Nutrition is the relationship of foods to the health of the human body.
Nutrition is the relationship of foods to the health of the human body. Proper nutrition means receiving enough foods and supplements for the body to function at optimal capacity. It is important to remember that no single nutrient or activity can maintain optimal health and well being, although it has been proven that some nutrients are more important than others. All of the nutrients are necessary in different amounts along with exercise to maintain proper health. There are six main types of nutrients used to maintain body health. They are: carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, minerals, and water. They all must be in balance for the body to function properly. There are also five major food groups. The groups are: fats and oils, fruits and vegetables, dairy products, grains, and meats. A healthy diet and nutrition are important factors that help to keep our body in good health through our entire life. Food is very important to our life. Food provides nutrition for the human body's health. To stay healthy we should understand the inseparable relationship between diet and nutrition. When first starting this assignment I didn't think that I was going to learn anything new that I didn't already know about my eating habits. After writing down a days worth of food and drink and then analysing all the information and actually calculating out everything, I
Effect of exercise on heart rate and arterial blood pressure in young healthy volunteers.
59228 Physiological Basis of Drug Action II |Lab Report Effect of exercise on heart rate and arterial blood pressure in young healthy volunteers. **** **** ? 200636232 Effect of exercise on heart rate and arterial blood pressure in young healthy volunteers. Abstract Background and purpose: The aim of this experiment was to test the effect of mild exercise on heart rate, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure in young healthy adults. It was hypothesised that heart rate, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure would increase as it was already known that heart rate increased, pumping more blood throughout the body. It was suggested that the body's requirement for oxygen would cause all 3 values to increase. Experimental approach: Six healthy students had their heart rate and blood pressures read, and then each cycled at a steady pace for 5 minutes. The heart rate and blood pressures were measured immediately after this mild exercise session, and taken again after a 10 minute recovery period. Key results: It was found that heart rate increased dramatically between the rest state and immediately after exercise. After 10 minutes, it had decreased to around the same as the rest state. Systolic blood pressure increased after exercise, and decreased slightly below resting systolic pressure after the recovery period. Diastolic blood pressure
Mitochondria and The Golgi Complex
Work Book Section II a(i) Mitochondria a(ii) The structure and shape of the shape in the diagram suggested to me that it was a mitochondria cell. The structure of the all round shape and also the inner walls to the mitochondria cell. b(i) Golgi Complex b(ii) and 1c A membrane bound compartment in the interior of a cell. This compartment is involved in modifying, sorting and packaging lipid, carbohydrate and protein molecules for secretion or for delivery to other organelles. www.lsdn.com/glance_glossary.shtml One of the organelles that is in both the animal and the plant cells is the golgi apparatus. In this organelle, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) sends vesicles(The function of the vesicles are to mainly transport proteins and other cellular material between cells and organelles) to the Golgi complex where they fuse with the cell membrane. Their membrane, which has now added to the membrane of the sacs of the golgi, empties it's contents of it into the golgi sac. Audesirk, Teresa; Audesirk, Gerald; "Fifth Edition Biology Life on Earth" Prentice-Hall; 1999 The Molecular Biology of The Cell. Second Edition. New York. Garland Publishing, Inc. 1989 d Single-membrane structure. The thickness of structure C shows to be only a single membrane cell. Also the structure when compared to other similar looking cells on the diagram, such as structure D, looks less rigid and
SKIN CANCER Skin cancer is the most common of all the types of cancers (Skin Cancer). It is a disease where malignant, or cancerous cells can be found in some layer of the skin. The epidermis, or the top layer of the kin, has three kinds of cells: basal cells, squamous cells, and the melanocytes (Skin Cancer). The melanocytes produce melanin, which is pigment that gives the skin its colour. Sometimes clusters of melanocytes can form growths called moles. These moles can sometimes become cancerous. Skin cancer tumours are formed when these cells excessively divide. They are known as malignant tumours. The tumours are not skin cancer when they are designated as benign. The cancer cells in the malignant tumours can break away and spread throughout the body. This can occur by way of the blood stream of lymphatic system (Melanoma). Skin cancer is categorized into three types: basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and malignant melanoma. Basal cell carcinoma is, by far, the most common form of skin cancer (Skin Cancer). Luckily, it will never spread throughout the body. Basal cell skin cancer usually forms due to years and years of skin damage. Therefore, it is most often found on the sun-exposed areas of older adults. Such areas include the nose, face, back, and neck. Basal cell carcinoma is definitely curable with treatment. The second most common
The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is an in vitro technique, which allows the amplification of a specific deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) region that lies between two regions of known DNA sequenc
THE POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is an in vitro technique, which allows the amplification of a specific deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) region that lies between two regions of known DNA sequence1,2. It is the most widely used target amplification technique that is found in molecular biology. This technique, which was first described by Saiki et al3 and Mullis et al4, has made it possible to detect and quantitate rare target nucleic acid sequences isolated from cell, tissue or blood samples5. The basis of this technique is the ability of DNA polymerase to extend an oligodeoxyribonucleotide primer that is specifically hybridized to a single-stranded DNA template5. Such amplification of DNA is achieved by using oligonucleotide primers or amplimers1. These are short, single-stranded DNA molecules which are complementary to the ends of a defined sequence of DNA template1. A DNA polymerase will enable the primers to extend on single-stranded denatured DNA (template), in the presence of deoxynucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs) under suitable conditions1. New DNA strands are synthesized and bound complementary to the template strands as double-stranded DNA molecules1. Basically, PCR consists of three thermally separated steps: denaturation at 95°C to ensure complete separation of DNA duplexes into single-stranded molecules; annealing at a temperature
Proprioception and the stretch refle
BM2037 - Physiology Practical Shell C Series C Practical 3 "Proprioception and the stretch reflex" Introduction The Effect of varying Weight loads on electrical activity Skeletal muscle is an organ within the body, which is primarily specialized for contraction. It is composed of many muscle fiber cells, which are an essential element of the skeletal muscle itself, and is supported by connective tissue which surrounds these fibres. It is found attached to bones by the means of tendons and is stimulated by somatic motor neurons. Skeletal muscles are greatly supplied with many nerves and blood vessels. The somatic neurons located within skeletal muscle extend from the brain or spinal cord and conclude at a group of muscle fibres. These nerve cells then branch numerous times so that each branch is able to extend to a different fiber. The capillaries that supply the muscle with oxygen and nutrients also remove heat and waste products generated by muscle metabolism, and are found in abundant quantities. The plasma membrane of a skeletal muscle fiber is called the sarcolemma and it contains many tubules known as transverse tubules. This is the site in which muscle action potentials travel along, rapidly spreading throughout the muscle fiber. Also within the sarcolemma is the sarcoplasm which is the cytoplasm of the muscle fiber. Large amounts of glycogen can be found
Effect of Isotonic Exercise on HR and BP
Introduction With regular exercise a person's cardiovascular fitness can be immensely increased as cardiac output is increased, therefore enabling a greater rate of O² being delivered to the body's tissues. In cases of strenuous exercise, such as with athletes, the cardiac output is found to be double that of a person doing very little exercise, resulting in the enlargement of the heart and increasing the stroke volume. During isotonic exercise muscle contractions remain almost constant while the muscle may change in length. As a result of exercise, heart rate increases as the demand for oxygen has been made greater. This is achieved by the means of two different mechanisms. The first of these mechanisms is the psychological effect as the body prepares itself for the task ahead. The increase of ventilation as a result of anticipation of exercise is known as the neural changes which send excitatory impulses to the inspiratory area in the medulla oblongata in the brain. Stimulation of the limbic system also occurs as the body begins to prepare itself. Heart rate increases to ensure that enough blood is being pumped around the body. This initial response to the impending exercise is equivalent to that of the "fight-or-flight" response. Nerve impulses, initiated from the hypothalamus in the brain are sent to the sympathetic division of the ANS, which then starts to
Lab report: food dehydration. This experiment focuses on the follow four questions: 1, to calculate the moisture contents on the dry basis of carrot and potato samples; 2, to assess the possible influence of pre-dehydration such as blanching on the qua
Lab report: food dehydration . Introduction In food preservation, dehydration is a common used approach. It is one of the oldest but also a simple and safe way to preserve food. It is process to remove moisture or water away from food. In a low moisture environment, yeast, bacteria and mold cannot grow (Andress and Harrison, 2006). Therefore, dehydration is helpful to minimize the growth of microorganism that is a major reason of food deterioration. At the meantime, drying also reduces the activity of enzymes that cause degradation of some nutrients. For fruit and vegetables that contain high level of water, they can go bad easily if inappropriate storage approach is applied. It was estimated 25-30% of total fruits and vegetable produced is wasted due to spoilage (Ramaswamy and Marcotte, 2006). Furthermore, dehydrated food is usually smaller and lighter and thus is convenient to transfer or store. There are several ways to achieve dehydration in industrial production, such as heat, dry air, air movement, in the sun, in the oven and using a food dehydrator (Ramaswamy and Marcotte, 2006). For some kinds of food, pretreatment such as blanching is required. Blanching which is a process of briefly precooking of food in steam or boiling water is helpful to reduce activity of enzymes, to skill spoilage organisms and to shorten drying time. However, beside the time of storage,
Escalated Carbon dioxide level in the atmosphere: The most concerned environmental issue
Escalated Carbon dioxide level in the atmosphere: The most concerned environmental issue The worlds condition today is one of distortion, though everything may seem to be fine it is not that way. From the beginning of civilization we have progressed a lot in terms culture, technology but at the same time we have caused major damages to our planet. In other words, our surrounding environment is in a very critical situation. This is not happening just in one region but the entire globe is being affected. One of the most if not the most dangerous threat to the Environment is the global climatic warming. The center of this phenomenon is the increased amount of Carbon dioxide gas in our atmosphere. One may ask why CO2 is so harmful when it's an important reactant for photosynthesis, which eventually produces oxygen that gives us the ability to breathe and live properly. The answer to this is very simple. ''Nature knows best''. In other words, once we try to interfere in any kind of natural activity, discrepancies will start forming. CO2 levels were not always high. There is a limit to how much plants will be able to synthesize at a time. The excess CO2 in the atmosphere is all due to human-induced activities. From burning fossil fuels to deforestation, all these human activities releases a superior amount of CO2 in the atmosphere which thus cause the 'Greenhouse gas effect'
WHAT IS LIFE?
WHAT IS LIFE? I hoped that the dictionary would offer some help in response to this cryptic question, but sadly it did not. The numerous dictionary definitions of life do very little to explain what life is and many people have varying opinions on what is and what is not alive. However I do I certainly agree with Antonio Lazcano who stated that "An all embracing, generally agreed upon definition of life has proven to be an elusive intellectual endeavour". So whilst it is unlikely that I will solve the question 'What is Life?' in this essay, I will attempt to explore some of the fundamental characteristics of life and the uncertain boundaries between what is alive and what is not. Many of us are taught that life is plainly defined by 'MRS GREN'; (Movement, Reproduction, Sensitivity, Growth, Respiration, Excretion and Nutrition); however this is a vast simplification of the topic. The answer to 'What is Life?' is unequivocally ambiguous which is highlighted by the distinct lack of scientific agreement. In addition, philosophers and theologians confuse the matter, contemplating over things such as robotic and computer life and the 'self-aware internet'. It seems that any attempts to define life are doomed to failure due to the simple fact that the transition from the complex organic molecules (which were existent between 1 and 2 billion years ago on earth) to primitive, living