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University Degree: Applied Sociology

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  • Marked by Teachers essays 2
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  1. Is globalization new and inevitable? Discuss with reference to EITHER culture, economics OR politics.

    Individuals all around the world can communicate within the internet or by phone any time they want. Accidents which happen in one country are seen on the television in another country within minutes. These are just some of the global changes, which are occurring in many aspects of people's lives. In April 1986 there was an accident in Chernobyl, USSR, a nuclear power station exploded and as a result a cloud was carrying radioactive particles across all Europe (David Held,2004,p.18), this example demonstrates stretched social relations, when events, decision or accidents happen on one side of the world having an impact on the other.

    • Word count: 1614
  2. The Problem of Obesity in the Youth of America.

    The heart of the matter is that our culture lacks the knowledge to break this cycle. Education is the best way to address the problem of childhood obesity. As we look into our cultures background we that in earlier times it was common for families to have numerous children. With the lack of healthcare, money, and resources children in general were needed to help out around the house to maintain it and secure a living for the family. Today's households have changed yet this characteristic of foraging has lasted through today where health research has finally had the courage to address this cultural issue.

    • Word count: 1301
  3. The History and Evolution of Birth Control

    The Ancient Greeks took a similar approach to birth control but instead of food they used oils such as olive oil, lead ointment, frankincense oil, cedar oil, and an ancient plant called silphium (a large cousin to the fennel plant which, because of such high demand, was extinct by the fourth century A.D.). While barriers such as condoms were documented as far back as about 3000 B.C. but were used as a protection against disease rather than the prevention of pregnancy.

    • Word count: 1296
  4. The Life and Accomplishments of Edwin Sutherland. Edwin Sutherland was a sociologist who was passionate at trying to define and explain crime and criminal behavior.

    Sutherland devoted his life and gained public recognition as one of this country's leading criminologist through teaching, writing, and research (Odum, H. W. 1951). Even though his strict upbringing is what shaped his life and career, as an adult Edwin Sutherland didn't follow the Baptist fundamentalism lifestyle, he enjoyed things like smoking, bridge, golf and movies (J. Robert Lilly, Richard A. Ball, Francis T. Cullen, 2011 p. 269). Sutherland's work was also greatly influenced by a number of worldly events that took place within his life time.

    • Word count: 1716
  5. The Comparison of Ethnographies, Surveys, Experiments and Other Key Factors When Choosing a Research Design

    Finally, a detailed conclusion should be induced. The Comparison of Ethnographies, Surveys and Experiments in Terms of Validity and Reliability Whether during the research work or once it is completed, researchers must usually consider the validity and the reliability of their research (Thietart et al. 2001). Assessing the reliability of a research consists of different processes involved and repeated, but the results are always the same. In other words, reliability means the outcomes are not necessarily depends on the difference of occasions, such as varied researchers and at different time.

    • Word count: 1959
  6. Should children who commit crimes be seen as responsible for their actions?

    The final approach to be discussed will be that of the applied approach. Elements from both scientific and social constructionism can be drawn from for this approach, but concentrating mainly on the practical issues and questions of how children should and have been cared for, how they have been brought up. Ways to support their development and ultimately in deciding what should be done when they have committed a crime. There are two main models of law dealing with such issues, namely the justice model and the welfare model. According to the scientific approach, children's ability to reason and make moral choices depends on their cognitive developmental stage.

    • Word count: 1518
  7. The Damaging of Thumos. In Dorothy Allisons Two or Three Things I Know for Sure and Skin: Talking About s*x, Class and Literature she explores the effects of being generalized at a young age and how it affected her identity and self worthiness through he

    (p.13, Skin). She goes on to say how she did not want to be they anymore and how by being generalized to a certain group would lead her to never having the chance to "name her own life, understand it, or claim it" (p.13, Skin). While people outside of her social class generalized her, the people within her social class as well as her family, made her eternalize these generalizations. Her family on a regular basis would call each other ugly.

    • Word count: 1438
  8. Assess the role of education in society, in particular the link between education, social mobility, life chances, employment, race and gender.

    Functionalists also believe that we should live in a meritocratic society, where those who work hard will ascend in society and those that decide not to further their education will not benefit from the privileges that society has to offer them. 'Education is the influence exercised by adult generations on those that are not yet ready for social life. Its object is to develop in the child a certain number of physical , intellectual and moral states which are demanded of him by both the political society as a whole and the special milieu for which he is specifically destined.'

    • Word count: 1920
  9. Suicide in Canada. The suicide rate for Canadians, as measured by the World Health Organization, is 15 per 100,000 people. According to numerous studies, rates are even higher among specific groups.

    According to the World Health Organization , someone around the globe commits suicide every 40 seconds. In the year 2000, 815,000 people lost their lives to suicide - more than double the number of people who die as a direct result of armed conflict every year . For people between the ages of 15 and 44, suicide is the fourth leading cause of death and the sixth leading cause of disability and infirmity worldwide.1 Suicide is a significant and underestimated cause of death in Canada.

    • Word count: 1326
  10. Connection between economic growth, wealth, health and happiness

    2.1 The UK Economy The UK government is also responsible for collecting various taxes. Health care, education, free meals and various benefits are provided by the Government through taxes paid. The UK economy is one of the largest 7 economies globally, therefore recognised as a developed country. The majority of countries in the east are seen as developing due to their lower economy, except Australia, New Zealand and Japan as detailed in Figure 1 (Fribbance, 2009, p. 18). The UK has various regions which are measured for its Gross Value Added (GVA).

    • Word count: 1691
  11. Consider when and how researchers might use qualitative and quantitative approaches in their research about children and young people. In this essay I will compare and contrast the qualitative and quantitative approaches adopted by Coates and Takei in th

    The term 'quantification' means to measure on some numerical basis, therefore whenever we count or categorise, we quantify. In comparison, qualitative research does not focus on the collection of numerical data, but is far more interested in 'real life' situations. 'Qualitative research is empirical research where the data are not in the form of numbers'. (Punch, 2005, pg.3) A qualitative study tends to rely on anecdotal data and because of this the research is often undertaken on a smaller scale, where it is possible for the researcher to become immersed in the study. For example, an area where qualitative research can be useful is in testing people's response to different advertising.

    • Word count: 1784
  12. Discuss the ways in which the media and particularly television have had a dramatic impact upon childrens lives.

    "Too much exposure to the media is commonly seen to lead to violence and delinquency, s****l promiscuity, educational underachievement, obesity, apathy and cynicism, and a whole host of anti-social behaviors. At times these anxieties rise to the level of 'moral panic', in which the media are seen to be the primarily responsible for the demise of moral standards and civilized behavior." (Barker and Petley, 2001) Now-a-days it is not possible to understand contemporary childhood without taking into account of the media.

    • Word count: 1625
  13. How the Enlightenment Shaped our World Today

    Descartes' work became a central theme in the Enlightenment by sketching a background for rational thought (Hamilton: 21). Another theme was the idea of empiricism - through the works of Galileo and Newton (Evans 2007:24). These themes were further developed by the philosophers. One important development was the establishment of the Encyclop´┐Żdie (Hamilton: 28). Another, no less crucial, is the emergence of the social science through the work of Saint-Simon and Comte (Hamilton: 56). Later on, Comte's ideas were to reappear in Durkheim's development of Sociology, and of other thinkers' approaches such as Weber, Marx, Mill and others (Hamilton: 57). One central consequence on western history is the separation of the educational system and the state from religion.

    • Word count: 1264
  14. Social Constructionism

    It will look at the different forms of social constructionism with discussion focusing around opposing theorist's views and perspectives. "The cultural world is not only collectively produced, but it remains real by virtue of collective recognition" (Berger 1966), this can be applied to the idea that reality, culture and social differences are produced and manufactured through the means of recognition and acceptance of that construct by society. For example, in terms of gender; we are automatically known individually as either a male of a female, this is collective recognition (Burr 1995).These divisions between genders are reinforced and entangled within everything in society; from something as basic as a colour (the "tradition" being blue for boys and pink for girls)

    • Word count: 1075
  15. The following essay will focus on consumption and consumerism in relation to food consumption in modern society. Focusing on how mass production created Mcdonaldization of society and also how conspicuous consumption has filtered down through the classes

    The way in which McDonaldization has been accepted into modern society is that whilst people's lifestyles become more and more hectic it offers a quick and simple way of changing from "hungry to full" in just a few minutes (Waters 1996 Cited by Ritzer 2006). The theory is looking to take control of consumers, taking away individuality in order to spread its own source of consumer culture, whereas the consumer culture that is the norm is that the consumer is expected to have choice (Ritzer 2006).

    • Word count: 1199
  16. Religion and sociological perspective

    He brought attention to the Protestant faith, with their belief in good work ethic and saving. This was important and relevant to the study of sociology because it showed the collective consequences of the individual's personal beliefs. He believed that the protestant faith was the birth of capitalism and inclusiveness of religion had effects on society as a whole, even non-members of the religion (Schaefer 2009, p 329). The individual in the religion views the world thru their respective religious "lens." They see and interpret everything that happens in the context of their beliefs and also their past experience.

    • Word count: 1367
  17. Social divisions are now much less significant than they were fifty years ago. Discuss.

    Since girls were allowed to attend school, there were divisions in subjects. There were grammar and technical schools for boys, but not for girls, until feminist raised the issue of gender inequalities in schooling during the 1960s and 1970s. Girls were underachieving boys in these subjects for many years, but in the 1990s the statistics showed, that girls had better results than boys. (Woodward, 2004, p.63) Social divisions could also be seen in family lives. In 1950s the most important factor for a "healthy" society was to have traditional nuclear families, which consisted of a mum, dad and their children.

    • Word count: 1682
  18. Access to specialized knowledge makes decision-making easier in contemporary society.

    This massive production of knowledge could be seen to make decision-making easier, but in some cases not. Medical knowledge has been developed through the centuries. Different theorists had different approaches to knowledge. For example Karl Popper was questioning the knowledge which was available at the time, he tried to falsify or verify what was found. (Woodward and Watt, 2004, p.21) Thomas Kuhn argued that most of the time scientists were copying procedures, which were introduced by earlier researchers. They developed paradigms, which are sets of assumptions, laws and methods, which are accepted by scientists and have set the standards to how the inquiries are conducted.

    • Word count: 1478
  19. Critically evaluate the cognitive approach to psychology

    The behaviourism approach which was dominant until the 1950's, had set out to explain everything in regards to behaviour and promoted its claims to diverse areas such as behavioural therapy and education, Davey (2006) pp15. It is however, no longer the dominant approach, but has stayed the most important aspect within some areas of psychology. Psychology has changed greatly since the late 19th century as it became apparent people began to have different ideas what psychology was and what is should be about.

    • Word count: 1600
  20. How has UK society changed over time?

    Due to this, women stayed at home with the children and done the domestic tasks, however sometimes women may have also had a part-time job for extra income. In the late 18th century feminism began to take shape. Feminism explains gender divisions and inequalities. This social movement works for equal opportunities for men and women. As a result of feminism women had more educational and employment opportunities. Now the domestic division of labour which include cooking, cleaning and caring changes yet again and is split more equally between men and women.

    • Word count: 1339
  21. Reasons for the low levels of educational achievement in the Bahamas.

    immediately related to occupational futures" (Johnson, 1988, p.40). It should be noted that in 2001, the National BGCSE average was a D. In 2002, the National BGCSE average was a D. It was the same again in 2003 and 2004 and in 2005, a D+, a grand improvement hardly! It is devastating that the majority of students in the Bahamas are unable to pass these examinations with at a least a C or above. Surely there are many factors affecting these poor results and everyone seems to know the answers.

    • Word count: 1829
  22. Case study of two cultures

    Alice lived in Australia for many years, married and had two children. For business reasons she and her family have moved to Bali, but still regularly visit Australia where the still own property. Alice says she feels closer to her own cultural style in Bali she says she feels "closer to the earth". Airini Airini is the second girl interviewed and comes from New Zealand, her ancestry is Samoan and her family has a strong sense of cultural and are great believers in keeping culture alive and strong.

    • Word count: 1504
  23. People today have far more freedom and choice than they had fifty years ago. Do you agree?

    Global companies tried to dominate this market taking the freedom of choice from the consumer. If genetically modified foods are the only ones on the shelves, the consumer's choice is withdrawn (Mackay, 2004, p.30). Not only has the choices of food increased but the shops in which they're sold has gained greater variety. Fifty years ago the shops on the high street were mainly local independent traders. If a product was not stocked in one of these shops, then it was not available to be purchased.

    • Word count: 1608
  24. Summary on the situation of foreign domestic helpers in Hong Kong

    Wee and Sim(2005) argued that these theoretical debates does not address how a place to become the migration destination and these destinations are actively shaped through the macro-politics at policy level, meso-politics at socio-cultural level and micro-politics at individual level. The writers use 'articulation theory' to analyse how Hong Kong becomes an essential destination of human circulation contextualized by the changing position during capitalism development within the world economy. Hong Kong always serves as a process of migration-in-transition and a stepping stone for further migration to other destinations such as Canada and European countries, it is estimated that over 90,000 Filipino domestic workers has been moved from Hong Kong to Canada under the Foreign Domestic Movement Program.

    • Word count: 1651
  25. Social Biases: Stereotyping, Prejudice, and Discrimination

    People use stereotypes to apply the characteristics of a group to an individual in the group. When people form stereotypes, they are forming rational explanations for affective and behavior reactions to their biases (Fiske, 2004). These explanations are in the form of a cognitive structure or schema which helps people organize their world in a manageable way (Fiske, 2004). Prejudice is Affective The term prejudice primarily refers to an individual's emotional reaction to a group of people. Although some researchers include affect, cognition, and behavior, the single component of affect is an effective method of distinguishing the attitude of prejudice related to outgroups (Fiske, 2004).

    • Word count: 1599

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • Critically evaluate the cognitive approach to psychology

    "In conclusion to the cognitive approach within psychology, it is clear to see that the cognitive approach has under gone a lot of changes over the years in regards to what aspects to study in order to fully understand what the approach is about. Many studies have arisen trying to explain how we process information, our cognitive processes and so on. As quoted at the beginning of this essay from Groome (2006) in regards to what cognitive psychology is, it is evident from the research I have done that it is a very broad term and can often lead to different interpretations. The cognitive approach, however has often lead to different applications, for example, it has been very beneficial to those who have dysfunctional thoughts, feelings and behaviours. So I can conclude that cognitive psychology is still an on going approach and therefore does not provide us with a true and clear picture of what actually goes on within our information processing stages."

  • Compare and contrast the approach into studying children's friendships taken in the Bigelow and La Gaipa (1974) study with that taken by Wiiliam Corsaro.

    "To conclude, we need to look at each researchers methods to be able to see the discrepancies between Corsaro's findings with that of Bigelow and La Gaipa, which shows the implications of the contrasts in their research which has been highlighted in the essay. Therefore, by Corsaro using ethnography and exploring children's TMA 02 - Darlene Duncan - T1878621 - Page 05 activities as a participant, he is able to collate more complex and detailed data than Bigelow and La Gaipa during their resrearch, because research methods such as theirs, essay writing about friendship expectations, may yield an incomplete picture of a child's understanding of the social world. As Corsaro himself said, "I think we really need in our research is to remember that it's important to focus on children in their present lives. The future of childhood is in the present". (Interview with William Corsaro, 2010)."

  • Evaluate the claim that British identity is defined by shared values.

    "In conclusion, it is clear to see that the British identity is not a simple matter, the nation is not fixed or permanent and things are constantly changing. There are a number of influences that have contributed towards the British identity, and this can be defined through relationships between people and place, imagined communities, diverse societies and shared cultures that form a national identity. Culture is claimed by some people to be the habits, practices and values of a way of life, Raymond Williams (1958) (cited in Clarke, 2009, p.219) claimed that there are selective traditions that cause some aspects to be excluded, despite the view that cultural products are common to all residents, It is clear that there are a lot of sources from which to gain information about the portrayals of the British identity, although one should also take into account the writers or speakers interest or role in the matter, because they can often manipulate the wording to give or enhance particular significance."

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