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GCSE: Waves

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  1. Physics in the real world - During my visit to Broomfield Hospital I witnessed two aspects of physics in every day use. These were X-Rays and ultrasound; they both do similar jobs, although they both have limitations.

    Ions can then collide with more atoms to create more ions. This can cause defects in strands of DNA, this can either cause cancerous cells or, it can kill off the DNA making the patient ill. Prolonged exposure to X-Rays causes Radiation sickness. Which is why the operators of X-Ray machines stand behind lead shields. X-Rays are wavelike forms of electromagnetic radiation, very much like visible light. The difference between the two is the wavelength; X-Rays have a much shorter wavelength. They also have a very high energy level and can pass through most things. X-Ray machines work by beaming X-Rays through a series of filters, then on to the patient.

    • Word count: 2034
  2. Formulation Of A Theory.

    Method The data will be collected through a simple questionnaire. A stratified sample will be used. This is because in a stratified sample, the population that will be asked will be divided into categories. The sample size will be quite small with around 60 people being questioned. The proportions will be 30 children and 30 adults. The questionnaire will consist of four main questions. They are: Age Group, Gender, estimation for the line and the angle. The age range will break up children (11-18) and adults (19-60). But the questioning of adults will only be done up to the age of 60.

    • Word count: 6580
  3. Outline the Factors that Influence the Amount of Wave Energy that Arrives at the Coastline.

    These are flat, low waves of low energy. They have wavelengths of around 100 metres and a wave height of one metre or less. The wave period is very long with around six to eight wave breaks per minute. Such low energy waves would deliver low amounts of energy to the coastline. With a short fetch and a high wind speed, spilling waves are formed. They are high energy, high, steep waves have more than one metre in height. The wavelength is small at around twenty metres and the wave period is short, at around fourteen waves breaking per minute.

    • Word count: 1215
  4. Deviation of Light by a Prism.

    I will be measuring all angles using a 360� protractor. Snells Law = (Where "i" is the angle of incidence and "r" is the angle of refraction, and "n" is the refractive index of the material in question) This is also assuming that light is travelling form a vacuum into the glass, even though it will actually be travelling from air into glass. I have considered this fact to be negligible because the refractive index of air is roughly equal to 1 (about 1.003)

    • Word count: 4675
  5. Investigating the factors that affect the strength of an electromagnet.

    > Which measurements have the largest errors? > Any improvements that I would make to my investigation. Planning What I am trying to find out? My aim is to find out the factors that affect the strength of an electromagnet. What I am going to do? Equipment list * Power pack * (Soft) Iron core * Wire * Paper clips Method In my investigation I am going to see how many paper clips an electromagnet can pick up, varying how many times a wire is wrapped around an iron core. 1. I will connect the wire to the power pack and set the voltage to 8.

    • Word count: 770
  6. Wave Motion and Definitions

    Speed = Frequency x Wavelength v = f ? Hutchings: Q 11.1 and 11.2 p 164. 2.2.6 Transverse and Longitudinal Waves. Waves may be produced by two distinct forms of vibration. We may thus classify any wave as being a TRANSVERSE WAVE or a LONGITUDINAL. Tranverse Wave. eg. Water waves, some Seismic waves and ALL Electromagnetic waves. Vibration causing disturbance is at right angles to the direction in which the energy travels Longitudinal Waves. eg. Sound waves and some Seismic waves.

    • Word count: 2601
  7. The aim of my experiment is to see what factors affect electromagnetism the most so as to give the best electromagnet in an experiment.

    This leads to a strong field through the coil but a weak one outside it (see diagrams). A solenoid may be considered as a series of flat circular coils, each a little spaced apart from one another on a common axis. Each turn of insulated wire gives a magnetic field similar to that of a flat circular coil. The fields between neighbouring turns oppose one another and cancel, but the fields along the common axis reinforce, producing the pattern shown below. I can say from this that because the magnetic field occurs most strongly on the inside of the circular wire that if an object of a specific material is placed through the circles then a magnetic field will be induced into it, which is why it becomes an electromagnet.

    • Word count: 6840
  8. ATRAC: Adaptive Transform Acoustic Coding for MiniDisc

    * Simple and inexpensive hardware implementation suitable for portable players and recorders. When digital audio data is compressed, there is normally a certain amount of quantization noise introduced into the signal. The goal of many audio coding systems [1-6] is to control the time-frequency distribution of this noise in such a way as to render it inaudible to the human ear. If this is completely successful, the reconstructed signal will be indistinguishable from the original. In general, audio coders operate by decomposing the signal into a set of units, each corresponding to a certain range in time and frequency.

    • Word count: 2330
  9. Strength of an Electromagnet

    Do each experiment at each number of coils three times in total. Then make an average of your results. Variables Kept constant: Current from the power pack Space between each coil. The type of Electromagnet, iron core Variable: The number of coils To measure: The mass in grams picked up by the Electromagnet at each strength Apparatus List 2 Electromagnets are needed, one to wrap the coils around and it also provides a soft Iron core. The second magnet is needed so that the hooks can balance easier. A Stand is used in my investigation to hold the clamp and the electromagnet off the ground.

    • Word count: 1502
  10. An Investigation Into the Effect of Wave Exposure on the Volume of Limpets

    This suggests that due to their reduced tenacity with movement, the Patella spp. may be limited in size by waves at an exposed shore. Introduction: Limpets are small, herbivorous gastropods that are abundant in many intertidal environments, especially temperate rocky coasts (Branch 1986). Limpet shells are conical shaped and are strong to resist attack from waves and predators. Each limpet has a foot that adheres powerfully to the rock surface using suction and adhesion. The majority of limpets clamp themselves tightly against the substratum during low tide, and become mobile again once they are submerged by the flowing tide.

    • Word count: 1974
  11. Investigate the relationship between sound pressure level (SPL) and signal amplitude.

    Figure 1 ? Figure 2 ? SPL meter as it was used in the application I performed some preliminary experiments to determine: * The distance between the SPL meter and the speaker. * The frequency of the signal the speaker should emit. * The lowest amplitude that could be sensed by the SPL meter. * The highest amplitude that could be produced by the signal amplifier. I found: * For the SPL meter to register at low amplitudes the furthest distance the speaker can be from the sensor is 3.5cm.

    • Word count: 2284
  12. 'Investigate the factors which affect the strength of an electromagnet'

    I chose to investigate this factor because I thought that this factor would give me the most reliable results. The current I will keep constant at 0.2 amps, the thickness of the wire I have used for the coils will stay the same for both experiments. The coils of wire will be tied round at the same strength for both experiments. Henal Rajendra Patel CENTRE NUMBER: 14625 CANDIDATE NUMBER: 0127 PREDICTION & SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE: I predict that the more current that passes through the wire the greater the electromagnetic pull of the soft-iron core will be. The less turns on the coil, will lead to less iron filings will be attracted to the electromagnet.

    • Word count: 1648
  13. The aims of this investigation are to find the relationship between the angles of incidence and the angles of refraction for a transparent material and to find the critical angle of the transparent material.

    cannot pass through it, as they would have to emerge at an angle greater than 90 degrees, which is not possible. Such rays can only be reflected back into the denser medium. The smallest angle of incidence at which total internal reflection occurs is called the critical angle. The law of refraction (Snell's law) deals with the sines of the angles involved. It is most simply stated mathematically: if the angle of incidence is called I and the angle of refraction is r, then sine i/sin r is a constant, n.

    • Word count: 1429
  14. What factors affect the strength of electromagnetism?

    That is, my independent variable will be current through the coil. It will be found what effect currents of different sizes will have upon the strength of the electromagnet, by measuring the force exerted by it using a Newton Meter, when different currents are passed through the electromagnet. The magnetic force exerted by the electromagnet is my dependent variable. In this experiment a large iron rod will be used as the core and a wire (Constantan, with insulation) will be coiled around it, to make the electromagnet.

    • Word count: 2061
  15. Our aim is to find the factors, which make the strongest electromagnets.

    My partner and I chose to change the amount of coils around the nail, for our experiment. PREDICTION I predict that the more coils we add to the electromagnet, the stronger the magnetism will be and therefore the larger amount of paperclips the magnet will be able to suspend. So if you double the amount of coils, than the magnet will pick up double the amount of paperclips.

    • Word count: 387
  16. An Investigation into the Effect on the Critical Angle by Changing the Colour of Light

    This is then repeated all the way to the end of the cable where the information is needed. Practical applications include digital audio transmitters which allow CD quality sound to be sent from one place to the other, with hardly any loss of quality. Other applications include Cats Eyes which are reflective road markings. These employ total internal reflection to give drives a better idea of where the road markings are, when driving in the dark. The Cats Eye works by reflecting the light from the cars head lamps through 180� and back to the eyes of the driver to alert him or her when the centre of the road is.

    • Word count: 2331
  17. Is the speed of sound affected when it travels threw different temperatures of air

    This relationship is generalized below. L = (1/4)????????????????????????n???? where n = odd integer The wavelength of a certain frequency is twice the distance between any two resonance lengths. The equation given above might lead you to calculate the wavelength simply as four times the length of the first resonance point, but this will give you a poor result. The anti-node of the wave falls slightly outside of the tube; just how far depends on the wavelength and tube diameter. To avoid the use of a correction factor, just calculate the wavelength as twice the difference between two resonance points.

    • Word count: 3421
  18. The Benefits and repercussions of the use of mobile phones in a third world country: El Salvador

    There are two main ways by which the health is directly jeopardized by the RF radiation. These are by thermal effects caused mainly by holding the mobile phone close to the body and non-thermal effects, which are caused by both the phone itself and the base stations that emits the signal. Moreover there are other reasons that might affect the general population, like there is strong evidence relating the use of mobile phones whilst driving increases the probability of a car accident.

    • Word count: 2040
  19. Using paperclips to experiment the effects of the strength of a magnet

    Electromagnet An electromagnet can also be called a Solenoid. An electromagnet can consist of just one wire, but usually an electromagnet is made up of wire coiled around a soft ferromagnetic core (a solenoid). This extract comes from the book ' The Working World of Physics', " Those like Iron, Nickel and Cobalt which are easily magnetised are called Ferromagnetic." Materials that only react in a very strong magnetic field are called Paramagnetic. We decided to use a magnet because it is probably the best material available to use for a core and was really the only material available apart from steel.

    • Word count: 1315
  20. Physics investigation- Strength of Electromagnet

    increase the coils around the iron core, more and more Domains face in the same direction until they all are, and the magnet becomes saturated as no more domains can face in the direction therefore the strength cannot increase Equipment 1. Iron core 2. Conductive wire 3. Magnet 4. Scales 5. Power pack up to 13volts 6. Electrical wires 7. Ammeter 8. Variable resistor 9. Clamp 10. Stand for clamp 11. Two crocodile clips 12. Cello tape or masking tape Method During our preliminary work we found it would be best in the experiment to change the current in steps of 0.5 amps this will happen from 0 amps - 4 amps.

    • Word count: 1897
  21. Physics Essay: Making Music

    In the case of producing sounds the waves usually travel through the air, as a longitudinal wave. This longitudinal wave is caused by vibrations, which alternately compress, then decompress the particles in the medium (e.g. air or water) through which the wave is travelling. These vibrating particles transfer energy. This diagram shows how the sound waves travel through its medium. (Sound always requires this medium so that the particles can vibrate, and carry the wave. Therefore sound cannot travel through a vacuum.) As sound is a wave it follows the many rules of waves, these include the importance of frequency and wavelength.

    • Word count: 742
  22. Investigating the speed of travelling waves in water.

    This shows that the speed (squared) is directly proportional to the depth of water. Preliminary measurements Before proceeding to find the wave velocity, I will need to measure the length and width of the tray and to see whether it is flat on the bottom. The length of the base of the tray is 37.5cm. The width is 22.5 cm and the total depth is 8cm. Since the depth of the tray is 8cm, this will limit me to investigate up to a maximum depth of 4cm.

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    EQUIPMENT * Function generator * Pico-scope. * IBM PC for the Pico system. * Patch board, test leads and components PROCEDURE Part 1: Using suitable value resistors and capacitors obtain: 1. A Low Pass Filter. Demonstrate theoretically that the circuit acts as a low pass filter and sketch the gain & phase response as predicted by the theory. Perform the frequency response test on the filter then plot the results and compare with the theoretical results. 2. Repeat step (1)

    • Word count: 3233
  24. Sideways Displacement of a Light Ray

    (i) 7. measure the sideways displacement 8. record the results into the appropriate table 9. repeat the experiment for the same angle of incidence 10. if needed, repeat the experiment for the same angle of incidence one more time ( if the difference between result 1 and result 2 is big) 11. record the results into the appropriate table 12. repeat steps 6-10 for 5-6 different angles (i) An appropriate table for my results: angle of incidence ( i ) sideways displacement / cm / degrees result 1 result 2 result 3 average 15 30 45 40 75 90 105 Experiment will be made safe, by following these easy rules: * the whole experiment should be done in the free area (without any external objects: books, pencil-boxes, etc.)

    • Word count: 5524
  25. Investigation between the angle of Incidence and detraction

    To help to complete this I shall draw up an equipment list before hand to help to make my investigation run smoothly the list is as follows: 1.

    • Word count: 357

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