    • Word count: 619
  3. Free essay

    Medieval Europe and Africa Comparative

    Europe and Africa had two very different economic structures. During the eleventh and twelfth centuries, Europe's economy and agricultural life prospered. A warming of the climate and improved agricultural techniques allowed lands that had previously been infertile, to become fully productive. Arabs had conquered most of northern Africa, and had adapted northern African economy to a more trade based society. Traders and merchants and traditionally used routes established by the Chinese and Arabs based around well-known northern African ports. In Europe, the manorial system took over, almost replacing trade.

    • Word count: 795
  4. How were the lives of Civilians affected by the Second World War

    Lots of children were evacuated from cities to the countryside due to the heavy bombing. This created problems for both the evacuees and hosts. Children were split from their parents, often upsetting the child. Bernard Kops in Source 6 said it felt like being auctioned off and there was a worry of being separated from his sister. Lots of children would have been nervous and billeted into separate homes. This would often lead to children bed-wetting. Evacuees from upper class homes often found their lifestyle changed for the worse. Eleanor Stoddart in Source 8 said some people were put into dirty homes, with perhaps only a single bed with no running water to wash.

    • Word count: 2299
  5. The 80s must be Understood to Understand Australia Today

    It is important to understand these fashion trends, particularly their origins to understand the motivation fashion designers today. Music from the 1980s was also a large influence on popular types of music in Australia today. It is important when understanding music trends, to understand the origins. Many musical trends which started off in the 1980s started styles which have continued to this day. For example, the 1980s signified a time where rock and electronic music started to gain popularity, as seen by the displays of electronic and rock instruments in the Powerhouse Museum. This is still quite common today, with rock music being one of the most popular genres, particularly in Australia's youth.

    • Word count: 835
  6. Free essay

    Was Hitler a great leader?

    His ability to maintain the strength and courage of a whole nation was truly inspiring and even though Germany did not win the war his legacy lived on. It is because of this many people think he was an exceptional leader as no other man had previously achieved what he had with Germany. Hitler's abilities included confident competence, excellent speaking abilities (which contributed to wining votes and elections.) also Hitler's essence in the military operations was great for the morale of the soldiers as well as the German people because they believed in Hitler and knew he was a great leader.

    • Word count: 616
  7. How important was the discovery of the Holy Lance in the Crusader success in Antioch?

    Firstly, the Holy Lance was discovered after the Crusaders had infiltrated the city walls and secured the city, besides the citadel; the discovery of the Holy Lance had no impact on this problem and had it not been for the factors that allowed the Crusaders to conquer the city walls the siege would ultimately have failed and ended in the complete collapse of the First Crusade. The crusaders were vastly ill-prepared for a siege in the barren Turkish terrain surrounding Antioch as the same logistical naivety which had resulted in famine and desertion meant the crusaders had no resources with which to construct siege engines to destroy the mighty walls of Antioch.

    • Word count: 1221
  8. The main reason for the failure of the second crusade was the lack of a clear and unified command structure. How far do you agree with this statement?

    Furthermore, the armies of the second crusade were collectively much larger than the army of the first crusade, a fact which made it much harder to organise and command- as evidenced by the decision taken by Louis VII and Conrad III to take separate routes to the Holy Land. There were many problems associated with the physical division of the two armies; the German army set off before the French and as a result consumed most of the resources before the French arrived, it was hard for the two leaders to liaise due to the distance between them, and the

    • Word count: 996
  9. Discuss the course and consequences of the Arab Israeli Conflict

    upon thousands of Arabs and Jewish people would be killed as two groups of people compete for a land to which both seemingly have an 'equal claim'. Furthermore, in the time up to, and during the Holocaust, the Jewish people would be scattered around Europe, many unable to leave and those who tried found themselves blocked at the border, unable to find sanctuary in Palestine. The Jewish people, would, by the end of the war, have suffered losses in great magnitude - over 6 million Jewish people due to the 'Final Solution' - mass-killings by the Nazis.

    • Word count: 2695
  10. How and why did the Bolsheviks gain power in 1917?

    It would be logically explained that this theory was aimed at having "men follow orders without question, rather than to have men who discuss and debate on them". Policy-wise, the Bolsheviks believed, like the writings of Marx had implied, that a revolution and complete power-seizure could only be achieved if started within the workforce of a country. As Lenin believed strongly in the ideals of the Bolsheviks, he used it as a basis of his political rallying, seeking to gain, through promises of land, equality and peace; the support of the working class (or peasants)

    • Word count: 3077
  11. To what extent did WW1 cause the collapse of Tsarism?

    I never wanted to become one. I know nothing of the business of ruling. I have no idea of even how to talk to ministers.' Already, the Tsarist state was weak just as he was beginning to reign. 1910 saw around 60,000 million more Russian citizens from 1890 whereas 1860 to 1890 witnessed almost 30,000 million illustrating a substantial growth in the population of Russia. The problem here is that those from rural areas fled to the cities with the progression of industrialisation. Slow to start, the iron and coal industries picked up by the early 1900s.

  12. Assess the factors that lead to the defeat of Boudica and the Iceni in the Battle of Watling Street

    The relative ease with which Boudica destroyed both Veralanium and Londinium, killing an estimated seventy to eighty thousand Romans, served to send create overconfidence through their forces.1 This consequently hampered the Celts judgment and decision making. Another contributing factor was the success which the Celts had at the beginning of the rebellion. After sacking Camuldunum (Colchester) Boudica's forces met the ninth Roman legion, led by Quintus Petillius Ceralis, who were attempting to relieve the siege of the city. The Celts destroyed what Tacitus estimated to be eighty percent of the legion and routing the remainder.2 Whilst such a victory may

    • Word count: 2512
  13. Assess Louis achievements in foreign policy by 1684. Account for his success in this period.

    These areas strengthened the north-eastern border which had been the entrance for the Spanish invasion during the Frondes. Similarly, France retained Franche-Comt� and towns in Flanders, such as Ypres, from the Treaty of Nymegen which had ended the Dutch War. These gains strengthened the eastern border and broke parts of the Circle of Burgundy (the Hapsburg encirclement of France). Likewise, Louis used the Policy of Reunions to claim land on the north-eastern and eastern border, most notably Strasbourg in Alsace. This policy gave the impression of Louis as an arbiter in Europe. These gains strengthened a vulnerable north-eastern and eastern border which was important for French national security.

    • Word count: 1677
  14. Civilisation. In this essay, we shall attempt to examine the earliest examples of human civilisation, using examples from early Mesopotamian civilisations up to c2600BC.

    Hunter-gatherer societies obviously cannot support this level of habitation - mankind must be regarded in this matter as a top predator, and typical predator-prey ratios would imply that a hunting group of humans in excess of 5000 people would need a territory of around 75,000 km�. The only possible answer to the question of how to concentrate this many people into a grouping is through the use of agriculture, and the development of farming techniques which allow large quantities of food to be produced using a relatively small area of land.

    • Word count: 1730
  15. The early settlers in Britain

    This people are important to British history because they are the ancestors of many people in e.g. Ireland and Highland Scotland today and Celtic language are still spoken in some areas. The Celts were very good at working with iron and therefore they managed to make better weapons and better tools than the earlier farmers who worked with bronze. According to the book An illustrated History of Britain the knowledge of the Celts is slight (McDowall, 7). It is not certain whether the Celts invaded Britain or came peacefully because of the trading between Europe and Britain, but they continued almost the same agriculture as the Bronze Age people before them.

    • Word count: 688
  16. What was the short term significance of the Amritsar Massacre?

    It is possible to doubt the genuineness of its statement, as the Legislative Council needed to show that they were loyal to the British Empire in the hope of being granted more reforms. However, this statement is in accordance with the view of Chaudhuri, who says in his autobiography that educated Indians admitted that British rule "had also emancipated their minds, so that they could turn to social and religious reform and cultural creation".4 Gandhi also tolerated British rule, as he thought that the British values of justice and equality were valuable for India.5 Unfortunately for the British, all this respect for British rule collapsed because of the actions taken by General Dyer at Jallianwala Bagh.

    • Word count: 2176
  17. How far was the Provisional Government responsible for its own downfall

    The continuation of the war brought the Provisional Government into conflict with the soviet, which has issues an 'Address to the people of the whole world' declaring for peace without annexations an indemnities. This meant that they would not support the continuation of the war for any other reason, such as gaining land or money from their defeated opponents. The provisional government in order to win support at home and abroad planned an offensive on the Eastern Front. The 'June offensive' was to be made against the Austro-Hungarian army, the failure of this offensive lead to desertion by the Russian troops.

    • Word count: 938
  18. How has the nature of leadership changed over the period 1790-1945?

    Leadership is just one small part of an at times fragmented picture, no matter how the propagandists attempt to depict it. More than any other of the recognized factors in the military success of failure, this one is inherently human, and while many of these human led advancements are inherently reactionary, in this case the personal element can provide a barrier to development; with attitudes, enshrined in a culture of historic reflection, proving to be the most difficult things to change.

    • Word count: 3237
  19. Kit Kittredge and the great depression

    Life was now hard for children; they had to see their homes being taken away and their friends having to move to live a better life. Kit Kittredge was one of those children, one who lived a carefree life until the Great Depression. It was during the Great Depression that Kit Kittredge lived as a ten year old girl. She was a bright, aspiring reporter who always cared for animals and people. Kit lived a happy childhood, with many friends and a family who loved her.

    • Word count: 1265
  20. Assess to what extent was Louis XIVs foreign policy less successful after 1684.

    Plus, the Spanish Empire had to been carved up, with parts of it going to other European powers. These losses imply that Louis no longer possessed a dominating influence over Europe; the North-Eastern border was yet again vulnerable to attacks from other nations. To add insult to injury, France and Spain could not unite to become one country. Prior to 1684, the French had been undefeated since Louis took his majority in 1661. However post-1684, there were several defeats for the French army, most notably at Blenheim in 1704 and Oudenarde in 1708 after which France was invaded.

    • Word count: 1606
  21. Assess the political, social and cultural significance of Versailles in the reign of Louis XIV

    Versailles became a place for Louis to establish himself as the sole ruler of France and to e***t his absolutist regime. Versailles had to perform one task in order for Louis to succeed: the fusion of the King's imaginary and symbolic body with his real body, "L'�tat, c'est moi". For example, the gardens (designed by Le Notre) provided an opportunity for the Sun-King to demonstrate his powers over the natural landscape. The heath and marsh were transformed into a pattern of lines and spaces which exemplified the victory of rule over disorder. This fusion demonstrated France's recovery after the Frondes.

    • Word count: 1635
  22. Growth of Democracy

    There were four major Reform Acts between 1832 and 1918. These Reform Acts happened because of the Industrial and Agricultural revolutions taking place throughout Britain during the 19th and early 20th centuries in this essay, I will explain why each of these reforms had to be introduced. The Industrial and Agricultural revolutions brought great change to the demographics of Britain. New machines on farms meant that fewer men were needed to work the land and this left many people unemployed. Luckily, at the same time, new industrial towns were growing up in places like Manchester and Lancashire and people were needed to work in the factories.

    • Word count: 1239

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