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AS and A Level: Modern European History, 1789-1945
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Is it right to say "Stalin gained power in the years 1924-1929 only because his rivals made mistakes"?
Another reason for them choosing to do this was a flaw of all Stalin's opponents. They under-estimated him and never really considered him to be a serious contender for the leadership. Trotsky made a huge mistake at the start of the leadership battle when he was given the wrong date for Lenin's funeral. He blindly accepted the information without checking for himself. As a result, Trotsky missed the funeral and Stalin took the initiative by giving a speech which put him in the perfect position to be seen as Lenin's natural successor and disciple. The unity amongst Stalin's opponents was all but non-existent.
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In what ways can the Second World War (1939-1945) be regarded as the turning point of the history of Europe?
The shortcomings of the League had paved the way to the outbreak of the Second World War. The events of the two world wars revealed the ineffectiveness of the League as a peacekeeping body. Because of the vast war destruction during the Second World War, many countries realize the importance of international cooperation in keeping peace and they perceived the failure of the League of Nations was a vital factor in contributing the outbreak of the war. The only real hope for lasting peace seemed to be some sort of collective security through an international organization. The United Nations (UN)
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Among the time period of 1750 to 1914 in Western Europe and East Asia, women obtained social and economic expectations that would label them with their "normal" practices.
But when the French Revolution began to take place, women participated in almost-always controversial events. Women began to take stand with their equality with men, against people like Jean-Jaques Rousseau, for example where he describes his vision of an ideal education for women where they should take an active role in the family, but they should not venture to take part politically outside of their home. Those who favored improving the status of women often insisted on women's right to education, rather than the right to vote. Then, female activist Marie Gouze (under the pen name Olympe de Gouges), attacked slavery in her writing "Declaration of the Rights of Women", based off of the "Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen" document.
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As the sugar industry grew in Brazil, it called for a high demand of slaves. 7.5 million slaves were transported to the Americas and forty percent of them went to Brazil. The profit from the slave trade allowed Europe to build stronger empires. The demand in labor stimulated the Triangular Trade, where the outward passage grew from Europe to Africa, which carried European manufactured goods (i.e. cloth and metal ware) for the African slaves. The middle passage took enslaved Africans and goods to the Americas or Caribbean, where European and African elites based their partnership.
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Its purpose at the outset was to defend the Soviet Union's frontiers and protect the Revolution from its enemies. Recruitment was originally meant to be voluntary, in keeping with Communist ideals, but within months compulsory conscription was introduced. As a result Trotsky was enabled to transform an ill-disciplined army of 300,000 troops into a large, military machine of 5 million. This gave the Red Army an enormous numerical advantage over the opposition (white) forces and so assisted in their successful defeat. In addition, the recruitment of 50,000 former Tsarist officers were produced, that subsequently enabled military experience and expertise to be drawn upon.
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Through recent history, it had become 'entrenched' into the minds of the German people and that of the Bundesrat and Reichstag representatives that Wilhelm was there to stay; his say was final and there was little, in real terms, that could be done to halt his power. On the face of it, the Bundesrat was a well spread group of representatives, giving each individual state of Germany a say in constitutional changes. However, because of the dominance of the Kaiser's 'home' state, Prussia, the balance was never truly equal.
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To what extent were the actions of Tsar Nicholas II during the First World War responsible for his own downfall in February 1917?
Often the ministers she replaced them with were incompetent and were unable to deal with any of the problems the cities were facing, such as the shortages of food and fuel. Her reputation was tarnished by her close friendship with the starets or holy man, Rasputin, whom she believed could cure her son Alexei's haemophilia. He had a bad reputation as a drunkard and womanizer, leading to rumours that he and Alexandra were having an affair. Alexandra was totally out of touch with the problems ordinary people were facing in the capital.
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The Triple Alliance had several binding treaties between them ensuring financial, political and militaristic support. The Triple Entente, however, was not a binding alliance but more a friendship with extremely good relations. When Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia and Russia mobilised, Austria counted on Germany; its only ally to support them in an event of a war and Germany only did so as it did not want to lose its only ally. Italy had left behind Austria-Hungary and Germany in the Triple Alliance that potentially shows the weakness within the alliance system. Imperialism did have some impact on the causes of WWI.
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Between 1936 and 1938 Hitler never actually attacked anyone. In 1936 he moved troops "into his own back yard", in 1937 politicians were not prepared to confront Hitler over his actions in Spain and German troops were welcomed into Austria in March 1938. what was there to fight about? Economic Reasons In the 1930s Britain was in a depression. Jobs and better housing were priorities for the British public and Chamberlain knew that people would not support large scale military spending. They wanted "butter before guns". Without military resources was there an alternative to appeasement? Public Opinion and Pacifism British politicians have to consider public opinion unlike fascist dictators.
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In addition, inflation provoked food riots which once again the Liberal government dealt ineffectively with by setting up food committees that requisitioned supplies and set prices. Furthermore, the Liberals ineffectively dealt with the situation of demobilised soldiers. The liberal government failed to provide jobs and as a consequence the was a rise in unemployment from 1920 as 2.5m soldiers returned home. Furthermore, the Liberals failed to recompense the soldiers for their suffering and many felt bitterness and resentment towards the government as a result.
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Giolitti accepted Mussolini's offer of an electoral pact. As part of government alliance the fascists won the SS parliament seats. Though in the elections of 1921, in a parliament of 535, Mussolini had been given a boost, a new beginning and a new authority and responsibility and a valuable freedom from arrest. Though noticeably the socialists got 122 seats, the catholic people's party's 107 seats and other communist parties got 106 seats. Furthermore, there was utter confusion in the political front in Italy as there were so many parties and so many ideas that people couldn't unite as one, furthermore, it is arguable that socialism could have been
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In addition, Napoleon possessed other qualities which assisted in his rise to power. Many of these became evident when he led the French army against the Italians and the Austrians. The troops were worn out and demoralised. It would be very tough to re-inspire them. But that is exactly what Napoleon did. He gained the trust of the soldiers by dwelling on and capitalizing the fact that he too was a soldier. One of his most influential quotes is "I am a soldier; it is the special faculty I was born with.
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The source Interpreting the French Revolution by Francois Furet was particularly useful in the historical interpretations of the French Revolution as it used a modern ideas on how the revolution is view today as well as what It was views as in the 18th century. The source gave a broad interpretation of the factors that caused the revolution which helped with hundred year context which helped me with decide what was more important the long or short term factors of the French Revolution.
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Zemstva were to be elected bodies, chosen through a democratic system of 'electoral colleges'. Those would be separate for Church, townspeople, nobles and the peasantry however it would be mainly dominated by the nobles. Zemstva proved to be a valuable part of loval government . They were particularly effective in poor relief, extending education and welfare however, although this system might be seen as essentially democratic, its institutions were permeated by centre-government.
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Bismarck's main aim was to keep France isolated with no political or economical alliances. The defeat of France in the Franco Prussian war was the creation of the German empire as the Treaty of Frankfurt ensured that France ceded the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine to the German empire and that an indemnity was to be paid to remove the Prussian army from Northern France. This defeat humiliated and angered France greatly giving it a means to retaliate with revenge.
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While others may argue that the economic depression in France from 1845 onwards was a situation out of Louis Philippe's control, evidence suggests that had he controlled the situation better and responded differently then he may not have been overthrown, leading back to the issue of his personality and character, which compelled him to abdicate the throne in 1848. From 1830 Louis Philippe tried to rule like a constitutional monarch of the conservative type.
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With adroit skill, during the 1930s de Valera translated his personal vision of Irish sovereignty into a political reality. Discuss.
On entering Parliament many of the newly elected FF TDs carried firearms for fear that the outgoing cabinet would not hand over power in a co-operative manner. From the outset in 1932 and even more so after returning a majority of 5 seats the following February De Valera and Fianna Fail's mandate was as follows, to successfully return Gaelige as the vernacular language of the country. To establish a self-sufficient nation that would be able to compete internationally, to gain international recognition both politically and economically as an independent state and not as a subordinate dominion of the British Empire.
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The most important reason for Mussolini being made Prime Minister was the actions of the King. To what extent do you agree with this statement?
As well as this, the King had been described as behaving cowardly and pessimistically during the March on Rome, and illustrated indecisiveness and poor leadership. No action was taken by the King in order to prevent the Fascist's from marching on the capital, even though he had at the time been advised by the Prime Minister of the time, Facta to use martial law and use the army in order to restrain Mussolini and his supporters, and prevent them from assuming power.
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Propaganda was the key factor in the consolidation of the Fascist regime in Italy in the years 1922-29. Explain why you agree or disagree with this statement
Mussolini used methods of propaganda to develop the idea that he was the leader of his people. Mussolini had proclaimed himself Il Duce, which translates as the Leader. He developed fine skills as a public speaker in order to portray the idea that he was the all-knowing ruler, aware of Italy's destiny and was thus the only person to make Italy a great and respected country. Mussolini constantly associated himself with the glories of Ancient Rome; monuments, whilst in his rule, such as the Colosseum in Rome were restored. To enhance the public image of Mussolini further, the Fascists took control of the media.
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Freikorps and army units in May 1919 kicked out the communists, killing hundreds in a 'white' terror. Bavaria, by 1920, under the control of a right-wing government, was a heaven for right-wing extremists. 1. Beer Hall Putsch Hitler attempted to seize power in November 1923 with favorable conditions. The French occupied the Ruhr and the hyperinflation was destroying the economy. His plan was to win control of Bavaria and march on Berlin. Kahr, the Bavarian leader, had indicated he might support the putsch, but backed out at the last minute. Hitler went away anyway. Kahr was addressing a large meeting on November 8th at the Burgerbraukellar in Munich.
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The major state systems of the East Slavs (in order) were Kievan Rus, Muscovy, and the Russian Empire. Aside from these Eastern Slavic states, Poland, Lithuania, and the Mongol Empire also played crucial roles in the historical development of Russia. The first East Slavic state, Kievan Rus', emerged along the Dniepr River valley, where it was a major trading center as it controlled the route between Scandinavia and the Byzantine Empire. Kievan Rus' adopted Christianity from the Byzantine Empire in the tenth century, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that would grow to define Russian culture for about the next thousand years.
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To what extent was the increase in electoral support for the Nazis in the years 1928-1933 the result of propaganda and electioneering?
Yet in order for the Nazis to completely come to power, there needed to be additional problems with the government. The sheer nature of the Weimar government contributed to their demise and Nazi success. By nature, coalition governments are indecisive through the continual consultation that must take place between each party which it consists of. Because the process of key decision making and policy outlining was prolonged it meant the German public were disgruntled; what they needed was one party, one set of guidelines and a solution to the weak government.
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Is it accurate to say that the persecution of the Jews steadily intensified during the years 1933-1942?
Perhaps this was down to the early opinion of the German people; he would indoctrinate them with party propaganda to begin with, brainwashing the public of disgust of the Jews, find a moment in his leadership where the majority would support any persecution, and elevate policies from there. It cannot be said that Hitler's rise to power alone was the start of an anti-sematic state; he manipulated the public first before engaging in severe discrimination. After all, the German public would have been unfavourable to Nazi Policy in the run up to election, declaring the extermination of the whole Jewish race.
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known as the 1905 revolution, but merely to beg the Tsar to exercise his authority on behalf of their miserable working conditions. Nevertheless, the demonstrators were taken down by onslaught of ammunition - a historical event now referred to as Bloody Sunday. In response to this, a massive outbreak of strikes, not led by revolutionaries but by discontented peasants and workers, occurred throughout the year. This hindered the economy but more importantly put the government under serious threat, as the effect of the strikes on the railways meant it was more difficult to move troops up and down the country to put down any unrest away from the cities.
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Between March and May 1917 there were about 365,000 desertions from the army due to dissatisfaction with the war. The war itself was generally unpopular because it seemed to be gaining nothing more than social and economic costs. The economic cost of war which resulted in social disturbances in Russia is to be considered as a reason for the revolution in 1917 rather than Lenin's contribution. The war slumped down the economy because 15 millions of Russians were conscripted to the army so the main industrial work has been taken on by children and women.
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