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# GCSE: Waves

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• Marked by Teachers essays 11
• Peer Reviewed essays 13
1. ## refraction experiment

4 star(s)

The radiation rebounds from a barrier in its path without a change in speed. > Normal line: A line perpendicular to the surface at the point where a ray of light strikes. > Incident Ray: A ray which impinges upon a surface. > Refracted Ray: a ray that has changed direction after crossing from one media to another, in which the speed is different. > Emergent ray: the light ray leaving a medium in contrast to the entering or incident ray. > Angle of incidence: the angle between the incident ray and a normal.

• Word count: 1022
2. ## Find the critical angle and refractive index for plastic using a graphical treatment for my results.

4 star(s)

Angle of incidence (I): Angle between incidence ray and normal at point of incidence. Point of incidence: Point at which incident ray meets boundary and becomes refracted ray. Critical angle: The particular angle of incidence of a ray hitting a less dense medium, which results in it being refracted at 900 to the normal. Normal: A line at right angles to boundary through chosen points. There are two main laws of refraction of light: 1. The refracted ray lies in the same plane as the incident ray and normal at the point of incidence.

• Word count: 1127
3. ## Investigation to find the change in the speed of light through perspex.

4 star(s)

a and refraction ? b and the refractive indices na and nb of the media are related through what has become known as Snell's Law: Snell's Law = the refractive index of the medium light is passing into the refractive index of the medium light is passing out of = Sin(i)/Sin(r). Apparatus Perspex block (semi-circular) Protractor sheet (A4) Lens Collimator Optical pins Power pack Method * First we gathered all the required equipment. * Then we set it up by placing the perspex d-block on the A4 protractor paper and plugged in the ray box into the mains.

• Word count: 1374
4. ## An investigation into the factors affecting the frequency of a standing wave

4 star(s)

I have decided to investigate the effect that altering the length of string along which the wave travels. From the above equations, I would expect the frequency to be inversely proportional to the length of string, as you would create a shorter wavelength when the string is shorter, and the speed can be kept constant. Because I am only investigating the change in frequency caused by a change in length of the string, both the tension and the mass per unit length of the strength need to be kept the same to get accurate results. Method To keep the Mass per unit length of wire the same, I am going to use the same piece of constantan wire for all my results, which has a mass per unit length of 32 (swp).

• Word count: 1375
5. ## Graphs illustrating variants of y = sin x.

5 star(s)

By doing this we are taking A<0. Graph 5 Graph 5 shows us that the wave flips around when A is negative. So we can conclude that when A<0 the wave will always be upside down From investigating graphs of y = Asin x, we can conclude that when the A is less than 1 then the wave compresses vertically and when A is greater than 1 the wave expands vertically. If A is less than 0, then the whole wave flips upside down.

• Word count: 1010
6. ## What Is Fibre Optics

5 star(s)

This angle is called the angle of Total Reflection. Fibre Optics uses this simple principle for transmission. The core of the fibre optics cable, which is made of glass, has a higher index of refraction than the index of the cladding, which covers this core. So when light is injected into the glass core at the correct angle, it will reflect back from the surface and continue doing this in its forward direction of travel. In other words the light cannot "escape" from the fibre. COMPONENTS OF A FIBRE OPTICS SYSTEM The use of fibre optics is extensive, but the components used to make up a system are usually similar.

• Word count: 1147
7. ## Mobile Phone case study

4 star(s)

Macrocells are the largest type of base stations and provide the main coverage for mobile phone networks. Its antennas can be mounted on ground-based masts, rooftops or other structures and must be high enough to avoid obstruction. Macrocells provide radio coverage over different distances, depending on the frequency used, the number of calls being made and the surrounding environment. Microcells are used to improve capacity in areas where mobile phone communication is frequent, such as shopping centres. The antennas for microcells are mounted at street level. They are smaller than macrocell antennas and can usually be disguised, so that they are less obvious, in case of vandalism.

• Word count: 1413
8. ## How does the number of coils on an electromagnet affect its strength?

4 star(s)

The more induced voltage, the stronger the electromagnet. An alternative way to strengthen an electromagnet is to replace the core with a "soft" iron core. Prediction: - An increase in the number of coils applied to the iron nail will cause an increase in the number of paperclips being picked up. (a positive correlation between the two variables) This prediction derived from the scientific knowledge above - 'Therefore, the more turns of the coil you have, the greater the magnetic field and the stronger the electromagnet.' Apparatus: - Iron nail (1)

• Word count: 1038
9. ## Experiment to investigate the relationship between speed and depth for a water wave.

4 star(s)

For my preliminary work, I did the experiment and tested that a wave would be able to be created. The preliminary work brought up the problem of how high the wooden block should be held up before it is swung into the water, it was decided that it should be swung from about 4cm above the bottom of the guttering. Safety Precautions: Even though safety is a virtue the experiment being conducted is a relatively safe one. The only major danger is slipping on the water, which has been spilled, and so when water is spilled the water is cleaned up immediately.

• Word count: 1006
10. ## Do mobile phones adversly affect our health? - Case study

3 star(s)

Radio waves are the second weakest type of wave, so would not create much of a risk to the human body, albeit affect the tissue slightly. There is a diagram of the electromagnetic spectrum on the next page. "Mobile phones connect to the base station providing the best signal - usually the nearest. As a person moves away from the base station the signal becomes weaker, so the mobile phone automatically adjusts its own RF field strength to maintain the minimum level needed to communicate with the base station."

• Word count: 1143