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GCSE: The Earth and Beyond

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  • Marked by Teachers essays 5
  • Peer Reviewed essays 24
  1. Marked by a teacher

    My project this year is based on the solar system. In my project I will discuss the theory behind the start of the solar system. I will also describe the sun and planets moving round it.

    4 star(s)

    It is also possible that the planets were never a part of the hot Sun itself. They may have come from the remainder of an exploding star (supernova) that happened near the Sun. The planetary orbits are elliptical in shape and all lie in one plane except Mercury and Pluto whose orbits are tilted at an orbit of 7?and 17?. All the planets move the same direction. Asteroids and comets move in a completely different plane. Planets are recognised in the night sky because they shine with a steadier light than the twinkling stars.

    • Word count: 4431
  2. Peer reviewed

    Global Warming - Is it man Made?

    This temperature increase is something that happens naturally, although it is also contributed to by human activity. The natural process that leads to global warming is called 'the greenhouse effect' and this is where gases in the atmosphere such as methane and carbon dioxide build up and retain heat from the sun in the atmosphere, therefore increasing the overall temperature of the earth. This process is called the greenhouse effect and is necessary for the survival of all life on our planet. Due to a larger increase of average global temperatures people are pointing at human activity for speeding up this process to a degree that is deemed unsafe, evidence of this is the melting of the polar icecaps and subsequent rises in sea levels.

    • Word count: 4913
  3. The Extinction of the Dinosaurs - reviewing 3 theories.

    This case study is aimed at the general public, and for people who do not know very much about dinosaurs, but are interested. This could include students as intelligent as the average year 9 or above as well as adults. An example of a dinosaur fossil (taken from http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/1352871.stm) One theory that explains why the dinosaurs became extinct is the Asteroid theory. This theory is one of the most common and widely believed theories about extinction of the dinosaurs. Although asteroids are rare, the theory is that an asteroid hit the Earth, ending dust and steam into the atmosphere.

    • Word count: 3412
  4. Science Case Study - Dinosaurs

    Extinction can naturally occur; through an asteroid hitting the Earth, a huge volcanic eruption, disease or an ice age. However modern extinctions are mainly caused by human activity, directly or indirectly. For example the passenger pigeon of North America was hunted to extinction; this was directly due to human activity. As I stated before sometimes animals can become extinct due to human activity indirectly. A good example of this would be the Blue pike from the Great Lakes in Canada that became extinct in the 1970's.

    • Word count: 4179
  5. Mars - The red planet

    Mars gets its red colour from the iron oxide (chemical name for rust) in the rocks and soil of its surface. The iron oxide comes from the iron particles that have been oxidised in the atmosphere of carbon dioxide. It has a canyon deeper than that of America's Grand Canyon, Valles Marineris (nicknamed Mars' Grand Canyon) and is up to 7 kilometres deep and 4,000 kilometres long, compared to just about 1.5 kilometres of the Grand Canyon in America. The highest volcano, Olympus Mons, is nearly 4 times the height of Mount Everest in the Himalayas, reaching up to a

    • Word count: 3830
  6. Should We Persue Manned Space Flights?

    Page 5-6 Are there any advantages? Page 6 Should we pursue manned space exploration? Page 6-7 Conclusion Page 7 Bibliography Page 8 A brief history about manned space exploration The earliest practical work on rocket engines designed for spaceflight occurred simultaneously during the early 20th century in three countries by three key scientists: in Russia, by Konstantin Tsiolkovski; in the United States, by Robert Goddard; and in Germany, by Hermann Oberth. On October 4, 1957, the Soviets launched the first artificial satellite, Sputnik 1, into space. Four years later on April 12, 1961, Russian Lt.

    • Word count: 4693
  7. Greenhouse Effect.

    Heat is trapped. What Are Greenhouse Gases? Many chemical compounds found in the Earth's atmosphere act as "greenhouse gases." These gases allow sunlight, which is radiated in the visible and ultraviolet spectra, to enter the atmosphere unimpeded. When it strikes the Earth's surface, some of the sunlight is reflected as infrared radiation (heat). Greenhouse gases tend to absorb this infrared radiation as it is reflected back towards space, trapping the heat in the atmosphere. Greenhouse effect described by BBC Broadcast Meteorologist Helen Willetts: Like our day-to-day weather, climate change is a very complex subject. The media provides us with reports about global warming but it can be difficult to form an objective opinion when other scientists put forward what look like opposing views.

    • Word count: 3324
  8. The life cycle of a star.

    for it to start generating energy, by nuclear fusion - combining hydrogen atoms to form a heavier element, helium. Energy is released from the core, and pushes its way out through the rest of the star, creating an outward pressure which stops the star's collapse. When the energy emerges from the star, it is in the form of light, and the star has begun to shine. A Star is formed from a cloud of gas, mostly hydrogen, and the dust that is initially spread over a huge volume, but which is pulled together by its own collective gravity. This gravitational collapse of the cloud creates a body of large density, and the loss of gravitational potential energy in the process is very large indeed.

    • Word count: 3274
  9. Describe and explain the long-term effects of large-scale deforestation on the earth's atmosphere.

    Commercial logging is another common form of deforestation, cutting trees for sale as timber or pulp. Logging can occur selectively-where only the economically valuable species are cut-or by clear cutting, where all the trees are cut. Commercial logging uses heavy machinery, such as bulldozers, road graders, and log skidders, to remove cut trees and build roads, which is just as damaging to a forest overall as the chainsaws are to the individual trees. These machines not only contribute to the clearing of forests but they also damage the wildlife in the area, the loud noise and human talk, will inevitable petrify the birds, insects, and larger animals such as monkeys, millions of different varieties of animals are killed each year by this process.

    • Word count: 3986
  10. In the beginning God created the Heavens and the Earth.

    When we discuss this topic, there are so many things we cannot know, cannot test, cannot prove, cannot repeat, that we have to accept them at face value. The crucial thing is to understand the value, then we will be able to accept what we cannot prove, where it is consistent with the value. We move into the realms of faith. We make no apology for thinking of this subject in terms of faith where others may require hard and incontrovertible facts.

    • Word count: 5478
  11. Journey to the farthest planet (Pluto).

    Reflection I think when there is a will, there is a way. One must always take the lead to make miracles or something to happen. Even though the program requires close to a billion, I think it is all worthwhile. It could provide important information and findings which we never would have known if the mission was abolished. Or miracle might happen that the craft indeed found life or strange mysteries there. One would never know if he does not try. Since the kuiper belt (KBO) holds the key to how our solar system is formed, it is wiser that the mission should be done at the quickest possible time regardless of cost and disagreement.

    • Word count: 5235
  12. A consideration of Lord of the Rings: Fellowship of the Ring, and Star Wars: A New Hope.

    The scenery in the background is also featured more in Lord of the Rings than in Star Wars, because Tolkein (books author) described the world of middle-earth in great detail, and because the landscape is so significant in the telling of the story. Without such impressive scenery the film would have little impact on the audience. The majority of Star Wars was filmed in a studio. This makes the film seem more timeless, and has probably contributed to the fact that it is still popular today. Both films tell the story of good versus evil, and have many similar themes.

    • Word count: 3249
  13. Space Defence Satellites.

    The second stage then ignites, providing the energy necessary to lift the satellite into orbit. It, too, then separates from the satellite and any remaining rocket stages. The rest of the launch depends on the satellite's mission. For example, if the mission requires a geostationary orbit, which can be achieved only at a distance of about 22,000 miles above Earth, a third rocket stage provides the thrust to lift the satellite to its final orbital altitude. After the satellite has reached the final altitude, another rocket engine fires and gives the satellite a circular orbit.

    • Word count: 3191
  14. What are stars made of?

    Stars, including the Sun, also send out a solar wind and burst out occasional solar flares. Hubble Space Telescope Image from the Astronomy Picture of the Day Archive. http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/ap990113.html The Sagittarius Star Cloud, found at the centre of our galaxy. The colour of the star is linked to temperature that it is. A relatively cool star would be yellow like our Sun would seem dim in this photograph. The Life Cycle Of A Star. Stars are born from clusters of interstellar matter Outer space is not an absolute vacuum.

    • Word count: 3165
  15. Victorian Press and the Working Classes

    Whether the names of the newspapers change, or the layout, even how the reporting is carried out. Within the reading carried out it was imperative to check that all the papers were reliable sources of information. However with all newspapers they have an agenda to follow. In taking two different views it allows the research to show that in can be balanced, as the biased views should level themselves out. Taking in to account that it is impossible to find an unbiased view it is up to me to decide whether or not the stories included can be trusted.

    • Word count: 3064
  16. GCSE Astronomy Revision Notes

    You can use the shadows to calculate the angle between the sticks. When you take the distance between the sticks into account, you can calculate the curvature of the Earth, because they are not parallel. Eratosthenes of Cyrene used this experiment to calculate the circumference of the Earth. 1. How long is the rotation period of the Earth? * 23 hours and 56 minutes 1. How long does it take the Earth to rotate by one degree? * 4 minutes 1.

    • Word count: 24627
  17. Physics - Meteorite Craters Research

    (From source 2) Some meteoroids survive passage through Earth's atmosphere and hit the ground. These are called meteorites. (From source 3) How Impact Craters are Formed When an impactor strikes a target, it has a great deal of kinetic energy (proportional to the object's mass and the square of its velocity). 1. Compression Stage: During this stage, the impactor punches a (relatively) small hole in the target, and a shock wave begins to pass through the target. This is when the impactor's energy is converted into heat and kinetic energy in the target, as the pressure generated by the impact is so great that even solid material can act somewhat fluid, and flow away from the impact site.

    • Word count: 3735

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