A comparison of marine organisms on shale & limestone coasts. Doolin, Ireland.
A COMPARISON OF MARINE ORGANISMS ON SHALE & LIMESTONE COASTS. DOOLIN, IRELAND. Introduction Doolin is situated in the Burren area of county Clare, Ireland. The area is famous for its limestone landscape and is highly acknowledged as an area of global importance for its flora, fauna and ecology. Doolin represents a unique limestone pavement and terrain which supports a diversity of rare marine habitats. In 1988, in recognition of its importance, the state Wildlife Service recommended the designation of the area as a Nature Reserve. Due to the extent of coastline in county Clare, the marine and coastal habitats are very important. The Atlantic Ocean off the west coast of Ireland is relatively clean compared to other oceans. This is illustrated by the amount of seaweed there. The Gulf Stream off the west coast of Ireland creates a warm, oceanic climate, which has a very significant influence on the species and habitats which occur in Doolin and increases the biodiversity. -Fig 01- Doolin Village The Doolin coast consists of both limestone and shale wave-cut platforms, both of which appear rich in diversity of flora and fauna. Doolin coast contains a wide range of invertebrates, some highly mobile, others fixed or sedatory, and shore fishes, are a characteristic feature. Brightly coloured lichens form distinct bands on the high shore, seaweeds are present in abundance,
Photo Identification methods
CONTENTS CONTENTS 1 USES OF PHOTO ID 2 TAKE PICTURES 2 WORKING CONDITIONS 2 UTIFITY 3 CRITERIA SELECTION PHOTO 5 SAMPLING 5 ERRORS 8 DISADVANTAGE 8 DATA COLLECTION 8 DATA ANALYSIS 8 OUR OBSERVATION - EXAMPLE PHOTO - ID 9 HUMPBACK WHALE 9 MINKE WHALE 11 WHITE - BEAKED DOLPHINS 12 DEDUCTION 14 REFERENCES 15 SUPPLEMENT 16 CHECKLIST USED PICTURE 16 OTHER INTERESTING PICTURE TAKE DURING USE PHOTO - ID 16 USES OF PHOTO ID Photo identification it use for watching and determining animals behavior, population biology and ecology. For example animals behavior can be group composition, social interactions and focal animals behavioral observations. For example population biology can be life span, birth rate, mortality rate and abundance estimates. Population must be definable because at least two and preferably more animals. Should be made to try to ensure that all animals have an equal probability of being captured during any one sampling. Should be made to try to ensure that all animals have an equal probability of being captured during any one sampling occasion. Better chance to capture the animals with a high probability of bias caprure number of recaptures up and leads to underestimation of population size. Identify an invidual animals is possibly, because we photographing sample of animals at deferent places - > enable movement and migration. It can also
An investigation into the abundance of freshwater invertebrates in pools and riffles at six different sites of Embercombe and Nutscale Water
Introduction An investigation into the abundance of freshwater invertebrates in pools and riffles at six different sites of Embercombe and Nutscale Water, and more specifically into the abundance of swimming mayfly in relation to the velocity of the site where they are found. The investigation involved sampling freshwater invertebrates by stone washing and counting the abundance of the different species at the different sites. The abiotic factors velocity, temperature, width and depth of the sites were also measured. Prediction I think there will be a difference in the abundance of freshwater invertebrates between pools and riffles. I think there will be a greater abundance of freshwater invertebrates in riffles and very few in pools. This is because riffles are ideal if the organism requires a large amount of oxygen as the fast flow of riffles allows more oxygen to dissolve in the water. Also their low depth means that predators such as fish can rarely survive there. This is the reason I think there will be very few freshwater invertebrates in pools, because fish can prey on them, also a lot of carnivorous freshwater invertebrates such as water beetles and water mites are also found in pools which may feed on and reduce the abundance of smaller freshwater invertebrates. I also think the higher the velocity of the stream, the higher the abundance of swimming mayfly found
Expanded Analysis of Catastrophic Soil Erosion during the End-Permian Biotic Crisis
Expanded Analysis of Catastrophic Soil Erosion during the End-Permian Biotic Crisis Scientists have come to many conclusions in explaining the mass extinction of the end-Permian era, and Mark Sephton and his geological team have contributed greatly to the understanding and explanation of the cause of the biotic crisis. After doing organic geochemical analyses of organic matter in northern Italy, Sephton et al. have discovered the DNA (polysaccharides) of land based organisms in sedimentary rock dating from the marine Permian-Triassic transition period. It was after studying these polysaccharides Sephton et al. hypothesized that within the Permian-Triassic transition there were volcanic eruptions which caused disruption of atmospheric chemistry, leading to the death of land vegetation which began to collect in excess and which finally resulted in a gigantic soil-erosion into the oceans which killed Permian marine life by hypoxia and anoxia. In Val Badia in northern Italy, Sephton et al. collected sedimentary rock samples dating back to the end-Permian era and ran tests trying to detect any organic-geochemical evidence of terrestrial ecosystem collapse. This was tested by determining if the sediments had been deposited in shallow marine environments which had taken an input of major land-plant debris at anytime. The organic compounds and carbon isotopes compounds were
Elodea Plant Lab
Aquatic Photosynthesis of Elodea Leaves Lab Design Problem: What is the effect of temperature (warm, cool, room temperature) on the rate of photosynthesis in Elodea leaves measured by the levels of dissolved oxygen in the flask solutions? Hypothesis: If temperature is related to the rate of photosynthesis (levels of dissolved oxygen) then increasing the temperate will increase the rate of photosynthesis up to an optimal temperature. Variables: Independent: temperature of the water bath which the Elodea plant is immersed in Dependent: the rate of photosynthesis measured by the level of oxygen dissolved in the flask solution Constants: Relative size of the Elodea leaf, relative surface area of the Elodea leaves, (around 3 cm each), volume of water in all beakers, amounts of light exposure to the plants, and type of light source. Method: Materials: Light Source Elodea. Keep this warm and illuminated before you use it, 3 small flasks, 0g/L sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) solution, oxygen sensor Lab Quest data logger. Graduated cylinder Hot Plate 3 Large beaker (1 for warm water, 1 for cool water, 1 room temp) 3 thermometers Procedure: ) Day one: Before beginning the actual lab-Listen for teacher instructions and familiarize yourself with the LabQuest datalogger and its functions using the quick start guide. We will devote this day to learning how to use the
Overpopulation of Humans along the coasts causing reduced fish population
OVER POPULATION OF MAN CAUSING REDUCED FISH POPULATION Overpopulation of Humans along the coasts causing reduced fish population Tuan Anh Nguyen University of Maryland, University College Man gets into conflict with his ecosystem every quite often. One factor that is for sure is that every action that man undertakes impacts either positively or negatively in one way or another on the ecosystem. Ecosystem in biological terms is referred to as the kind of the environment habited by a living thing. Man, or humans, can virtually live anywhere apart from underwater (Bradley, 2009). Man believes in being supreme over every other animal and that explains why as other animals adapt to their environments, man forces its environment to adapt to his specifications. In the history of man, it has been known that he lived in practically any type of environment. There are those who lived in the wet lands; all they did was to reclaim the land thereby making them habitable. On the other hand, there are those who lived in the deserts; here too, they tried to make them a bit habitable. Man has even lived in the snow in the polar regions and just was the case with the men who lived in the other regions, here too, man tried making it more habitable (Joel, 2004). In the ensuing process of reclamation of the land or the ecosystem to suit the specifications of man, the
Moreton Bay Marine Ecology
Transfer-Encoding: chunked ________________ Contents Page Contents Introduction 2 Argument 1: Biotic Factors 3 Biodiversity 3 Indicator Species 5 Argument 2: Abiotic Factors 6 Sediment Life and Sediment Size 6 Water Temperature 8 Recommendation 9 Conclusion 10 Appendix 10 12 Bibliography 20 ________________ Introduction Moreton Bay Marine Park is made up of islands, open oceans and reefs covering more than 3400 km2, and is one of the least troubled coastal environments along the Queensland coast (About Moreton Bay, 2015). Over the past 150 years, Moreton Bay has been taken advantage of and has been used for sand mining, coral mining, whaling and fishing, and has become increasingly polluted from the coastal development of surrounding areas (Winton, Moreton Bay Marine Park, 2017). In 1993, the first Marine Park was opened in the area of Moreton Bay, which although was a big step towards the preservation of vulnerable marine species and their habitats, it left 99% of the bay open to fishing. In 2009, a new zoning plan was released for Moreton Bay, meaning that 16% of the bay is now a designated marine national park zone, and a further 8% has a conservation status for recreational and commercial activities (Marine Parks (Moreton Bay) Zoning Plan 2008, 2004).
Abundance, Distribution and Species Diversity of Invertebrates Collected By Commercial Trawler From Near Shore Coastal Areas of Karachi, Pakistan (Northern Arabian Sea).
ABUNDANCE, DISTRIBUTION AND SPECIES DIVERSITY OF INVERTEBRATES COLLECTED BY COMMERCIAL TRAWLER FROM NEAR SHORE COASTAL AREAS OF KARACHI, PAKISTAN (NORTHERN ARABIAN SEA). RAOOF MUHAMMAD NIAZI* NAUREEN AZIZ QURESHI **AND MUZAMMIL AHMED** *GOVERNMENT CITY COLLEGE, F. B. AREA, KARACHI. [email protected] **CENTRE OF EXCELLENCE IN MARINE BIOLOGY, UNIVERSITY OF KARACHI, KARACHI. Total number of figures included: 5 Running Title: DIVERSITY OF INVERTEBRATES COLLECTED BY COMMERCIAL TRAWLER ABSTRACT The distribution and abundance of benthic macro fauna in near shore waters off Karachi is studied for over a period of one year. For this purpose the marine benthic fauna was collected every month from otter trawl catches of "Hella" fishing trips undertaken by Karachi based commercial shrimp trawlers fishing in depths of about 12 meters. A total of 76 species of invertebrates belonging to 38 families were studied. The distribution and abundance varied with seasons and maximum number of invertebrate species was found during the monsoon season when salinity was low and temperature was high. With increasing salinity and falling temperature the number of invertebrate species in the study area, seemed to decrease. The diversity of invertebrate species collected was studied using the diversity indices and the seasonal variation in the diversity indices was also discussed. KEY
Do patients with chronic low back pain have proprioceptive deficits in their lumbar spine?
Do patients with chronic low back pain have proprioceptive deficits in their lumbar spine? Investigators: Jennifer Winter, Chanda Mistry, Karen Barker Key words: proprioception, back pain, balance, visual feedback, joint position sense Abstract Study Design A clinical trial comparing proprioceptive awareness with and without visual feedback combined with repositioning error in ten patients with chronic low back pain. Objectives To investigate whether patients with chronic low back pain have proprioceptive deficits in the lumbar spine. Summary of Background Data Research has discovered that injuries to peripheral joints have resulted in proprioceptive deficits. As proprioception is a complex function, it is difficult to measure accurately but research suggests this is also true in the lumbar spine. This study examines two aspects of proprioception; the removal of vision to increase joint awareness and repositioning error. Indications of proprioceptive deficits should lead to rehabilitation programs incorporating proprioceptive training. Methods Sway path and sway area were measured in standing using the balance performance monitor with eyes open and eyes closed for thirty seconds. To measure repositioning error, markers were placed on C7, T10 and L4 and the patients were instructed to lean forward to touch a target board. Measurements of the marker's positions
Plankton - Marine Biology,Scientific Paper
Construction of a food web based on the species located in the Clyde Sea. Introduction We will be sampling the waters of the Clyde Sea to attempt to create a food web of the plankton recorded. We will examine the relationship between key species and inorganic and organic mater found in the waters. The diversity of plankton in the Clyde Sea is immense. We will only select a few species to create our food web, as creating a food web for the entire recorded species will be next to impossible for us. The Clyde Sea is situated on the South West coast of Scotland and is surrounded by the Shetland Islands mainland Scotland. The land masses that surround the Clyde sea offers great protection from strong prevailing winds and other whether fronts from the Atlantic to the wildlife located in the sea. Materials and methods Water samples were taken form the Clyde Sea using Zooplankton nets. We had a range of different mesh sizes. The first was a course net: 710?m. The second was a medium mesh: 335?m. The third was a fine mesh: 142?m and the last was a very fine mesh size: 90?m. These different mesh sizes would hopefully catch a range of plankton from Mesozooplankton to Picoplankton. The water samples would be taken back to the lab where we would attempt to identify the individuals to species level. To do this we would use different microscopes, depending on the size of organism and