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AS and A Level: Political Philosophy

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  • Marked by Teachers essays 10
  • Peer Reviewed essays 4
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  1. Marked by a teacher

    Analyse the main strengths and weaknesses of Marx's sociological thought.

    3 star(s)

    Hegel believed that although these processes were dynamic, they were an expression of development rather than being solid. To Marx, history developed due to the sequence of modes of production. In every stage of human history there have been certain productive forces e.g. land, animals, tools etc which are a necessary means of survival in order to produce food, shelter and clothing. These are called the forces of production. Together with the relations of production between the workers and those who owned the forces of production, this resulted in the mode of production.

    • Word count: 2020
  2. Marked by a teacher

    "Explain And Discuss How The "Ideologies Of Welfare" Explored In This Module Can Be Used To Understand The Political Legitimation And Debate Within The UK Social Policy From 1979 To The Present Day".

    3 star(s)

    I shall draw on the ideological influences of conservatism, old liberalism, new liberalism and socialism/Marxism, where applicable, to these policies and debates. To draw this essay to a close I shall summarise my writings and offer a conclusion. What is political legitimation (also referred to as legitimate authority)? Unwin Hyman dictionary of sociology defines them as: "Any form of political rule, in which rulers successfully uphold a claim that they govern by right in accord with law, tradition or similar basis" (Jary, 1996, P363)

    • Word count: 2341
  3. To what extent was Fascist Italy the bastard child of Liberal Italy?

    Many Liberal historians argue that Fascism in Italy was simply an 'unfortunate accident' which only existed because of the First World War's disruption of the newly unified Italian Government's work. Indeed, urbanisation and growing literacy were having some effect by 1914 and 'Italian' was starting to emerge as a 'lingua franca' especially in the army and the towns. There was also a sense of Patriotic duty instilled in the youth in schools through propaganda. Furthermore there was a national economy linked by roads and railways with several institutions such as trade unions and newspapers developing.

    • Word count: 2029
  4. Analyse The Main Features of Classical Liberalism

    John Locke was an English Philosopher. Locke contributed to the influential theory of 'Social Contract' and 'Natural Rights'. His ideas had enormous influence on the development of epistemology and political philosophy, and he is widely regarded as one of the most influential Enlightenment thinkers. On the contrary to Locke's views was Thomas Hobbes. John Locke In the 'Two Treatises of Government', he defended the claim that men are by nature free and equal against claims that God had made all people naturally subject to a monarch. He argued that people have rights, such as the right to life, liberty, and property, that have a foundation independent of the laws of any particular society.

    • Word count: 2815
  5. Trust in the Press is essential in an ever changing society. Not only must the Press be trusted but it must be believed and must behave in an ethical manner. But what constitutes an ethical manner? Laws might be set

    One common rule among journalists is to never reveal your sources. If you do, your career will be tainted with mistrust. This journalistic ethical code secures a relationship with the public and provides protection. But there are laws that contravene this. Section 10 of the Contempt of Court Act 1981 says courts have the right to demand that journalists reveal their source if disclosure is necessary in the interests of justice or national security or for the prevention of disorder or crime.

    • Word count: 2284
  6. Free essay

    The emerge of Alliance 90

    The German and Belgian greens have proved most successful. The aim of this paper is to analyze the role of the German Green Party - Alliance 90/Die Grunen and to compare the social characteristics and political views of this party's voters. Who are the people that choose to vote for this party? Why is the Green Party so popular in Germany compared to other countries? Are the green parties going to last or are they simply something that will soon disappear?

    • Word count: 2210
  7. Compare and contrast some of the ways in which major political thinkers have tried to draw the differences between authority of the state and freedom of the individuals.

    Due to the English civil war he spent a lot of time in exile. As a mathematical tutor Hobbes taught the future Charles II and also worked on the Leviathan (1651) in which he denotes the state processes supreme authority and power over all other social institutions. Hobbes' theory rests on the concepts of State of nature, Social contract and the notion of sovereignty. According to him the state of nature is under the rule of God and all individuals are equal but Hobbes emphasises that human nature is egotistic and selfish (self preservation due to collision of wants)

    • Word count: 2040
  8. Is the Liberal perspective on world politics too idealistic?

    Liberalism emphasizes the importance of individual rights. 'It seeks a society characterized by freedom of thought for individuals, limitations on power (especially of government and religion), the rule of law, the free exchange of ideas, a market economy that supports free private enterprise, and a transparent system of government in which the rights of all citizens are protected'. (Wikipedia.org) Liberals support a liberal democracy with open and fair elections, where all members of the public have equal right and opportunity. As with other ideologies, there are different versions of liberalism, but the underlining consensus of liberalism is the emphasis on the importance and primacy of individual freedom and choice.

    • Word count: 2976
  9. So, whats wrong with Anarchism?

    The four different schools of thought in anarchy are: individualism, mutualism, collectivism and communism. Each of them differs in opinion and how the perfect anarchist society should be constructed. Individualists see the individual as their starting point, the German Max Sterner argued that the person should act exactly as he pleases taking no notice of God, state or moral values. Another individualist, Benjamin Tucker, argued that without the state each person could exercise the right to protect his own freedom4. Both of the above mentioned anarchists argue for freedom of the person and no state, they have a vision that everyone would act on behalf of their own interests and their own good.

    • Word count: 2292
  10. Similarities and differences between 21st century religious fundamentalism and 20th century European Fascism

    However, this is inevitable as this is the only way to compare the similarities and differences between these two complex ideologies. The first similarity between 21st century religious fundamentalism and 20th century European Fascism is the emphasis in both ideologies upon charismatic leadership. Many of the fundamentalists believe in the embodiment of 'truth' by their leader who will in turn implement it.2 For instance, in the Catholic faith, the pope is seen as the Vicar of Christ and can do no wrong.3 Furthermore, Ruhollah Khomeini, the founder of Islamic Iran was recognized first as Ayatollah (a 'reflection of Allah')

    • Word count: 2245
  11. Compare and Contrast the Classical Liberal position with the Conservative position on the issue of drug use amongst young people and explain how this affects policy

    All ideologies therefore (a) offer an account of the existing order, usually in the form of a 'world-view', (b) advance a model of a desired future, a vision of a 'good society', and (c) explain how political change can and should be brought about - how to get from (a) to (b)". "A political ideology largely concerns itself with how to allocate power and to what ends it should be used. It can be a construct of political though, often defining political parties and their policy (Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia)".

    • Word count: 2592
  12. Pat Parker & Associates

    Considering the implications of this research, it must be taken into consideration that the Democratic Party could potentially already hold copyright interest in the research. I am basing this determination based on an examination of Parker's contract for the initial job (Exhibit 8, page 19 in the Parker Case Study). This is an examination for which the determination of copyright ownership apparently varies according to who is conducting the investigation. Parker interprets the contract as awarding ownership of the research, an interpretation that would include the right to resell.

    • Word count: 2990
  13. How have political sociologist understood globalization? Globalization is perhaps the central concept of our time. Yet, a straightforward definition of globalization

    Globalization has led many to explore the relationship these processes have to modernity (Harvey 1989; Giddens 1990; Beck 1992). Scholars have asked a number of questions in this regard. Where perhaps many would have equated it with westernization, the nature of modernity itself has been questioned. What are the traits of social, economic, and political organization characteristic of modernity? Are globalization processes fundamentally changing the relationship of space and time that one can say we have moved into a post-modern world? Many argue that, yes, the nature of social organization has changed or is in the process of a fundamental transformation This essay will attempt to explore the various understandings of globalization in the political-social sciences with elucidatory accounts from Anthony Giddens, Ulrich Beck, David Held, Manuel Castells.

    • Word count: 2918
  14. What are the main ideological principles of the conservatives, Labour and Liberal democrats? To what extent do they overlap? With today's common practise many people argue that parties no longer operate by an ideology

    This was a group of like minded people who wanted to form a government and hopefully implement some of their main policies and ideologies across the whole of the Britain. The traditional Labour party believed in various forms of collectivism especially nationalisation and creating a welfare state. They believed in high taxation and public expenditure to state socialism and limited free-market capitalism. They heavily emphasised economic and social equality and eventually became the main opposition to the Conservative party. Like any other ideology it is possible to identify different ways in which socialism has adapted and be able to differentiate between the revolutionary and reformist.

    • Word count: 2482
  15. Is political theory useful?

    Many of the political theorists have provided useful tips for ruling and leading the country or nation. Although, the theoretical concepts of the philosophers don't provide exact explanation for each decision, rule or law taken under their suggested type of government, they provide the basic ideas which can be used to understand it. Overall, political theory is very useful to understand politics as a science, and an art of debate and rule.

    • Word count: 2121
  16. 'Socialists have disagreed on both the means and ends of socialism' - Discuss

    In the 19th Century revolutionary socialism was popular for two reasons: The early stages of industrialisation created a lot of poverty and injustice for the working class, who were exploited and oppressed. This was blamed on capitalism. Also, the working class had no political identity - they had generally not been granted political suffrage and were represented by the rich. Revolutionary socialists view the state as an agent of class oppression. Marxists think that political power mirrors class interests, and so the state is a 'bourgeois state' in favour of capital.

    • Word count: 2747
  17. America Liberalism

    This directs progressive advocates to the path of redistributing the wealth among all of the people. It is important to realize that both of these ideas are vital aspects of the general form of liberalism we've conformed to over time. A good example of liberalism in today's American society is how there is an array of political parties. The Republicans consist of ideas that are generally based on classical liberalism while their counterparts, the Democrats, lean more towards the progressive side.

    • Word count: 2876
  18. Political Parties, Role and Ideology/Policies Qa (i) Ideology is the core fundamental beliefs the make up basic principles of a political party

    It could be argued however that the larger parties are failing to fulfil their roles and duties as mentioned above, and after numerous events such as ever decreasing electoral turn outs and scandals like 'cash for questions' the integrity of the main parties can be justifiably questioned. However this doesn't mean the political system is a dishonourable, disreputable scandal riddled establishment that needs a major overall, but that there are problems that need consideration and possibly addressing with firm action.

    • Word count: 2491
  19. Compare and contrast Pluralist and Ruling Elite accounts of political power.

    Firstly, the state must have complete social diversity, in that there must be a large number of different groups and respective interests in society. Therefore, there must be no one majority within society, so that every interest is a minority. In a pluralist society of social diversity everyone can be divided into groups and society fragmented by gender, race, values, beliefs, religion, such that there are so many different groups that all interests will be a minority. This is because with a coherent unified majority, they will use democracy to rule the state as they see fit to benefit only themselves.

    • Word count: 2367
  20. Describe Jean Baudrillard's concept of the orders of simulacra in relation to design in a modern / post modern age. Assess the influence of Baudrillard's ideas on the film The Matrix (or a film of your choice).

    back to the capitalist in return for subsistence, therefore social control in exerted over the working class, whilst providing the capitalist with excess commodity. The labourer consentingly becomes a slave to the system on which he depends. In addition Marx states that as the relation between capitalist and labourer (manufacturer and consumer) develops, so competition between rival capitalists becomes apparent. In effect the capitalist is forced to capture more of the market by selling goods more cheaply by the consolidation and exploitation of labour power e.g.

    • Word count: 2302
  21. A Study of Carl Rogers' Theory of Personality

    The "self" is a central construct in this theory. It develops through interactions with others and involves awareness of being and functioning. The self-concept is "the organized set of characteristics that the individual perceives as peculiar to himself/herself" (Ryckman, 1993, p.106). It is based largely on the social evaluations he/she has experienced. Self-Actualizing Tendency A distinctly psychological form of the actualizing tendency related to this "self" is the "self-actualizing tendency". It involves the actualization of that portion of experience symbolized in the self (Rogers, 1959).

    • Word count: 2220
  22. Can feminism be thought of as a theory of law or, otherwise, fundamental in some way?

    Liberal feminists accept the basic organisation of our society but seek to expand the rights and opportunities of women. Liberal feminists support equal rights and oppose prejudice and discrimination that block the aspirations of women."3 2) Socialist feminism is an evolution from Marxist conflict theory, essentially made in reaction to the little attention Marx paid to gender. Socialist feminists argue that the "bourgeois family must be restructured to end 'domestic slavery' in favour of some collective means of carrying out housework and child care. The key to this goal, in turn, is a socialist revolution that creates a state-centred economy operating to meet the needs of all.

    • Word count: 2438
  23. Marxism Can Only Be Appreciated Retrospectively

    Karl Marx was born in 1818 into a professional family. Marx went to university in Berlin originally to become a university lecturer but took a lot of inspiration from the French philosopher Hegel who had died a few years previous, Hegel had been looking into the working class struggle in France at the time however his theory operated solely on ideas, whereas Marx was more concerned with looking at Capitalism as lived rather than thought about. Hegel tended to look at ideas of capitalism but not through the people who held them where as Marx look at both these ideas

    • Word count: 2958
  24. The ability to manage conflict is undoubtedly one of the most important skills a manager needs to possess

    However, some conflicts prevent an organisation from achieving its goals; these are dysfunctional conflicts and are destructive forms. Functional conflict supports the organisation's goals. Dysfunctional conflict can prevent an organisation from achieving its goals. Conflict strategies When you become engaged in a conflict, two major concerns you have to take into account are: 1 achieving your goals. Each person has personal goals that he or she wishes to achieve. You are in conflict. You are in conflict because your goals conflict with other person's goals. Your goal may be placed on a continuum from being of little importance to you being highly important.

    • Word count: 2475
  25. Can a plausible case be made for participatory democracy under modern conditions?

    Such reasons include the impracticalities of a larger popular participation in politics due to the size and complexities of the industrialised societies of the modern world. The 'classical' theory in particular, we might argue, places unrealistic demands on the citizens of a participatory democracy and has generally unrealistic conceptions of politics. Finally, that greater participation presents an inherent danger to the stability of our political systems is counted as a further reason to reject such a system being applied under modern conditions.

    • Word count: 2727

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • This essay is aimed to discuss the meaning of ideology and it different uses and abuses to which it may be put in a politics

    "Conclusion, in my view as long as ideology exists there can never be a consensus among all as how people should live and view the world. Liberalism, Conservatism and Socialism are notable example of major ideologies in this world that employed by those who posses power. Due to the way the political process works, ideology can affect many areas of life, social equality is one of such area, which falls victim of changing perspectives and ideologies of those who posses power."

  • "Fascism is nothing more than an extreme form of Nationalism". Discuss

    "In conclusion fascism certainly is something more than an extreme form of nationalism. Whilst fascist regimes, particularly Nazi Germany, demonstrate a strong belief in nationalism, the extremity of actions demonstrates a different belief, a belief in racialism. Furthermore fascism is characterised by other key beliefs which are not shared by nationalists, such as struggle and leadership and elitism. These can be seen to be even more fundamental to fascism that nationalistic beliefs as different kinds of fascist regimes place different emphasis on nationalism, whereas leadership and struggle remain ideologically central regardless of the strand of fascism in question. The central themes of fascism and the ways they have been manifested in different countries indicates that whilst fascism may have some similarities to nationalism ultimately it is ideologically distinct."

  • "In order to find out how things really are, one must understand the filters through which one perceives the world." Discuss and evaluate this claim.

    "To come back to the claim made by the essay question it is quite clear that political, religious and cultural as well as intellectual filters play important roles in the way people perceive the world. "Things", here, could be issues, people and beliefs. The interaction between any person and the world in which he/she lives in is very complex. Therefore, the word perception should not be restricted to our five senses and the messages they send to the brain to be processed. Past experience, beliefs, the degree to which we can be objective as well as intellectual capabilities of analysis and reflection play important roles in the way we analyze and react to situations outside and inside ourselves. In conclusion the claim of the essay is a true one since it has been shown through the discussion the process in which our value system affects to a large extent our perception of the world."

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