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GCSE: Physical Geography

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  1. To what extent are the recent flooding problems in the UK a product of natural or human causes?

    The main natural effect towards flooding is changes in climate mainly from precipitation. Looking at studies you would assume this was from increased precipitation but as shown in Figure 1 it is more likely that occurrences of continual precipitation over a short period of time. This is due to water saturating ground during the first few hours of rainfall so when precipitation is sustained over a day or couple of days the ground can not cope with the excess water and so moves over the saturated ground as run off.

    • Word count: 1533
  2. Is the impact of global warming restricted to changing sea levels and vegetation patterns?

    Scientists for example can now estimate the global rise in sea level between two years or even calculate the potential rise if a particular glacier melted. The 1995 estimate for instance tells us that sea level has risen between 1 - 2.5mm over the last 100 years. A major example of glacier melting can be well found in Europe, as many of it's mountain glaciers have retreated during the last 100 years, this has often been related to the gradually increasing local air temperatures as indicated by the European climate records.

    • Word count: 2031
  3. The Assassin

    "The club opens at 21.00 hours. I want you to be there at this time. The weapon has been hidden in the restroom, in the second cubicle from the left. After the kill, come straight to the airport where I will meet you, and we will catch the first plane back to Australia. Be at the airport by 23.00 hours. The key I gave you is for the red lotus car, registration H8R 2." The line went dead. The Assassin came slowly out of the shadows, into the bright light of a nearby park lamp.

    • Word count: 3468
  4. The River Rhine

    * Ploughing - this may cause flooding as it creates gullies which water can flow down towards the river * Urbanisation (extending built up areas) - this may cause a river to flood as the concrete and tarmac that is laid over the soil send more water to the river than to the fields which they replaced. As you can gather from the above information the causes can be categorised into human and natural effects. The flooding of the River Rhine in past and recent dates has mainly been caused by human infliction, with only few natural causes.

    • Word count: 1187
  5. Rhine Flooding Case Study

    and the straightening of the Rhine for commercial purposes. Humans currently use 80% of the former floodplains. Roads and railways cross the alluvial areas behind the protecting dykes; cities and villages have spread to the fertile river plains. This inundation of the floodplains has caused flooding in the lower reaches of the river during the period of snowmelts in spring. In 1995 heavy rainfall struck many parts of Europe, so heavy infact that some areas experienced it continuously from November 1994 to February 1995. The snow on the Alps melted quickly and the ground was saturated due to the heavy rainfall, this meant that further rain was hastily transported to rivers as overland flow.

    • Word count: 831
  6. How can we make the rainforest sustainable?

    This is of no benefit to anybody. There are many causes of deforestation; one cause is logging and using the trees for furniture. People just pick random trees, cut them down and then drag the felled tree through the rest of the forest, knocking down and destroying many other plants on the way. When they sell the wood they get a lot of money but when they clear areas of trees the land becomes infertile and therefore is no good for anything.

    • Word count: 1090
  7. How far do the sources support the view that, during the period 1474 - 1598, Religious Interests were more important for the Spanish Monarchy than were Political Interests?

    This view is support by Isabella herself in source 3, where she proclaims that her faith is the only grounds for the war with Granada, arguing that, logically, if it was for other purposes they would have chosen a less expensive and hazardous conflict. However, the fact that Isabella had to justify her actions so desperately to the Pope, demonstrates that she could have faced severe criticism over her policy towards Granada, implying that her motives were not purely religious.

    • Word count: 855
  8. Sea Level Change

    This is followed by the melting of these ice caps during interglacial periods, where sea level rises again. Tectonic activity is the main cause of an isostatic change, and the most important tectonic activity is named isostatic readjustment. Isostatic readjustment is where the land naturally rises or falls due to over or underlying forces. During the last ice age, an ice sheet covered Scotland and a lot of northern England. The pressure from the ice sheet caused the land to depress and so as the ice age ended, isostatic rebound occurred and Scotland began to rise again.

    • Word count: 713
  9. A paddle in the river.

    In tandem with the mild yet prominent sewerage stench, I was beginning to feel uncomfortable. After grabbing a helmet capable of fitting, and struggling to put on a life jacket, we began an ungainly stagger up to the start of our activity. The ascent proved a challenge, the sun relentlessly beating down on the winding track, as I gradually roasted in your life jacket- an oven door firmly shut on your chest. Apart from the sweltering heat, and the wet suit clinging to your limbs, there was the ongoing test of avoiding chunks of sheep droppings, which had quickly become a formality when venturing into Snowdonia's countryside.

    • Word count: 1438
  10. Should people be allowed to destroy the Amazon Rainforest?

    :( :) Each year however, an area about the size of England is stripped of its forest by logging and burning. Thousands of species are disappearing before anyone has a chance to collect them. The Forest Tower Block The Rainforest consists of several different layers of plants. Each layer is home to different animals. The top three layers are tree layers. Below them is a layer of shrubs and young trees and beneath that is the forest floor. Each layer produces different foods that attract different animals.

    • Word count: 2216
  11. Investigation in to Shoreline Management Plans, and analysing many beaches along the North Norfolk Coast.

    Action on one part of the coastline can have major impacts, often unfavourable, on another part. This was one of my aims in the beginning, 'Are there any knock on effects?' A real life example of this is the Holderness Coast. The Holderness coast experiences a lot of erosion and therefore various measures have been taken to protect it. A Sea Wall has been built at Mapleton where the coastline has been eroding rapidly, threatening the buildings in the villages. Large rock groynes have been built at either end of the wall to trap material moving along the coasts.

    • Word count: 1004
  12. The Relation Between the Setting And the Character In

    The nursery room with barred windows provides an image of loneliness and seclusion experienced by the protagonist. If Gilman's story could be thought as a house, structurally it is nearly all interior, rarely leaving the scene of the bedroom and emphasizing the interior / exterior division. The centre of the space is the bedroom itself, with its hideous wallpaper that has a "recurrent spot where the pattern lolls like a broken neck and two bulbous eyes stare at you upside down.". The unclean, "repellent, almost revolting" wallpaper, full of patterns depicting extreme confusion, with a humanoid hiding behind it, contributes to the narrator's isolation and intensifies her illness to the point when insanity takes over.

    • Word count: 753
  13. Touring Brasil

    Planned for only 500,000 inhabitants , Brasilia's today's population (including satellite cities) is now over 2,000,000 inhabitats. We started at the Cathedral designed by Oscar Niemeyer, huge and beautiful after we went to see the Igreja Nossa Senhora de Fatima (our Lady of Fatima Church ) usually called Igrajinha (small church) It was 12:00 am and I was very hungry so I had 1 hour time to have lunch. So I did .I ate meat in a restaurant called Rodicio with beans and rice . Very good and inexpensive .After I meet my guide her name is Christina Martins and we started by the buildings and monuments.

    • Word count: 3572
  14. My River Towards Home - Sarah Royce Imitation Paper

    These thoughts, with great force, troubled me continuously as I began my new experience away from home. So throughout the minutes of conversing with my mother, I sweetly hid my feelings of distress to appear somewhat merry and content with the notion of being oceans apart from home and in a strange, distant land. I did not, for one moment, reveal my earnest feelings. When we said our goodbyes, there was a terrible shrinking in my heart, but I kept it to myself.

    • Word count: 1354
  15. Moneyless in Madras: Millionaires in Manhattan

    There was little apart from that. This rather unattractive hut was a great contrast to its picturesque surroundings. The landscape was full of flora and fauna which were clearly blossoming thanks to the much needed and overdue rains. The woodland was a lush green colour as were the surrounding hills intercepted by deep valleys. The hut was in the middle of this attractive- looking backdrop and seemed oblivious to its surroundings. This area of beauty, rather spoilt by the man-made invention of a poor man's home, was about fifteen miles south of Madras, a city of extreme wealth and poverty in the south of India.

    • Word count: 1376
  16. Discuss what is global warming. And the effects that global warming gives and how to prevent it.

    All of these activities are unfavorably altering the composition of the biosphere and the Earth's heat balance. If we do not slow down our use of fossil fuels and stop destroying, the forests, the world could become hotter than it has been in the past million years. Average global temperatures have risen 1 degree Fahrenheit over the last century. If carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases continue to spill into the atmosphere, global temperatures could rise five to 10 degrees by the middle of the next century. The warning will be the greatest at the higher latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere, with the largest temperature rises occurring in winter.

    • Word count: 1144
  17. My personal view of what the future possibly holds for Svalbard

    fall in tourism. The wildlife in the arctic will be affected by human activity mainly. To stop the damage that is being caused to wildlife in the arctic, Svalbard must incorporate the idea of sustainability, so it can be a place where people can live practically and without much difficulty. Sustainability is when any economic activity without causing permanent harm to the environment. The arctic food chain above shows the phytoplankton and the zooplankton and the bottom of the chain, the next creature is a fairly medium sized fish, then seals, the polar bear, and right at the top of the chain is humans.

    • Word count: 759
  18. The Boscastle Flooding

    IMAGES OF THE BOSCASTLE FLOODING What were the causes, effects the response of the Boscastle flood? Rivers flood because of many reasons. Some reasons are deforestation. This causes flooding because the trees and plants cannot absorb the water because they are not there. There is no interception so therefore nothing can be absorbed. An additional reason for rivers flooding is too much precipitation. This means rainfall, snowfall and hail. When it rains too much, the rainfall can fall straight into the river or fall on the ground and infiltrate. This will then run towards the river or percolate into the rocks underneath.

    • Word count: 2083
  19. Global Warming - Killing her softly with our selfishness

    The extra greenhouse gases in the atmosphere trap more energy and therefore enhance the natural greenhouse effect. Greenhouse gases are also released by the exhausts of motor vehicles, and by the cutting down of forests. The Green house effect is the rise in temperature that the Earth experiences because some gases in the atmosphere such as carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide and methane trap energy from the sun. These gases are known as the green house gasses, and these gasses keep the Earth warm if these gasses were not present the polar ice caps would melt and the sea level will rise causing major floods.

    • Word count: 2477
  20. 'The Gift of the Nile' to the Ancient.

    It was also regular for people to hand feed their animals and repair equipment. The second season, Perit began in November and was also called the Season of Coming Forth. This is due to the fact that this was a time when the king rejuvenated his powers and so was it that the land was rejuvenated by floodwaters. Although, it was primarily a time of sowing seeds. The Perit also consists of the Heb-Sed festival, which celebrated the king's 30-year jubilee. The festival lasted in the first five days of this season with the first day dedicated to the official crowing of the king. This period involved the most intensive activity along the Nile.

    • Word count: 1874
  21. Causes and consequences of deforestation of the Amazon Rainforest.

    The rainforest climate is very hot, wet and sticky very humid. In the rainforest it rains every day. But the rain comes down and stop and comes down again it keep goes on like this nearly every day. The plants in the rainforest have had to adapt to the weather condition in the forest. We can prove this by looking at the trees grows tall, up to 40m through the emergent layer, in order to get sunshine. On this picture we can see that the trees are really tall in order to get the sunshine.

    • Word count: 1823
  22. Ther Indus Valley civilization.

    The heart of the civilization was the vast flood plain of the Indus and Hakra rivers. The Hakra River (also known as the Ghaggar River or Sarasvati River) is now dried up. It once flowed east of--and parallel to--the Indus River, in what are now India and Pakistan. The civilization developed a standardized system of weights and measures and a system of writing that used pictographs (simple drawings representing words). In the early 1800's, British scholars learned that people had found ancient artefacts buried in huge earthen mounds in the region.

    • Word count: 661
  23. Destruction of Amazonian Rainforest and its effect on the environment

    The culture and knowledge of many forest peoples have evolved through centuries of nurturing the forest; they are diminishing as forest area reduces, access to forest is increasingly restricted, and traditional rights are eroded by governments. Deforestation affects the livelihoods of between 200 and 500 million people who depend on forests for their food, shelter, and fuel. Deforestation and degradation may contribute to regional and global climate imbalances. Forests play a major role in carbon storage; with their removal, excessive carbon dioxide in the atmosphere may lead to global warming, with many problematic side-effects.

    • Word count: 1876
  24. The Amazon Rainforest.

    For example, most trees flare at the base. Vegetation is dense, tall and very green. Both types of rainforests are rich in plant and animal species, although the diversity is greater in the tropical rainforest. Both tropical and temperate rainforests are very lush and wet. The tropical rainforest has downpours at the rate of two inches an hour adding up to some 400 inches of rain per year. It rains a lot in the temperate rainforest too. It rains about 100 inches per year. And even more moisture comes from the coastal fog that hovers among the trees.

    • Word count: 526

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