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University Degree: Buddhism

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  1. Buddhism: The Concept of Dukkha

    "When the Buddha said "life is dukkha," he didn't mean that life contains dukkha. He meant exactly that life is dukkha. Life is conditioned. Life is temporary." (O'Brien, "Dukkha," par.4) Dukkha is manifest in different ways in man. The first of these lies in Anitya or Anichcha which means constant change or impermanence. It refers to dependent origination (Pratitya- samutpada). "On ignorance depends karma; On karma depends consciousness; On consciousness depends name and form; On name and form depends the six organs of sense; On the six organs of sense depends contact...On birth depends old age and death, sorrow, lamentation, misery, grief, and despair."

    • Word count: 1863
  2. The Philosophy of Zen and Shin Buddhism

    In essence Zen is free from all these dogmatic and religious impediments. Whatever teachings there are in Zen, they come out of one's own mind. Fundamentally we teach ourselves and Zen merely points the way. Zen Buddhism is not a religion but rather more of a philosophy in which one uses to discover their true self. To fully understand the power of Zen Buddhism one must reject the external world and embrace the 'vast emptiness within (de Bary, 378). Zen's principle is to discipline the mind itself, to make it its own master, through an insight into its proper nature (de Bary, 392).

    • Word count: 1636
  3. Hinduism and Buddhism.

    The Hindus call the cycles of rebirths samsara, or the Wheel of Life. When a soul is finally cleansed enough to break free of samsara it is called moksha. The soul returns to Brahma for an eternity of contentment and ecstasy. There is no one incorporating creed in Hinduism. A follower may choose any god as their personal god, or may worship several of them. Although, to be a Hindu there are certain things that a follower must believe in and live by. These beliefs include a belief in karma, dharma and reincarnation after death.

    • Word count: 1865
  4. Blackcave - creative writing.

    "The Allegory of the Cave" describes a man's journey to obtain true knowledge-enlightenment. The allegory depicts a cave which holds prisoners, chained to the wall. These prisoners cannot turn to talk to their neighbors or see anything other than what is in front of them. At the back of the cave is a fire, the only source of light. It is through this fire that the puppeteers, the influential powers, cast shadows on the wall containing illusions that the prisoners believe to be real.

    • Word count: 1613
  5. The Cycle of Karma

    On the way, there was a villager's dog that followed his army. Every soldier had the compassion and took care of this dog according to fate. It became a part of army implicitly. It not only followed everywhere the army went but also liked to walked in front of the army like the leader. When the army got the destination, which located in the jungle, they took hold of that area for setting the military base. The only one way for sending the food was done by helicopter. Unfortunately, on 6 th January, 1974 which was the second day, the amount of clouds in the sky had too much.

    • Word count: 1692
  6. What roles did ideas associated with either Newton or Locke play in the Movement? Illustrate by reference to the work of a particular philosopher.

    Recognising this, the extent to which Isaac Newton's work was part of the movement can be analysed in the knowledge that opinions vary as to which of his ideas can be considered 'enlightened'. Newton (1642-1727), has been described as "the towering genius who had united both the celestial and terrestrial phenomena of motion by showing them to be instances of a single set of universal laws; he had solved the age-old problem of the nature of colour and light; and altogether he had used the resources both of mathematics and experiment to bring some of the unknown domains of nature within man's intellectual and even practical comprehension" (Buchdahl, 1961).

    • Word count: 1616
  7. What were the main characteristics of the Enlightenment?

    Consequently, commonalty could not understand the ideas and the expectations for any different in the future. In the pre-Enlightenment era it could not be tolerated for people of different classes to mix. The whole of humanity was faithful in old traditions and everybody thought that the future was already written and was therefore unchangeable; as there was an inborn notion of stability. However at the end of the 18th century the Enlightenment came to create many important changes in the whole structure of human life, by rejecting almost all-traditional beliefs, which had existed in the previous epoch.

    • Word count: 1564
  8. The Elusiveness and Effectiveness of Zen Buddhism.

    Both religions have faith in the notion of reincarnation, karma, and the end goal of Nirvana, or absolute liberation. But roughly 1000 years after the birth of the Buddah and the start of this religion, Buddhism began to change and spread throughout the surrounding areas. India's trade routes served as an incredible vehicle of influence for religion and philosophy. Because of its international connections, many important people traveled to such great lengths as China and Japan. One such man was Bodhi-Dharma,1 who landed in 520 AD in China during the reign of Emperor Wu.2 Bodhi-Dharma went on to be the father of the Zen school of Buddhism in China.

    • Word count: 1504
  9. The Japanese samurai warrior

    However, this ritual was appeased over time, the first documented amendment being recorded during the Tokugawa reign. At this time, short stories were also emerging about homosexual samurai, an example being Comrade Loves of the Samurai, where many of the samurai were described in feminine ways; their fairness and beauty being compared to flowers. Speculation is present over the possible effect the living arrangements of the samurai and distance from their families during the Tokugawa era had on male-male love relationships.

    • Word count: 1961
  10. Siddhartha - What message do you think Hermann Hesse wishes to convey by the way he concludes the novel?

    When Siddhartha sees parents with their children, or man with his wife, he knows the feeling they have. But this understanding neither makes his wound heal nor make him forget about the lost of his son. When Siddhartha looks into the river, he sees his reflection staring back. And it reminds him of his father, who must "had suffered the same sorrow that he is now suffering for his own son". Hesse describes the feeling of losing one's own son effectively, as if he himself has lost one before. I think Hesse is trying to make teenagers understand the unselfish love they have from their parent.

    • Word count: 1272
  11. Emergence of Enlightenment.

    He studied stars with the naked eye the next 20 years. Brahe's contributions were the great mass of data he had collected. He wasn't as good in mathematics though, but that he left for his assistant Kepler to do. Kepler formulated 3 famous laws of planetary motion. Planets are elliptical rather than circular around the sun. They do not move in a uniform motion. He showed that the time a planet takes to orbit Is precisely related to its distance from the sun. These laws were very important for the future. Copernicus had thoughts, and Kepler made them into laws.

    • Word count: 1583
  12. Zen the True Vehicle for Social Change.

    Ikkyu's methodology and Hakuin's Great Doubt provided the tools for Zen to become a vessel for social change. An enlightened being actions are inherently ethical, because enlightenment carries within it the supreme knowledge of good and evil and the ability to do only good. According to Ives "actions springing from satori are inherently good and hence if the person has been designated as a roshi on the basis of an acknowledged satori - that is, has received inka, the certification of satori in a Zen lineage - then that action will certainly be good" (113). Because Ikkyu was a certified enlightened being his actions could not have evil intent.

    • Word count: 1008
  13. Religions of the Eastern World

    About half a century ago, the West's view of Buddhism basically had it classified into two main traditions, the first two vehicles discussed, Theravada and Mahayana. However, since then, with a greater accessibility of Tibet, many texts have been translated and examined. From this, it is evident that Tibet in fact preserves the third branch, or third vehicle, of Buddhism, which we call Vajrayana. In addition to Vajrayana, this vehicle is sometimes referred to as Northern Buddhism, as it north from the point of view of the Buddha's birthplace, Mantrayana Buddhism, as the use of mantras, or magical chants or

    • Word count: 1851

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • Compare and Contrast the Representation of Enlightenment in "The Matrix" and "American Beauty." How do these films represent enlightenment and what difference does enlightenment make to the characters of Neo and Lester Burnham?

    "American Beauty and The Matrix both recognise the benefits of enlightenment from the ability of being truthful and honest. It realises the need of being truthful and honest from having to keep up appearances and let things lead to boiling point. American Beauty suggests that enlightenment is key, however, it doesn't come cheaply and in the violent conclusion Lester is murdered as a result of this. Similarly in the Matrix violence is used as a preventative measure against enlightenment as it is feared that with the realisation of enlightenment and freedom there is no order and thus no control resulting in anarchy. Filmography American Beauty, directed by Sam Mendes, 1999. The Matrix, directed by The Wachowski brothers, 1999. Fight Club, directed by David Fincher, 1999."

  • Not an age of reason, but a revolt against rationalism. (Peter Gay) Discuss this characterisation of the Enlightenment.

    "It is my belief that for the Enlightenment to reach its conclusions, the existence of Rationalism was necessary to inspire further thought. Similarly, it is my belief that the Christianity's existence was paramount to the emergence of Rationalist thought. None of these things are a revolt against the other, but an augmentation of their ideas. The revolt against rationalism cannot replace the age of reason, for they are one and the same thing. For mankind to be at the intellectual point we are in the twenty-first century, it was necessary for the Enlightenists to be reasonable in their search for an alternative path to rationalism. antagonist"

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