Russell On Platonic Universals
Russell On Platonic Universals Russell On Platonic Universals The consideration of Platonic universals consequently rouses controversy among philosophers. Thinkers like Bertrand Russell and Thomas Hobbes contribute reflective explanations for the undeniable usage of question-begging ideas in language and thought. While the deliberation of Platonic universals might seem to be fruitless and, at best, obscure to the layperson, it does function as a critical foundation for metaphysics and epistemology. Whether a philosopher agrees or disagrees with the idea of Platonic universals is irrelevant to the certain truth that he or she must form some opinion of them preceding most any philosophic endeavor. To attempt to summarize Plato's theory of universals in a paragraph would do it a great injustice but a simple, working definition of the theory is necessary to move any further. Plato's theory can be condensed as follows: A universal (or form) is an independently existing, nonspatial, nontemporal "something" known only through thought and that cannot be known through the senses; independently existing objects of thought; that which makes a particular thing uniquely and essentially what it is. In even simpler terms, a universal would be something like the "redness" of an apple. According to Plato, the red quality of the apple must exist because the apple is red. But
Running head: ROLE STRAIN, STRESS AND COPING. THE STRESS OF ROLE STRAIN ON PROFFESSIONAL MOTHERS AND THEIR COPING STRATEGIES. Neema Mngwamba University of Houston-Downtown PSY3309 06/25/10 Abstract. Among the many complex roles that a lot of people live, married women with children have the most stressful roles. This review focuses on the multiple roles that married working mothers hold and how that caused role strain which indeed lead to stress. Mothers in this case refer to those that have young children, the ones that are the most demanding. Also we will see how those mothers coped with the stress. The role strain discussed is basically the conflict created when the women were trying to balance their multiple roles as wives, mothers, professionals etc. Out of all them, the mother role and the professional role were the two that conflicted the most. One major thing that was found to contribute a lot to the stress and had to be taken into account was gender role/stereotypes. In coping with the stress many of the mothers were forced to adopt different strategies that were mainly categorized into two main strategies, problem-focused and emotional-focused strategies. Many of them preferred to utilize a strategy that leaves conflict/stress reduction as a responsibility of the individual. This means that while the work load/ demand remained the same they chose to work
It is incorrect to draw a sharp distinction between Eastern and Western cultures and ways of thinking - Discuss.
"It is incorrect to draw a sharp distinction between Eastern and Western cultures and ways of thinking." Discuss. Our cultures permeate our everyday lives; influencing the way we behave, make decisions and of course the ways in which we think and process information. However, is there such an explicit distinction between the thought patterns of a "Western" individual and those of someone from an "Eastern" background? Firstly, it is important to define what we mean by "Western" and "Eastern", although this is a difficult task as there is no clear-cut definition of either. Generally speaking, the term "Western" encompasses those from Europe, the United States, Canada and Australasia, and "Eastern" includes peoples of Asia, the Far East and the Middle East. However, the lack of an unambiguous definition produces an even greater quandary as to whether we can draw a sharp distinction between Eastern and Western cultures and ways of thinking. It is equally important to identify what we mean by "culture", which we are able to define more easily as "the enduring behaviours, ideas, attitudes and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next" (Myers, 2008). Knowing what each of these terms means, we can now attempt to discover whether Eastern and Western cultures and ways of thinking really do differ so greatly. Let us initially
What difficulties arise in describing the international political theory of Hobbes and Rousseau as 'realist'?
What difficulties arise in describing the international political theory of Hobbes and Rousseau as 'realist'? It could be argued both ways that the international political theory of Hobbes and Rousseau could be described as realist, or could not be described as realist at all. Is there a different theme of realism that runs through both of their writings or are they writing independently and does the theme of realism only show through consequentially. Hobbes then was interested to see how human beings would act without government and rules, which he depicted in his writings in the first chapter of 'Leviathan, 'Of Man'. This study by Hobbes led to his belief that some form of legitimate governing body could be justified. 'Leviathan' first published in 1651 was Hobbes writing on what he felt it was to be human and how we could best live in the state and how it could have control over them. 'Leviathan' then raises a number of points that are both truthful but are yet contended by others, notably Rousseau. Hobbes writing came at a very violent and anarchical time. The most notable event being the English Civil War, which took place between 1642-1648. Bearing this fact in mind it is quite easy to see why Hobbes views human nature with some contempt. In 'Leviathan', Hobbes main writings try to show how he thinks humans would act without government,
Is Hobbes the pessimist of philosophers?
Hobbes is known as the pessimist of philosophers, with his famous quote that life in a state of nature is "solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short." His book, Leviathan, was published in 1651, and was a discussion of human nature, government, and the social contract. Hobbes's theories about government and the human condition are rather exaggerated, and too generalized and unclear. Contrary to Hobbes's beliefs, humans do not need a sovereign to prosper. The United States distributes power between three branches of government, each with the power to overrule the other - and the US is not in a state of chaos. People themselves have the ability to decide right and wrong, as stated in Locke's laws of nature, and don't need a sovereign to determine what to think for them. Hobbes himself states that humans are self-involved, and are not social. If this were true, then the sovereign would be more interested in making his own life enjoyable, rather than working to please his subjects. If people themselves cannot determine right and wrong, upon what would the sovereign base his own ideas of right and wrong? In addition to this, humans are indeed social, contradictory to Hobbes's statements - if humans were not social, they would not feel the yearning for acceptance, which all humans do indeed feel at some point. People instinctively attempt to form a society in order to live in
Compare and contrast the views of human nature, the state and war of any two of the following thinkers: Thomas Hobbes and Thucydides.
IR 2003: Power and Violence in World Politics, Tutor: Dr M. Rologas Compare and contrast the views of human nature, the state and war of any two of the following thinkers: Thomas Hobbes and Thucydides. Andre Wegner, [email protected] Submitted: 19/11/2003 Thomas Hobbes once acknowledged that he drew inspiration from Thucydides' History of the Peloponnesian War for his master piece Leviathan. In effect the theories represented in their books are more similar than other works of political theory might be. Undeniably both Thucydides and Hobbes argue that war is inevitable, that human nature is anarchic and that the strongest will therefore "rule whatever one can"1. However, despite these similarities there are also marked differences. Whereas Hobbes might argue this law of nature can be disrupted by the peoples desire for peace and security, Thucydides remains pessimistic and sees no way past the inevitability of war. Many more differences, which will be examined further on in the text, widen the gap between the two theorists who nonetheless remain fundamentally close, despite over two thousand years age difference. In April 1588 Thomas Hobbes was born into a tumultuous era of political and scientific change. An Oxford education and his short exile during the civil war revealed to him the significance of these changes and it became an obsession of his work to link the
Social Biases: Stereotyping, Prejudice, and Discrimination
Running head: SOCIAL BIASES Social Biases Doyle O. Welborn University of Phoenix Social Biases The concept of social bias is more pervasive in our society than most people realize. Research in the field of social psychology reveals that social bias prevents mutually beneficial interaction among people. This problem could be detrimental to ingroup cohesion, intergroup cooperation, and the success of society. This paper will define the concept of social bias, explain subtle and blatant biases, describe the impact of bias, and evaluate strategies to overcome social biases. Defining the Terminology Social bias occurs in at least three forms: stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination (Fiske, 2004). These forms of social bias are a category-based response which is correlated but not redundant (Fiske, 2004). Category-based responses are typically clearly defined, negative, and directed at members of an individual's outgroup. These responses can be separated into three aspects: cognitive, affective, and behavioral (Fiske, 2004). Stereotyping is Cognitive Stereotypes are cognitive structures which people use to organize the characteristics or attributes related to groups of people and the functioning interactions of those various characteristics (Fiske, 2004). People use stereotypes to apply the characteristics of a group to an individual in the group. When people
Compare Qualitative and Quantitative Approach in the Study of Language
Compare Qualitative and Quantitative Approach in the Study of Language Qualitative research is a systematic method of inquiry which follows a scientific in depth method of problem solving deviating in certain directions (Thomas & Nelson, 2001). Quantitative research can be visualized as it uses numerical forms of representation which then can be presented in forms of graphs and tables (Denscombe, 2003). The approaches included in both these two types of research are incredibly diverse, complex and nuanced. This essay will specifically introduce the existing research on language which employed both qualitative and quantitative methodologies, critically evaluate their strengths and weaknesses in terms of data gathering and data analysis. The author concludes that qualitative and quantitative research methodologies are best suited to different kinds of research questions. The most important thing is that, firstly, the theoretical framework and methods match what the researcher wants to investigate; and secondly, researchers should be explicit about any challenging theoretical and ideological problems encountered in their research. The types of research questions which qualitative research methodologies address are often open-ended and exploratory, aiming to generate hypotheses rather than to test them. Therefore, the hypothesis is often not given at the beginning of the
Connection between economic growth, wealth, health and happiness
Connection between economic growth, wealth, health and happiness Contents . Introduction 3 2. What is an economy? 4 2.1 The UK economy 4 2.2 Economic Globalisation 4 3. Economic Growth & Measurement 5 3.1 Growth and Environmental Gains 5 3.2 Environmental Losses and Repair 5 4. National Well-being, Health and Happiness 6 4.1 Alternative Measurements 7 5. Conclusion 7 6. References 8 Connection between economic growth, wealth, health and happiness . Introduction Economies around the world are varied and the wealth of the country is portrayed by its economic growth. Countries with high economic growth are generally referred to as developed countries and those with lesser growth are considered to be developing countries. Research has been conducted by sociologists, economists and psychologists to determine the link between economic growth and happiness. Whilst it is agreed that economic growth brings wealth to the country, this report will investigate whether economic growth can bring health and happiness also. 2. What is an economy? An economy is a system to control the income, assets, resources and wealth of a country. The production, consumption, distribution, imports and exports of goods are all part of an economy of a country. The economy is organised in such a way that it controls the prices and consumption of
The Leviathan presents itself as a book about the natural condition of mankind and how polity plays a role in mans life.
The Leviathan presents itself as a book about the natural condition of mankind and how polity plays a role in mans life. Thomas Hobbes depicts how he thinks humans would act without society, government or a code of moral values, calling his revelation 'The Natural Condition of Mankind' or 'The State of Nature'. This paper will use specific reflections from Plato's Republic and Augustine's Confessions to compare and contrast ideas and concepts that are proclaimed in Hobbes's Leviathan. In an in depth exploration of these three major philosophical works, though interpretations at times run wild, the themes, proverbs, and general lessons to be learnt are notably similar. Firstly it must be said that to understand Hobbes's Leviathan one cannot view it in a vacuum. Like the Republic and Confessions in this sense, it is not only impossible but ignorant to give it a single interpretation. Works of this nature, one will come to see after indulging in them, pride themselves on their complexity and divergence. In Leviathan, Thomas Hobbes presents an understanding of the law as a concept that distances human beings from their natures, thus saving the integrity of civilization. He expresses his argument that; In such condition there is no place for industry, because the fruit thereof is uncertain, and consequently, no culture of the earth, no navigation, nor building, no instruments