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University Degree: Applied Sociology

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  1. Comparative Social System Unemployment in USA and Hong Kong

    Structural unemployment refers to mismatch between the job offered by the employer and skill of the labor. (Christopher Ruhm 2000) Economists are indulge in long debate from last three decades about the causes of unemployment. Keeping in mind the above types of unemployment, economists categorized themselves in four schools of thoughts. Some said it the personal choices (frictional unemployment) of labor force which keep the unemployment as an issue. Some said it is due to the prevalence of insufficient aggregate demand for labor force in the economy (cyclical unemployment). Some are of the view point that it is because of structural inefficiencies (structural unemployment).

    • Word count: 2853
  2. Critically evaluate the cognitive approach to psychology

    The behaviourism approach which was dominant until the 1950's, had set out to explain everything in regards to behaviour and promoted its claims to diverse areas such as behavioural therapy and education, Davey (2006) pp15. It is however, no longer the dominant approach, but has stayed the most important aspect within some areas of psychology. Psychology has changed greatly since the late 19th century as it became apparent people began to have different ideas what psychology was and what is should be about.

    • Word count: 1600
  3. How has UK society changed over time?

    Due to this, women stayed at home with the children and done the domestic tasks, however sometimes women may have also had a part-time job for extra income. In the late 18th century feminism began to take shape. Feminism explains gender divisions and inequalities. This social movement works for equal opportunities for men and women. As a result of feminism women had more educational and employment opportunities. Now the domestic division of labour which include cooking, cleaning and caring changes yet again and is split more equally between men and women.

    • Word count: 1339
  4. A Critical Analysis of Laud Humphreys The Tearoom Trade

    Following a research paper he wrote on the subject of homosexuality in 1965 Humphreys realised that very little research had taken place into the kind of people engaged in this deviant activity. Social scientists have avoided this area of deviant behaviour........ethics and emotional problems, I suspect, provide the more serious obstacles for most prospective researchers. Humphreys (1970, p.17) Humphreys decided that the best way to study this area was to research h********l behaviour within public toilets, otherwise known as 'Tearooms' in the U.S.

    • Word count: 2418
  5. Reasons for the low levels of educational achievement in the Bahamas.

    immediately related to occupational futures" (Johnson, 1988, p.40). It should be noted that in 2001, the National BGCSE average was a D. In 2002, the National BGCSE average was a D. It was the same again in 2003 and 2004 and in 2005, a D+, a grand improvement hardly! It is devastating that the majority of students in the Bahamas are unable to pass these examinations with at a least a C or above. Surely there are many factors affecting these poor results and everyone seems to know the answers.

    • Word count: 1829
  6. Internal and External factors of Motivation

    Carlson and Buskist (1997) describe motivation as being "a general term for a group of phenomena that affect the nature, strength, or persistence of an individuals behaviour"(p.415). Wordnet (n.d p.1) defines motivation "the psychological feature that arouses an organism to action toward a desired goal; the reason for the action; that which gives purpose and direction to behaviour". There are said to be four different kinds of motivation, positive, intrinsic, negative and extrinsic (Kohn, 1999). Psychologists study motivation because they want to understand why people do things.

    • Word count: 2016
  7. Stress is a epidemic

    Collins (2010) describes and epidemic as "affecting many people in an area, example; stress has now reached epidemic proportions". Atkinson (1979) makes a link between stress and frustration, conflict, and the inability to achieve a desired outcome or goal. He also goes on to elucidate the different ways stress affects people and how they respond to it. Atkinson (1979) explains the idea of learnt helplessness which he discovered by doing experiments with dogs in which the dog was placed in a situation in which it was helpless to avoid an electric shock. Later when the Dog was given the opportunity to avoid the shock, the dog made no attempt to avoid it.

    • Word count: 2010
  8. Case study of two cultures

    Alice lived in Australia for many years, married and had two children. For business reasons she and her family have moved to Bali, but still regularly visit Australia where the still own property. Alice says she feels closer to her own cultural style in Bali she says she feels "closer to the earth". Airini Airini is the second girl interviewed and comes from New Zealand, her ancestry is Samoan and her family has a strong sense of cultural and are great believers in keeping culture alive and strong.

    • Word count: 1504
  9. Research on views on abortion. The researchers hypothesis is, abortion should not be allowed to under 18s without parental consent. The researcher plans to use ten parents in her study and ten non parents aged between 19 and 30.

    This law was put in place to attempt to restrict abortion. The 1990 Act then lowered the legal age limit from 28 to 24 weeks, which is currently the accepted point of viability. The specific time-limits on abortion came into effect on 1 April 1991. The moral and legal aspects of abortion are subject to intense social debate in many parts of the world. Aspects of this debate can include the public health impact of unsafe or illegal abortion as well as legal abortion's effect upon crime rates. Currently, abortion law varies from country to country, with regard to religious, moral, and cultural sensibilities.

    • Word count: 2922
  10. s*x scandal

    • Word count: 2000
  11. Health and Illness can only be understood when taking into account their social and cultural context. Discuss

    From the 17th century to the first decades of the 20th century illness was believed to be unavoidable. Some people believed that it was the work of the devil. Until the Second World War, doctors were able to do little to affect the course of most diseases, but their services were still in great demand. People had a tendency to die of acute illnesses for instance influenza, pneumonia and tuberculosis. Nowadays the illnesses that trouble societies are Chronic, such as Cancer, Heart disease and diabetes. Still, although these diseases can't be healed, they are managed. The bio-medical model views physical illness as being related to an exact pathogen (disease-causing organism).

    • Word count: 3706
  12. The aim of the assignment is to explore how youth work has developed in order to respond to the changing social developments of young people. Historical periods which highlighted changes to the youth service will be documented, and the exploration of key

    Even some Marxist historians have credited 19th-century Sunday schools with empowering the working classes. (Timothy Larsen 2008). Hannah Moore (1745-1833) and her sister Martha soon followed in this movement. This was a possible starting point for youth work in the late 18th Century. Hannah attempted to make school sessions entertaining and varied, she felt programmes had to be planned and suited to the level of the children attending. Activities and classes were made to be as entertaining as possible. Hannah advised using singing when energy and attention was waning. (Smith M, 2002). On June 6th 1844, the YMCA (Young Mens Christian Association)

    • Word count: 3420
  13. Attitudes towards Depression: Developing a Reliable and Valid Questionnaire

    Likert (1932) tried a "number of specific techniques to first generate items, and then select from among them those that were valid, unidimensional (all measuring a common trait), and well discriminating" (Uebersax, 2006). He even used judges to find out about the items quality and content. Likert scaling is a formal name of all of those methods. By Likert's method, a person's attitude can be measured. This is done by combining (adding or averaging) people's responses across all items. This "adding or averaging across several items was essential for Likert to contribute to genuine measurement" (Uebersax, 2006).

    • Word count: 4441
  14. How did Margaret Thatcher become Prime Minister? A discussion of her life with reference to Daniel Levinsons Phases of Adult Life Development and Astins Career Model and their relevance to choices in Margaret Thatchers life and car

    1992 Entered the House of Lords as Baroness Thatcher. Introduction The two main theories that will be discussed are those of adulthood development as outlined by Daniel Levinson in his book A Season's of a Man's Life (1978) as well as the work of Astin (1984) and her model of career choice and work development. Through referenced examples from her life this essay will attempt to highlight how the choices made by Margaret Thatcher can be examined using the framework of these two theories. Particular focus will be given to Astin's work when examining the childhood and early years of Thatcher's adult life.

    • Word count: 6119
  15. People today have far more freedom and choice than they had fifty years ago. Do you agree?

    Global companies tried to dominate this market taking the freedom of choice from the consumer. If genetically modified foods are the only ones on the shelves, the consumer's choice is withdrawn (Mackay, 2004, p.30). Not only has the choices of food increased but the shops in which they're sold has gained greater variety. Fifty years ago the shops on the high street were mainly local independent traders. If a product was not stocked in one of these shops, then it was not available to be purchased.

    • Word count: 1608
  16. Summary on the situation of foreign domestic helpers in Hong Kong

    Wee and Sim(2005) argued that these theoretical debates does not address how a place to become the migration destination and these destinations are actively shaped through the macro-politics at policy level, meso-politics at socio-cultural level and micro-politics at individual level. The writers use 'articulation theory' to analyse how Hong Kong becomes an essential destination of human circulation contextualized by the changing position during capitalism development within the world economy. Hong Kong always serves as a process of migration-in-transition and a stepping stone for further migration to other destinations such as Canada and European countries, it is estimated that over 90,000 Filipino domestic workers has been moved from Hong Kong to Canada under the Foreign Domestic Movement Program.

    • Word count: 1651
  17. examine literature on the oppression of elderly people

    Kosberg does not place any emphasis on the concept of empowerment, that is; " the process by which individuals, groups or communities become able to take control of their circumstances and achieve their own goals, thereby being able to work towards maximising the quality of their lives" (Adams 1990, cited in Jack 1995:11) Rather the emphasis is placed on the actions of other stakeholders and their ability to demolish oppression of the elderly. The underlying mentality throughout the book is that the burden of resolving the problem should placed on other groups in society and not the elderly themselves.

    • Word count: 2828
  18. Social Biases: Stereotyping, Prejudice, and Discrimination

    People use stereotypes to apply the characteristics of a group to an individual in the group. When people form stereotypes, they are forming rational explanations for affective and behavior reactions to their biases (Fiske, 2004). These explanations are in the form of a cognitive structure or schema which helps people organize their world in a manageable way (Fiske, 2004). Prejudice is Affective The term prejudice primarily refers to an individual's emotional reaction to a group of people. Although some researchers include affect, cognition, and behavior, the single component of affect is an effective method of distinguishing the attitude of prejudice related to outgroups (Fiske, 2004).

    • Word count: 1599
  19. What can the study of suicide tell us about relationships in society?

    But probably the most significant reason for our difficulties in understanding Suicide is simply that we do not share Durkheim's general frames of reference, which includes specific knowledge and forms of thought." (Douglas 1973:13) Durkheim's research could be seen as quite a study that wasn't wide-ranging enough. Atkinson goes further into this argument. Mauss noted that the essential concern of Durkheim's work was the association between society and individuals. The general idea of this research is that society (and the moral state of society)

    • Word count: 2113
  20. All Are Equal

    This groundbreaking decision impacted the United States forever, paving the way for integration. This impacts U.S. citizens in the workplace and education, and not only for the African American race, but also for other races. Equal Opportunity in Employment for Every Man Imagine a black man applying for work at a local grocery store advertising need for shelve stockers. After an interview the man appears to be a hard worker and, well worth hiring. The employer tells the man he'll get back to him, but never talks, let alone looks, at the man again. This example is one of the kindest racial discrimination circumstances you would see prior to 1954.

    • Word count: 1514
  21. Children are active in constructing their own learning. To what extent do the four grand theories of development support this statement?

    These changes, or learning, take place through a process called conditioning. Watson, along with Rayner, demonstrated this with an experiment with an 11-month-old infant named Albert B., more widely known as "Little Albert" (Watson, 1924). During the experiment they re-trained his reflex behaviour of the fear of a loud sound to a new environmental stimulus: the presence of a rat. This is known as classical conditioning and was developed from the work of Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) who developed it through his studies in the physiology of digestion.

    • Word count: 2554
  22. What evidence is there that children(TM)s development is influenced by play with siblings and peers?

    Play with siblings can be grouped in terms of being both complementary and reciprocal and it is this combination that makes sibling relationships potentially so influential: the older child can act as a teacher and both can share interest and competence and further their development. The emergence of pretend play in very young children can be seen as a very noteworthy indicator of development. As Piaget pointed out: it indicates the shift from sensorimotor to representational functioning because the child is not tied to objects as they are in reality, but can use imagination to pretend that they are something different.

    • Word count: 2670
  23. Alcoholism through the eyes of a bartender.

    The factors that contribute to alcohol consumption in the work place, according to the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, are "workplace culture and the acceptance of drinking, workplace alienation, the availability of alcohol, and the existence and enforcement of workplace alcohol policies." (NIAAA, 2008) These are all contributing factors in the restaurant/ bar business, but the two that most contribute are the availability and the culture. Alcoholism is found at a high rate among employees of a drinking establishment and can affect many aspects of their lives.

    • Word count: 2696
  24. There is no such thing as a universal family as there is no such thing as an ideal family. Discuss

    It is also made up of people who support each other in one or several ways (e.g. socially, economically, and psychologically) or whose members identify with each other in a supportive unit. There are different types of family; there are the more commonly-known ones, such as nuclear and extended, but there are also names for a mother-and-child family (matrifocal) and a father-and-child family (consanguineal). The conjugal family refers to a heterosexual pair and their offspring, while the extended family refers to at least two related conjugal families, and for instance may consist of a woman and man, their children, and the spouse and children of at least one of these, or two or more siblings, their spouses and children.

    • Word count: 1853
  25. Compare and contrast the use of interviewing in quantitative and qualitative research. Use case studies and examples from published work to illustrate the strengths and limitations of different types of interviewing.

    Durkheim and Weber also used second hand data to analyse their social theories. "Qualitative research focuses on smaller units of society and on the understanding of the social situations and the meanings of that individuals attach to behaviours. It is a more subjective approach whereby the researcher aims to understand and interpret the experiences of the individuals involved, b viewing the world through the eyes of the individuals being studied." (I Marsh, 1996 p109) Methods of Qualitative research can include various forms of observation and unstructured interviews.

    • Word count: 2056

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