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University Degree: Buddhism
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Ikkyu's methodology and Hakuin's Great Doubt provided the tools for Zen to become a vessel for social change. An enlightened being actions are inherently ethical, because enlightenment carries within it the supreme knowledge of good and evil and the ability to do only good. According to Ives "actions springing from satori are inherently good and hence if the person has been designated as a roshi on the basis of an acknowledged satori - that is, has received inka, the certification of satori in a Zen lineage - then that action will certainly be good" (113). Because Ikkyu was a certified enlightened being his actions could not have evil intent.
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About half a century ago, the West's view of Buddhism basically had it classified into two main traditions, the first two vehicles discussed, Theravada and Mahayana. However, since then, with a greater accessibility of Tibet, many texts have been translated and examined. From this, it is evident that Tibet in fact preserves the third branch, or third vehicle, of Buddhism, which we call Vajrayana. In addition to Vajrayana, this vehicle is sometimes referred to as Northern Buddhism, as it north from the point of view of the Buddha's birthplace, Mantrayana Buddhism, as the use of mantras, or magical chants or
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In distinguishing their age from the past, Enlightenment writers often spoke of their time as a 'great age', comparable to the Age of Augustus. Few of the Enlightenment writers would have preferred to have lived at any other time.
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Religion is both a problemwhere its structures of dominance have oppressed women, as well as the solution where its vision of liberation has generated powerful movements for social change. (Eck & Devaki, 1986)
Many religions give equal status and value to men and women but the actual lived experiences of the people may not correspond with what the religion specifies. It has been observed that women are considered as subordinates to men and are not allowed to lead their lives independently (Holm and Bowker, 1994). A woman?s image in a society is as an obedient, quiet, innocent, and ignorant person who devotes her life to serve her family. However, religion provides the vision of freedom that asks for a social change.
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