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AS and A Level: European Union

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  1. Team Health Check

    SCORING 5 = Strongly Agree. - Fully operational and exceeds the description. 4 = Agree. - Operational and meets all or nearly all aspects of the description, but not ideal. 3 = Slightly Agree. - Operational, but incomplete. Partially meets the description. 2 = Slightly Disagree. - Nearly operational, but some way to go. Doesn't yet really meet the description.

    • Word count: 470
  2. Collection Management

    Supermarkets, newsagents and even petrol stations are causing an increasingly competitive market resulting in consumer book sales rising by approximately one-quarter in the last ten years.4 Visits to libraries have been falling steadily at the rate of 2% year on year since 1993/94,5 which, as they point out, would take only 20 years for this figure to reach zero. Libraries will need to act swiftly if they are to reverse this trend and avoid disaffecting new generations of potential users.

    • Word count: 4015
  3. Differing Notions of Citizenship

    However, status diverges from membership since it makes a claim to a less normative quality - the 'imagined community.' The imagined community is what Pierson denotes as what it means to be of a certain nationality (Pierson 132). Where membership associates people (by territory) to a national identity, status seeks to make the relationship a little deeper, associating people to their culture and traditions and to what those things mean on a personal level. Stevenson's conception of 'cultural citizenship' spans beyond the rather narrow concepts of either membership or status. He emphasizes the large-scale effects that media have played in reshaping what it means to be a citizen (of a nation-state and of the world).

    • Word count: 1189
  4. Discussing Gangs.

    There are some other reasons for teens joining gangs. Some of these reasons may be low self-esteem, family problems, peer pressure, respect/recognition, excitement, protection/fear, family involvement, and no discouragement to join. Some may just not be that popular and want to join a group.

    • Word count: 470
  5. MM02 - How the European market affects the way a firm is willing to operate as a business.

    BT Cellnet then suffered a dip in sales so to combat this; they felt they needed a new image. Then in the summer of 2001, BT changed the image and the name of their mobile phones- mmO2. mmO2 completed a de-merger from British Telecommunications plc on 19 November 2001. As a result of this de-merger, mmO2 plc operates its operations as an independent entity with key subsidiaries in the UK, Germany, the Netherlands, Ireland and the Isle of Man. mmO2 plc is listed in the London and New York stock exchanges.

    • Word count: 6812
  6. The debate of the Euro - 'Should Britain join the euro?'

    Brown has devised a set of five tests to apply in the process of deciding whether Britain will in fact benefit. The conditions set out in the tests will be assessed by June 2003. If the government decides they have been met it will put British entry to a referendum soon afterwards. Membership could be completed with the euro becoming Britain's currency, the government believes, within 40 months of deciding to go ahead with a referendum. The five tests are: Is there sustainable convergence between UK and the eurozone economies?

    • Word count: 2611
  7. Should a country join the EU?

    Background European Union (EU) is an integration of different European countries. An economist named Healey suggested that "... it helps to remove the boundaries which separate activities in one nation to another." The EU has grown from six countries in 1951 to 15 members today. The existing members include: United Kingdom, France, Germany, Portugal, Greece, Austria, Denmark, Luxembourg, Spain, Ireland, Italy, Netherlands, Finland, Sweden and Belgium. 11 of these countries will use EURO as a single currency and irrevocably fix their exchange rates together following the convergence criteria in January 2002.

    • Word count: 1168
  8. By the 1850’s attitudes towards the union had become so divergent as to make compromise, in practice, impossible. Discuss.

    The development of the US had, by the early 1800's led to two clear systems being set up. In the North, an industrial power was developing (sustained by free workers), with a comparatively urban population. Many immigrants chose the North as a settling place, and on the whole, the population was better educated due to the larger number of schools. By contrast, in the South, a generally feudal, agricultural society was thriving, with an economy based mainly on cotton export. The agriculture in the South was mainly sustained via the use of African slaves, and (not unlike the rich Northern industrialists)

    • Word count: 2432
  9. Ever Closer Union

    France, Belgium, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and the UK sign the Brussels Treaty agreeing on military assistance, economic, social and cultural cooperation. A year later the same countries set up the Council of Europe - a forum for all European countries to discuss informal co-operation. 1951: The first step: Schuman's vision France, Germany, Italy, Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands - sign the Treaty of Paris establishing the European Coal and Steel Community which comes into force in 1954. This treaty is based on French Foreign Minister Robert Schuman's 1950 declaration that coal and steel resources should be pooled to avoid European countries preventing war on each another.

    • Word count: 3873
  10. You are a civil servant from a country, which will soon join the European Union. Draft a report to a senior officer setting out your advice as to how your country should prepare for the following before becoming a member of the EU.

    - The conditions for membership set out by the Copenhagen European Council in 1993 Section 2 Terms of reference: Main Body: Introduction: Accession requires that candidates fulfil the conditions for membership, that is the political and economic criteria, and the ability to take on the obligations of membership. The Commission will give a favourable recommendation on the accession of a country if it is convinced that it will be able to meet the criteria by accession. Accession requires a massive economic restructuring and political change.

    • Word count: 1870
  11. Czech Republic: What potential benefits and losses are there for this country if it gains EU membership?

    After nearly fifty years, with four waves of accessions, the EU today has fifteen member states and is currently preparing for its fifth enlargement....2 However, the above definition does not reveal exactly what functions the European Union undertakes. The mission objectives of the EU include: promoting economic and social progress, to assert the identity of the EU on the international scene, to introduce European citizenship and to develop an area of freedom, security and justice. Therefore, I now find myself asking this question: What does the Czech Republic have to gain from joining the international scene, adopting European citizenship, becoming part of an area of freedom, security and justice and becoming a target for economic and social progress?

    • Word count: 3866
  12. E.U. Enlargement

    2.-EUROPEAN UNION CRITERIA FOR ACCESSION In June of 1993 at a meeting in Copenhagen, the European Council set forth five political, economic and social criteria that countries must meet in order to be admitted into the Union. The five criteria are as follows: 1. There must be a demonstration that their government is stable and guarantees democratic principles. This includes respect for the law, adherence to civil rights and respect for the rights of national minorities; 2. There must be a demonstration of a functioning market economy; 3.

    • Word count: 2496
  13. What impact has Europe had on the process of Constitutional reform in the UK?

    Referendums may appear to be a relatively small constitutional reform its effects have been far reaching, from the original use of a national referendum in 1975, referendums have since been directed at various controversial issues and have been used under the guise of direct democracy to attempt to settle disputes about issue such as devolution and the antiquated question of Irish Home Rule. With regard to the EU's impact on these there have also been other examples of the same type of use, a proposed referendum on Economic Monetary Union and on the single currency, other issues that would inevitably have an impact on the UK constitution through their further integration of Europe and European politics.

    • Word count: 647
  14. The European Commission

    The commission must also manage policies, and negotiate international trade or cooperation agreements. As the executive body of the Union, it's responsible for managing the EU's budget, normally about �60bn. The commission normally only makes recommendations to the European Parliament, and the council of ministers, but in cases such as agriculture, it can go ahead and create the policies themselves, without consulting parliament of the CoM. In terms of cooperation agreements and international trade, the union has about 100 countries these types of agreements with the EU. It is up to the commission to make sure that these are all managed correctly.

    • Word count: 2353
  15. To what extent are the warren commissions conclusions about the assassination of president Kennedy correct?

    Oswald's movements immediately after the assassination certainly put him in the book depository at the time of the murder. Some evidence further incriminates Oswald as the lone assassin, a palm print taken from the barrel of the rifle, tests showed that he had recently fired a gun; the name "A Hidell" was used when the gun was purchased and the handwriting matched that of Lee Harvey Oswald. Oswald was also picked from a police line-up by Howard Brenan as the man he saw with a rifle at the sixth floor window. Fibres found on the rifle b**t appeared to match those of a shirt Oswald was wearing when arrested.

    • Word count: 1344
  16. 'The European Single Currency project was a bad idea from the start and ought to be abandoned.' Critically examine this statement.

    The single currency is thought to bring Europe closer politically and economically. It is an ambitious and risky project as it is the first example where sovereign states launch a single currency project. From the introduction of the ideas about the Euro there have been mixed views regarding its success and benefits to the countries.

    • Word count: 353
  17. Explain how groupthink and groupshift affect group decision-making with reference to contemporary management research

    Today this term is applied to many group decision making processes where there is a tendency for the group conform to a majority view without any critical appraisal of the underlying assumptions or examination of contrary points of view. Irving Janis in his book "Victims of Group-Think" described his observations of phenomena of group leadership and member interaction characterised by inward-looking, self-regulating and stereotypical behaviours that lead to distorted decision-making. Janis defines groupthink as "A mode of thinking that people engage in when they are deeply involved in a cohesive group, when the members' strivings for unanimity override their motivation to realistically appraise alternative courses of action."

    • Word count: 2036
  18. The ‘New Europe’

    Important Points in the EU History 1948 Around the same time as the OEEC were formed, other schemes for the European co-operation was also being implemented. The most important of these were the formation of a Customs Union between Belgium. Luxembourg and the Netherlands. 1952 Six countries - Belgium, France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Italy, Luxembourg and the Netherlands - create the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) by pooling their coal and steel resources in a common market controlled by an independent supranational authority.

    • Word count: 1681
  19. Critically examine the merits and defects of the various approaches to dealing with environmental problems.

    This is an effective tool against pollution. By being able to dictate how much a person or company is allowed to pollute directly results in a reduction of pollution in that State or area. The example of the UK whereby its own standards can be applied within EU standards, allows a stricter regime to occur if necessary. This is reflected in the Norwegian Pollution Control Act 1981, that states that no pollution is lawful where discharges are made into the environment, without the permission of local authorities3.

    • Word count: 2211
  20. The Enlargement of the European Union

    The origins of enlargement go back to the beginning of the Union, when Jean Monnet pioneered the idea of European integration in the early 1950's.The first ever enlargement of the EU took place in 1973 when Ireland, Denmark and the United Kingdom joined the original six EEC states. Greece was then awarded membership in 1981, followed by Portugal and Spain in 1986 and finally Austria, Finland and Sweden in 1995.The most recent enlargement brought the total and present membership to fifteen states.

    • Word count: 3771
  21. Have the Costs of Spain’s Membership of the European Union Outweighed its Advantages?

    Next, it will focus on the economic dimension of the integration into the European Union and demonstrate the advantages for Spain's economy. Thirdly, other cultural and societal benefits of the European Union membership will be dealt with. Lastly, it will conclude by stating that on balance Spain has benefited from accession to the EU more than it has lost out. First, Maastricht Treaty of February 1992 was a decisive step towards the "ever closer union," an aspiration first expressed in the Treaty of Rome (1957)

    • Word count: 2508
  22. How Member States can derogate from the trading conditions governed by European Community (EC) rules

    closely scrutinised and restrictively interpreted.13 Indeed Article 30 warns that, "[s]uch prohibitions shall not, however, constitute a means of arbitrary discrimination or a disguised restriction on trade between Member States." This is an approach the Court of Justice will adopt in regard to derogations generally.14 * Protection of animals and plants The Crayfish15 case concerned German legislation prohibiting the importation of live crayfish due to fears that disease might befall the indigenous crayfish population, as well as anxieties that plant life might be adversely affected.

    • Word count: 4325
  23. 'As the only directly elected European Institution is the European Parliament, the European Union cannot be described as democratic.' Discuss

    For practical reasons there need to be unelected public servants to work with the elected government. These can gain democratic legitimacy by being accountable to the elected government. Commentators have said the balance of democracy in the EU means that the decision making processes of the EU are too far removed from any democratic processes. The institutions that have power in the EU. The Council, made up of the heads of government of the EU countries is the highest authority and the driving force behind the project. It defines the EU's political guidelines in treaties. The treaties direct the EU and so have a huge effect on the lives of the people of the member states, the decision to ratify them is made at the highest level.

    • Word count: 1548
  24. What is the future for European Union?

    However, there are still a lot of problems that the EU is likely to face in the future. These things may include the integration of monetary union, enlargement policy and managing the EU budget which I will discuss in this project. Discussion The discussion of the European Monetary Union (EMU) has been extremely topical. There are a lot of people or pressure groups who agree with the integration due to several advantages. Their arguments may include there will be an increase in trade through the elimination of exchange rate fluctuations; reduce cost of production because commission is no longer needed to buy foreign currencies.

    • Word count: 1291
  25. Of the following: Parliament, Ombudsmen, UK Courts, European Court of Justice and the European Court of Human Rights, which body is the most effective at redressing grievances, and why?

    This was done, and the number of cases dealt with is shared equally between the two groups. Things that the European Court of Justice can take action against are failure to act (against parliament, the council or commission) or damages. If a complaint is made, the person can either go to this court, or to the European Ombudsman. The European Court of Human Rights is situated in Strasbourg and is an institution of the European Convention for human rights. The creation of this body allows people with a grievance against the state to challenge their treatment at an international level.

    • Word count: 1656

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