Explain why did the Afrikaners set up and establish an Apartheid state, [in the period 1948-56]
The word Apartheid means apartness. An Apartheid state was established in South Africa in 1948 by Prime Minister Malan who wanted a 'white South Africa'. The Apartheid state was established due to racial, religious, economical and political reasons. Such as, the Boer War, the World Wars and the National lands act of 1913. In 1652 South Africa's first white settlers came from Holland, France and Germany; they fled Europe because of religious persecution. They settled in Cape Town. By the early 1800's the British had made permanent base in the Cape, this created a need for the Boers to separate themselves from the British as they had different views on government. In 1834 the British abolished slavery, this conflicted with the Boers ideals, therefore the Boers left the cape to go inland on what is known as the Great Trek, on the Great Trek The Battle of Blood River occurred in 1838 between the Boers and the Zulus (an African tribe) 464 to 10,000 respectively, because the Boers wanted Zulu occupied land. The Boers won with no deaths or serious injuries and believed they owed their victory to their covenant (agreement) with God. The Boer leader Pretorius had a dream were god promised victory. The event was a religious reason for the establishment of Apartheid, because the Boers believed that white predominance over Blacks was Gods own will. This was a long standing argument for
Compare and contrast the influence, outside countries, of Mao and Hitler
Compare and contrast the influence, outside countries, of Mao and Hitler Until the death of German Fuhrer Hitler and Chinese dictator Mao in 1944 and 1976 respectively, due to their interests, the two countries not only had an influence towards the countries around them, but the world. And the state of foreign policy, which it was mainly influenced by its distinctive ideology, had a huge impact too. Here the common factor about two single parties nation was that they were both involved in the wars. In particular, Germany took main role in World War 2, which it totally changed the history of countries that are even located in Far East Asia. Whilst the scale of the wars in which Mao's Communist China was involved in was smaller compared to Germany, but it utterly changed the whole ideology and destiny of a country. Here, the nation that I am talking about is like North Korea. However, at the same time we must remember that the nature of involvement of wars were different; Hitler was more interest in his ideology and behalf, whereas Mao had a purpose of aid, in which rescuing other countries from what they see as an evil ideology, capitalism. Therefore, there is no doubt that the two totalitarian nations had a significant influence outside their countries. And most considerable influence outside their country was the consequence of their involvement in the wars. Thus, it is very
The Royal Pavilion
"The Royal Pavilion, Brighton, reflects fashionable tastes in architecture, design, attitudes and way of life." - Do you agree with this hypothesis? The Royal Pavilion, Brighton, has been an important part of the city that tourists regularly come to see. It was built in several different stages by a few different architects between the years of 1787 and 1823. It was built for the Prince Regent, who became King George IV on the 19th July 1821 at the age of fifty nine. The Royal Pavilion has become the most famous landmark in Brighton and many come to see this extraordinary building. It can tell us a great deal about what sort of a person the Prince Regent was, from just looking at it, we can understand that the Prince was a rather whacky and eccentric man. Also, the Royal pavilion highlights some of the fashionable movements of the time and also about peoples' knowledge of technology in the nineteenth century. At the time that it was built, the Royal Pavilion wasn't considered fashionable, but rather strange and unusual. Although the Pavilion in previous stages reflected fashionable tastes and movements, it is more of a building that was constructed and designed to suit the Prince Regent and his exuberant ways. It does not reflect ways of life - certainly not for the poor - but more of fashionable movements which toyed with lifestyles, such as Romanticism. Many people
Without the War British Women would not have gained the Right to Vote in 1918.
This statement can be seen from different points of view. I do not disagree or agree, because I think the war effort helped women secure the vote. But I'm not saying that without war women would have got the vote. I will write about the Victorian society, suffragists and suffragettes, women's contribution during the war and why they got the vote in 1918. Before the war the Victorian society's view of women was very sexist. i.e. they were the weaker sex and their place was in the kitchen. Upper class women and lower class women didn't worry about this. It was the middle class that were educated and had time to think. They wanted the vote because they saw an injustice in the way of voting. 1897 a group of women called the suffragists were formed. They were a group of women campaigning peacefully for the vote i.e. petitions, shops with products, and letters to the government. The suffragists had a leader called Millicent Fawcett and they had 500 local branches over England. But as time went past the government were ignoring the suffragists, and their peaceful methods weren't working. In 1903 many women were getting tired with these methods, they did not seem to be working. Mrs. Emmeline Pankhurst got together with her daughters and formed the WSPU. Source A shows how much Mrs. Pankhurst wanted the vote. Their aim was to be heard. They did many things like disturbing political
What triggered the Tsars fall?
What triggered the Tsars fall? Many in Russia would argue that it was the catastrophic impact of war coupled with the failure or the Tsar/Tsarina to embark upon the problems created by involvement in World War One that triggered the Tsar's fall. Nevertheless it is fair to say that discontent among the Russian people had been growing for several years. This dissatisfaction destabilized the position of the Tsar and undermined his authority. Was it a series of mitigating circumstances and bad luck that brought on the Tsar's downfall? Or was the Tsar's own incompetence the key to his failure? There were many causes for the growing discontent in Russia before 1914. There were various politically related issues linked to power, control and government. Nicholas was a deeply religious man and believed he had been chosen to rule Russia by God and felt that he did not have to consult others about his decisions. In the period of late 19th and early 20th century there was an age of modernisation spreading through Western Europe. Everything had advanced, both technologically and socially. But the Tsar's refusal to adapt to his rapidly changing country created serious social and political grievances. A huge civil service was employed to carry out decisions about the country (the Tsar always having the final say) but getting decisions carried out in such a vast country with poor
The Combining of Past and Present
Sam Greenblatt 9/29/02 The Combining of Past and Present History, according to Webster's Dictionary, can be defined as, "A chronological record of events, as of the life or development of a people or institution, often including an explanation of or commentary on those events." We must remember, however, that even though history is in the past, it is not inert. It is not dead. The past does, and continues to, have an effect on the present. Through the different articles we read, Slouka's Hitler's Couch, Millhauser's The Barnum Museum, and James E. Young's At Memory's Edge: After Images of the Holocaust in Contemporary Art and Architecture, one can see the relationship that the past has with our present day life and visa versa. Slouka's Hitler's Couch, tells of Hitler's final days. With the American and Russian armies moving swiftly towards Berlin, the fate of the Third Reich was in serious jeopardy. As Russian artillery shells fell upon Berlin, Goebbels, Hitler's Propaganda Minister, would read to Hitler the History of Frederick the Great. Within this reading Hitler found hope for Germany, "Sensing a promise, an omen of redemption in Carlye's description of Frederick's deliverance...just as Prussia had been saved...by the death of the Czarina so the Third Reich would survive her harshest trails....A few days later Goebbels had his miracle, his Czarina... Franklin
How was Hitler able to win Power by 1933?
How was Hitler able to win Power by 1933? Hitler became Chancellor in 1933. Incidents ranging post WWI, from 1919 to 1932, influenced Hitler's rise to power such as hyperinflation and the 'Wall Street Crash'. But it was also his qualities as a public speaker and his natural charisma that allowed him to influence so many people. In 1923 Hitler and the Nazi Party attempted to take over the Bavarian government by force. Telling the audience that the Munich Putsch was taking place and the National Revolution had began. Hitler was arrested and imprisoned he spent his free time writing 'Mein Kampf', a manifesto/autobiography. Once released from prison Hitler decided to seize power democratically rather than violence; "destroy democracy with the weapons of democracy" Hitler had said. Hitler spoke to scores of mass audiences, calling for the German people to resist the yoke of Jews and Communists, and to create a new empire which would rule the world for 1,000 years. In the supposed 'Golden Age' of Weimar the Nazi party only won 12 seats to the Reichstag in the election in 1928, but there where gains in rural areas. It was also in that year, that the Nazi Party nearly went bankrupt (because of spending on street parades and public rallies) which would have automatically excluded them from politics. The Communists won 54 seats at this election. Moderate parties like the Centre Party
Why did Nazi Policies towards the Jews and other minorities in Germany become increasingly harsh over the period 1933 - 39?
Kuljit Chhokar 02.04.05 Miss Cable Exam Question: Life in Hitler's Germany c) Why did Nazi Policies towards the Jews and other minorities in Germany become increasingly harsh over the period 1933 - 39? For Nazis, race not class was the key to history. A healthy, pure race would gain mastery in the struggle for survival in the world. From this came Hitler's ideology of a "master race" and a "volksgemeinschaft". Hitler's "people community" would be superior to all other communities because it would be made up of pure Germans. There would be no room for the disabled in Hitler's vision, no room for the social outcasts and no room for non- Aryans especially Jews and Gypsies. They were the minorities. When Hitler was appointed Chancellor of Germany in 1933 he was much more concerned with consolidating power than achieving his people's community or his policy on anti - Semitism. He firstly had to gain absolute power by passing The Enabling Act and then he had to re - establish the German economy. These priorities had to come first. However Hitler was under increasing pressure from radical anti - Semitists in the lower ranks of the party. Despite Hitler's assertion of F(hrerprinzip he was unable to stop these members of the Party from carrying out attacks on Jews. In March 1933 there was post election SA anti - Jewish violence. On 1st April 1933 Hitler announced an official one
Collapse of the Qing Dynasty
One major reason for the French Revolution is the incapability of the French ruler in management of finance. In the 18th century, the French government spent more than it had collected in taxes as the ruler could not manage the country's funds well. Most of the money was spent on two wars with Britain, mainly the Seven Years War and the American Revolution instead of helping to improve the living conditions of the commoners although there were food shortages. Moreover, a large sum of money was also spent on palaces, entertainment and gifts by the kings of France. The large amount of money spent hence put forth a high taxation system in which the nobles, clergy and the Church did not need to pay any tax and it was the commoners who suffered from the heavy taxation. Although the ruler, Louis XVI tried to reform the taxation system, he failed as the nobility and the clergy refused to accept the new reforms. He did not try to introduce new reforms after that and thus, had to borrow the differences in expenditure and revenue, leading to a constant loan cycle. The national debts accumulated and France went bankrupt. This incited anger in the commoners as they thought their ruler could not manage the country's finance well and did not care about their welfare. They would rather spend money on wars than use the money to help them solve their problem of food shortages and improve their
The March Revolution 1917
The March Revolution 1917 a) The conditions are so bad in Petrograd because peasants who used to work on the farms were forced to move into the towns to work in the factories to help in the producing of guns and uniforms for the soldiers. This caused several problems; because all the people who worked on the farms were forced to move into the city there was a food shortage because there weren't enough people to tend the land and the food that was being made was being sent off to the army so there was a near on famine. The second problem was that there were not enough housing for all the people that had suddenly moved into the towns so they often slept in the streets. Another problem was that the workers tended not to be all to good at working in the factories so they made little difference to the Russian army. Also their wages had gone up by 100%, which at first sights is good. However, the prices of food had gone up by 500%. Basically real wages declined. Transportation of food was also another reason for food shortage. These again were used to carry the Russian army and supplies to their home front. These are all reasons why conditions were so bad in Petrograd. b) This could lead to a revolution because people were getting grumpy due to the lack of food and the way they had to work harder. The war effort was going badly and people were upset that they were