#### SIGNAL ANALYSIS

Engineering Lab Report AIMS 2 OBJECTIVES 2 PART 1: 2 PART 2: 2 EQUIPMENT 2 PROCEDURE 3 PART 1: 3 THEORY 4 FILTERS: 4 Fig 1 Ideal Filter 4 Fig 2 Typical Filter 5 Fig 3 Typical 2-stage Filter 5 TRANSFER FUNCTIONS AND THE LAPLACE TRANSFORM: 6 FOURIER ANALYSIS: 8 Components of a sine function: 8 RESULTS 9 LOW PASS FILTER 9 Table of Results: 9 Graph of Results: 9 Bode Plot for the Low Pass Filter: 10 HIGH PASS FILTER 10 Table of Results: 10 Graph of Results: 11 Bode Plot for the High Pass Filter: 11 BAND PASS FILTER 12 Table of Results: 12 Graph of Results: 13 Bode Plot for the Band Pass Filter: 13 STOP BAND FILTER 14 Table of Results: 14 Graph of Results: 15 Bode Plot for the Band Stop Filter: 15 2-STAGE LOW PASS FILTER 16 Table of Results: 16 Graph of Results: 16 Bode Plot for the 2-StageLow Pass Filter: 17 RESULTS FOR PART 2 17 SQUARE WAVE: 17 RAMP FUNCTION: 18 HALF WAVE RECTIFIER: 20 FULL WAVE RECTIFIER: 20 MODULATED SINE WAVE: 21 MODULATED SQUARE WAVE 21 DISCUSSION 22 CONCLUSION 23 APPENDICES 24 SIGNAL ANALYSIS AIMS Through experimentation of signal analysis, an understanding will be gained of a signal's behaviour when passing through filter systems of various orders. This also includes the understanding of the mathematical representation of signals and filter systems in both time and frequency domains with the use of Fourier

• Word count: 3233
• Level: GCSE
• Subject: Science

#### 'Investigate the factors which affect the strength of an electromagnet'

Henal Rajendra Patel CENTRE NUMBER: 14625 CANDIDATE NUMBER: 0127 'Investigate the factors which affect the strength of an electromagnet' An electromagnet can also be called a solenoid. An electromagnet can consist of just one wire, but usually an electromagnet is made up of wire coiled around a soft ferromagnetic core. TASK & AIM: An electromagnet can be used to pick up objects. I will choose a factor which will affect the strength of an electromagnet I have made and investigate how it affects the strength of your electromagnet. THE FACTORS THAT AFFECT THE STRENGTH OF AN ELECTROMAGNET: * Amount of Current * Length of the core * Diameter * Thickness of the wire used for the coils * Type of core * Number of turns on the electromagnet I will vary the number of turns on the electromagnet as that is the factor I have chosen to study, and I will keep the other factors constant. I feel that the more turns that I have on the electromagnet the more iron filings will be picked up. I chose to investigate this factor because I thought that this factor would give me the most reliable results. The current I will keep constant at 0.2 amps, the thickness of the wire I have used for the coils will stay the same for both experiments. The coils of wire will be tied round at the same strength for both experiments. Henal Rajendra Patel CENTRE NUMBER: 14625 CANDIDATE NUMBER:

• Word count: 1648
• Level: GCSE
• Subject: Science

#### Properties of waves

Properties of waves I. What is a wave A wave is a disturbance that carries energy through matter or space. II. Most waves travel through a medium i. sound travels as a wave a. the air through which sound travels is its medium ii. earth quakes make waves called seismic waves that travel through earth a. medium- the matter through which a wave travels b. waves that require a medium to travel through are called mechanical waves . almost all waves are mechanical waves 2. an exception to this is electromagnetic waves III. Light does not require a medium i. light can travel from the sun to the earth across the empty space ii. this is possible because light waves do not need a medium to t ravel through iii. light waves consist of changing electric and magnetic fields in space a. electromagnetic waves- a wave caused by a disturbance in electric and magnetic fields and that does not require a medium IV. Waves transfer energy i. waves carry energy because they can do work. ii. Ii. The bigger the wave is, the more energy it carries a. A cruise ship moving through water in the ocean could create waves big enough to move a fishing boat up and down a few meters. iii. Tsunami- a huge ocean wave caused by earthquakes a. A tsunami may be as high as 30 meters when it reaches the shore . such waves carry enough energy to cause a lot of damage to costal

• Word count: 1741
• Level: GCSE
• Subject: Science

#### Physics of water waves.

All waves possess the properties of reflection, refraction, diffraction and interference. These phenomena's were observed with the use of a ripple tank. A ripple tank consists of a large rectangular tray with a transparent bottom. Water is placed in this tan to a depth of approximately one centimeter. A light source is then placed above the tray of water. When the water is disturbed it can be seen on a white surface positioned under the tray. The first phenomenon observed was reflection. It was found that water waves also follow the law of reflection. As straight waves strike a hard straight surface they are reflected at an angle equal to the angle of incidence. After reflection the wave has the same speed, frequency and wavelength as it did prior to the collision. This is similar to the reflection of circular waves off a straight barrier. The reflected waves are also circular, however they have a centre point that is position behind the barrier. This point is known as the "image" of the source. Reflection of a parabolic or concave barrier can be closely compared to that of light waves off a concave mirror. If the incident wave was straight, the reflected waves are curved, and they converge at a fixed focal point. After passing through the focus, the radius of the curves increase. The opposite is so when circular waves strike a concave barrier. The reflected waves are

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• Word count: 603
• Level: GCSE
• Subject: Science

#### Convection - What it is and how it works

Convection What it is and how it works Convection of heat occurs when the atoms in a liquid or a gas move away from there neighbouring atoms. This causes the local area expand and consequently become less dense than the surrounding fluid. Convection works by something heating up and becoming less dense than the surroundings. The less dense object will rise due to buoyant forces. When the less dense object cools down it will become denser and return to its original position. The two types of convection Convection comes in two types natural and forced. Heated air rising is an example of natural convection. Forced convection is when a pump or a mechanism moves the heated fluid. Some examples of forced convection are some types of ovens, refrigerators and air conditioners. Lava Lamp A lava lamp is an example of convection the heater in the base of the lamp heat up the fake lava. Due to the rapidly increased temp the lava expands making it less dense than the surrounding liquid. The less dense lava then floats to the top. When it is at the top it starts to get smaller and less dense than the surrounding liquid. This means it then floats down to the bottom again. Radiator In most houses we have a radiator. The heat given of by them is mainly produced by convection. The convector heater warms the air in contact with it this then becomes less dense and rises. The

• Word count: 502
• Level: GCSE
• Subject: Science

#### To investigate the resonant frequency of the fundamental mode of vibration of air in a container

Physics Planning Exercise Introduction This experiment is designed to investigate the resonant frequency of the fundamental mode of vibration of air in a container depends on the volume of air within the container. A standing wave (or stationary wave) is produced at the resonant frequency and a node and an anti-node are produced from this where the node is the point at which the wave never moves at all, and the anti-node is the place at which the wave can move about freely. The fundamental mode is the simplest standing/stationary wave that can be produced. Resonance is the condition in which an acoustic system vibrates in response to a force applied to the system's natural frequency. The natural frequency is that at which the system would vibrate if deflected once and then allowed to move freely. If a system is excited by the continued application of external forces at this frequency the amplitude of the oscillation will build up and may lead the destruction of the device or structure. Procedure This experiment can be investigated by using a resonance tube, and a set of tuning forks. The volume of air in the tube can be changed by moving the inner tube up and down. The width of the inner tube will not change throughout the whole experiment- making it a fair test. Also different tuning forks can be used to give a varied range of frequencies so that I see how the

• Word count: 624
• Level: GCSE
• Subject: Science

#### Describe and explain how a simple radio receiver and transceiver works and then explain one of its uses in an ILS (Instrument Landing System).

Physics Coursework 2003 ILS (Instrument Landing System) Chris Tootell 0743 (HN) 51113 Contents Contents 2 Introduction: 3 Description: 3 Background: 3 How Does It Work? 4 UHF and VHF Equipment: 4 The Aerials: 5 The Localiser Transmitter: 5 Glide Path Transmitter: 6 Autoland Capabilities: 8 Problems Of The ILS: 8 Bibliography: 9 Introduction: In this reading and research project I am going to describe and explain how a simple radio receiver and transceiver works and then explain one of its uses in an ILS (Instrument Landing System). I am then going to go on and explain its application and importance around the world in everyday usage. In the description the main three sections involved in how the ILS works will be covered as well as the background to the use of the ILS and the uses of it. Description: Now I have covered the way in which radio waves are transmitted and received and the construction of the devices needed I am going to move onto the application of there use. I am going to use an ILS as the use of radio and will describe how it works. ILS is short for Instrument Landing System. The ILS is basically a pilot interpreted runway approach aid. This means that it will 'help' the pilot of an aircraft fitted with ILS equipment to make an approach to an airport that is equipped with ILS transmitting equipment. Although it sounds very simple a design

• Word count: 1918
• Level: GCSE
• Subject: Science

#### What causes feedback in a guitar or microphone?

What causes feedback in a guitar or microphone? Just for the record, feedback is actually the mechanism used to control almost every electronic device manufactured. Stability is a critical issue for all of these feedback control systems, and the gain, or level of amplification, used is a critical element in their design. When musicians talk about feedback, however, the connotation is negative because it is the term they use to describe the shreek that results when the gain is too high on the output of an amplified instrument or microphone. There are several potential mechanisms by which feedback can occur when sound is amplified. Let's deal first with the simple case of a microphone and an amplified speaker. (See the figure, but ignore the guitar for now.) Feedback occurs when a "loop" between an input and output is closed. In this scenario, the microphone serves as the input and the amplified speaker provides the output. In our example, the loop between the input and output closes when the sound radiated from the amplified speaker reaches the microphone and is subsequently amplified again. In effect, the cat is chasing its tail. (See the dashed red line connecting the loudspeaker to the microphone through acoustic feedback in the figure.) Gain is an important factor in this instance; it also explains why equalizers are frequently employed to control acoustic feedback. The

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• Word count: 586
• Level: GCSE
• Subject: Science

#### Refractrometry. Aim: Using a model Pulfrich refractometer determine the refractive index of a range of sugar solutions and hence determine the refractive index of some sugar solutions with an unknown concentration.

Physics Coursework: Refractometry Introduction When light crosses the boundary between two materials, it changes its speed and normally its direction, this is refraction. The refractive index ( ) for a pair of materials is a ratio of the wave velocities. The incident and refractive angles are measured from the normal (perpendicular to the object). Aim: Using a model Pulfrich refractometer determine the refractive index of a range of sugar solutions and hence determine the refractive index of some sugar solutions with an unknown concentration. The following equations show how we can combine different equations for refractive index to come up with one that is useful for my experiment The refraction from liquid to glass: The refraction index from air to glass: And if: Then: And if: Then: Using these we can calculate the refractive index from air to liquid is: We also know that C = 90° - r (because we will use a right-angled block) so sin C = cos r In conclusion we can come up with a final equation for the refractive index for air to liquid is: I will then plot the refractive index against the concentration of the sugar solution and draw a line of best fit. From the line of best fit and the refractive index of my unknown concentrations I should then be able to draw a line down from the line to determine the concentration. I predict that my graph will be

• Word count: 1494
• Level: GCSE
• Subject: Science

#### Formulation Of A Theory.

Formulation Of A Theory The certain factors that influence the accuracy of estimation is mainly: Age, the time of day it is processed, gender and the style of the survey. The reason age has an affect on the accuracy of estimation, is because if the person is too young or too old the survey may not be reliable enough in order for it to be processed into a data collection sheet the reason being that they may not be suited to the imperial or metric measurement used in modern days. The young may not have learnt the imperial measures and the elderly may not be used to the correct terms. The effect, time has to getting good reliability is that the survey should be taken out at a convenient time of the day where food has been consumed properly and the people's minds are focused. The times which may be irrelevant to practice a survey is early in the morning or late at night where people may be tired. The gender may have a certain effect on the outcome of results because the males may differ in technical skills to females or it is possible that perhaps females are more capable of handling academical situations rather than males. The style of a survey may affect the result because if badly constructed questions are used, people will not answer the survey properly and will try to avoid them. An example of a badly constructed question is 'What is your age?'-This is personal. Many

• Word count: 6580
• Level: GCSE
• Subject: Science