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University Degree: Applied Sociology

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  1. What difficulties arise in describing the international political theory of Hobbes and Rousseau as 'realist'?

    Bearing this fact in mind it is quite easy to see why Hobbes views human nature with some contempt. In 'Leviathan', Hobbes main writings try to show how he thinks humans would act without government, moral values and the basic concept of society, which he titles, 'The Natural Condition of Mankind' or 'The State of Nature'. From this vision of mankind, Hobbes then gives rules on how to govern legitimately and correctly. However, Hobbes arguments have generated a number of criticisms. In 'Leviathan', Hobbes spends a great deal of time discussing and finding out what exactly human nature is.

    • Word count: 2361
  2. Leviathan, Thomas Hobbes, a discussion.

    Royalists rejected Hobbes' idea because it upset the accepted order of society and had potentially grave consequences for government and religion. The social contract appeared at first glance to be one of Hobbes' strongest pro-Royalist arguments on the autonomy of the sovereign, but ended up detracting from the sovereigns traditional legitimacy and removing the only scapegoat for unpopular decisions, a higher mystical authority (Rohmann 183). Royalists were constantly concerned with the legitimacy of their rule, which they derived from divine right, but Hobbes asserted that legitimacy was irrelevant for a government that ruled by social contract, meaning, for the peace and security of the people who consented to be governed as an alternative to the constant fear of violent death.

    • Word count: 1061
  3. Compare and contrast the views of human nature, the state and war of any two of the following thinkers: Thomas Hobbes and Thucydides.

    In April 1588 Thomas Hobbes was born into a tumultuous era of political and scientific change. An Oxford education and his short exile during the civil war revealed to him the significance of these changes and it became an obsession of his work to link the two movements. His observation of the civil war and the English Republic especially led him to design a state where "eternal" peace could arise on the back of education and the unchallenged rule of the sovereign, the Leviathan. It sets out first to explore the nature of humans and their behaviour without a state and then sets forth in an attempt to design a system of good government in which peace would flourish.

    • Word count: 1982
  4. Karl Marx.

    Once exiled, he lived in London and worked as a correspondent for the New York Tribune. He is best known as the founder of Marxism, and for his collaborative efforts with Frederick Engles in writing the Communist Manifesto. In spite of his intense commitment to his work, he still found time to marry and raise a family. He married Jenny von Westphalen in June of 1843, and they had their first child in May of 1844. This was just two years after his introduction to Freidrich Engels, his lifelong friend and co-writer. Marx and Engels published many works, both individually and in collaboration with each other.

    • Word count: 1960
  5. The idealised Socities of Gandhi and Communism.

    Firstly, the concept of 'theft' which is repeatedly mentioned in Gandhi's text refers to a system were overproduction and consumerism are the norm. Theft, by which a man consumes more than he or she should, is just another way of accumulating wealth in a capitalist society. 'It is theft for me to take any fruit that I do not need, or to take it in a larger quantity than is necessary.'4 To Gandhi, man's greed is that which leads him to overproduce and to use the earth's resources in excess.

    • Word count: 1884
  6. Which theorist is most applicable to understanding work today, Marx, Weber, or Durkheim?

    On the other hand, Max Weber concentrates on the notion of rationality and the way society takes a pragmatic approach to everything. He goes on to say that logic supersedes emotions and religion and that society will necessarily attribute the happenings of the world to their own actions. Karl Marx gives a totally different explanation to the workings of society saying that work dominates our life and is about individual creativity. He explains that capitalism leads to exploitation, which then follows on with concentration of ownership and saturation of world markets.

    • Word count: 1053
  7. Introduction to the History of Modern Philosophy.

    Plato stated that nothing exists as a self-contained unit, it has the potential to become something for someone. Therefore the rose would not be red in the dark. Hobbes would agree with Plato insofar as saying that the rose would not be red in the dark and that motion plays an important part in the explanation. The reason the rose would not be red is because no motion would be spread from the "shining, luminous and illuminated body," to the eye, thus to the optic nerve and to the brain. Hobbes states that when, "there is no light, there is no sight."

    • Word count: 1444
  8. Introduction to Political Thought

    Therefore, every human seeks "self-preservation." Hobbes gives a solution to humans' state of nature, and that is to give up our rights to a sovereign; to form a contract with any government to protect us, in exchange for obedience to the sovereign. However, Thomas Hobbes fails to see the inconsistency in his argument. If the state of nature were really as Hobbes depicts it, there would be no way of escaping it, not even through any form of government. There are many points to prove this.

    • Word count: 2331
  9. How Thomas Hobbes views human nature and concludes the best form of government is monarchy

    The nature of man contains the three causes of disagreement. First, people are in competition for the same things that they need for survival. Second, everyone knows that anyone may attack him, his family or his property so to defend himself he attacks others from whom he expects a threat. Martinich points out," If there is natural desire for something, then there is a right to fulfil that desire. There is a natural desire for self-preservation. Therefore, there is a right to self-preservation."1 Hobbes' view of self-preservation is that anyone who has the desire for self-preservation has the right to do whatever is necessary to achieve self-preservation even if the necessity is to kill others.

    • Word count: 2774
  10. Does Hobbes Sovereign or Locke's civil government provide better protection for the citizen?

    Locke's views were simple, they were fundamentally based around "be like, you'd like to be done by". In Locke's state of nature he recognises the law of reason where there is no subordination, more compromise, co-operation and the chance for self-preservation ("liberty not license" you don't have the right to destroy yourself). One of the main differences between Locke and Hobbes is their view of property in the state of nature. Hobbes makes it clear that he believes you can't have property without a sovereign because "everyman has a right to everything, even to one another's body"5.

    • Word count: 3427
  11. Hobbes and Locke Essay

    He thought that the minds of individuals are more or less the same and that they are interested in similar things. Hobbes also believed that people only do things in an act of selfishness, this means even when it appears that a person is doing something for the good of somebody else, they are actually gaining something from it for their own interests. People want to be happy. For most people it seems that material goods could make them content.

    • Word count: 1723
  12. Political Philosophy: What is Hobbes theory of political representation.

    He would need to be sympathetic to the ideas of the group living within in the areas he represents. Therefore their appearance, behaviour and the image they portray comes into consideration, they need to appear 'up to the mark' of student no: 0317003 the job in hand. Unlike in Hobbes theory our political representatives (even the leaders) in Democratic societies do not have absolute rule. We always have the chance to change that representation at the next election time by choosing to vote for another representative.

    • Word count: 2051
  13. Explain the Relevance of the Prisoner's Dilemma to Hobbes' Social Contract Theory.

    Aversion of the state of nature, and cooperation with others in civil society is a rational preference to the state of nature. To avoid the perpetual fear of living in the state of nature, Hobbes argues that people possess the natural and rational impulse to enter into a social contract, which involves the individual giving up the right to govern oneself. This right is given up to a sovereign. The sovereign may be an individual or a ruling body, and citizens are required to obey it because it is the sovereign that keeps society from degenerating into the state of nature.

    • Word count: 875
  14. Socialisation.In this essay I will be discussing the process of socialisation, including its different stages; agents; and the importance of culture in relation to socialisation. I will also briefly look at socialisation as a deterministic process,

    According to Aspin (1992, p14) there are many different phases of the socialisation process, and each take place at different stages of one's life. The process of socialisation begins at birth, and continues until we die. During early childhood, primary socialisation takes place, which occurs mostly within the family. Secondary socialisation occurs during mid-late childhood, during the child's school years, where the socialisation that had occurred within the family is reinforced and strengthened. Tertiary socialisation occurs mainly within adults, and is an ongoing process because individuals are constantly encountering new social situations.

    • Word count: 1123
  15. Why did Hobbes believe that fear was the basis of political obligation?

    In it, mankind is doomed to a "continuall feare" of "danger of violent death"4. As a result of human nature5, and our desire for gain, safety and reputation6, and our "love [for] liberty, and dominion over others"7 it is certain that men will continue to be, "during the time [that] men without a common power to keep them all in awe", involved in a state of perpetual war.8 In the state of nature, and in all states, men have an inalienable right to self-preservation called The Right of Nature. It is our right "by all means we can to defend ourselves" 9.

    • Word count: 2180
  16. The Leviathan presents itself as a book about the natural condition of mankind and how polity plays a role in mans life.

    the face of the earth, no account of time, no arts, no letters, no society, and which is worst of all, continual fear and danger of violent death, and the life of man, solitary, poor, nasty, brutish and short. (XIII, p. 186) Hobbes envisions the human being as naturally flawed and brutish and it is only the development of law and the strict adherence to these principles that a healthy civilization can exist. Hobbes argues, moreover, that situational legislation would be the decline of the integrity of a civilization.

    • Word count: 1790
  17. A comparative exploration investigating the theories of Hobbes, Locke and Rousseau on the foundation of society.

    These, and further questions, shall provide us with sufficient momentum to ultimately embark upon the journey of exploring contrasting theories, delineated by Hobbes, Locke and Rousseau respectively, in discovering the hypothetical foundation of society, as well as self-reflection. CHAPTER TWO Exposition In this section, a compartmentalized exploration into the reasons advanced by Hobbes, Locke and Rousseau respectively, with regard to the movement from a state of nature to a form of civil society is undertaken. a) Thomas Hobbes' Paranoid Need for the Sovereign Hobbes' Leviathan was written as a response to the fear he experienced during the political turmoil of the English Civil Wars.

    • Word count: 3110
  18. Thomas Hobbes : Political Philosopher.

    Before one can understand Hobbes's philosophical political view, one must understand his state of nature theory. The state of nature refers to a state without government. Hobbes says that a state that is of nature will eventually lead to a state of war. Perhaps if we take a moment to imagine that people might fare best in such a state, where each decides for himself how to act, as judge, jury and executioner in his own case whenever disputes arise; a state of perfectly private judgment, in which there is no agency with recognized authority to arbitrate disputes and effective power to enforce its decisions.

    • Word count: 1084
  19. Is Hobbes the pessimist of philosophers?

    Contrary to Hobbes's beliefs, humans do not need a sovereign to prosper. The United States distributes power between three branches of government, each with the power to overrule the other - and the US is not in a state of chaos. People themselves have the ability to decide right and wrong, as stated in Locke's laws of nature, and don't need a sovereign to determine what to think for them.

    • Word count: 393
  20. Hobbes and Sovereignty

    In other words, survival, or self-preservation, is the main driving force of all human beings. When two men met, they would either, have to fight or flee, in a state of nature. In conjunction with the wanting of dominance over others or the fear of others domination of oneself, men will also fight in a state of nature for glory, honor and reputation. Although at first glance the battle for glory, honor and reputation that occurs in a state of nature may appear to be contradictory with self-preservation, it is actually helping to achieve self-preservation.

    • Word count: 4002
  21. Hobbes – A Bourgeois Model of Society?

    Hobbes could, perhaps, be described as a 'child of his time'. He lived through the social chaos of the English civil war, which gave him much opportunity to observe the conflictual side of man's nature. His prescription for society, contained within Leviathan, was based on what he believed makes man a conflictual animal. This prescription was directed towards creating a society that allowed for this basic conflictual nature of man and yet would permit people to live in relative peace and security.

    • Word count: 2360
  22. Teenage pregnancy in Croydon - literature review and research outline.

    TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. Introduction.......................................................................................................................4 2. Literature Review...............................................................................................................4 3. Methodology......................................................................................................................5 4. Conclusion..........................................................................................................................6 5. Time Chart..........................................................................................................................7 6. References..........................................................................................................................7 1. INTRODUCTION Research studies have suggested that teenage pregnancy is a major global issue and it needs to be addressed accurately due to the health, social and economic risks associated with this issue (Baker, 2007; Roth et al., 2009; Kamberg, 2012). Decline in the number of teenage pregnancies have been reported as a result of the strategies undertaken by governing bodies across Europe to reduce the number of unplanned teenage conceptions. However, England still has the highest rate of teenage pregnancies which are mostly unplanned (Teenage Pregnancy Associates, 2011).

    • Word count: 2109
  23. Native American Mascots: Tribute or Mockery?

    Since sports are so popular today and draw so much attention, I believe that Native Americans and other protesters use these sports venues as battlegrounds for their long, hard fight against racial discrimination. In some cases, Native Americans have won the battle and forced schools to either change their mascot or retire it completely. A March 4, 2002 article in Sports Illustrated entitled ?Indian Wars?, states ?since 1969, more than 600 schools and minor league pro teams have dropped nicknames deemed offensively by Native American groups (Price).

    • Word count: 931
  24. Discus how the physical and emotional health of men is shaped by social expectations that men will behave in authorised way autonomous, physical, competitive, and non-emotional

    Furthermore boys are praised early on for displaying attributes that align with the masculine; competiveness, autonomy, physicality and emotional austerity. This results in the early rejection of the feminine traits associated with the mother and admiration for embodying the masculine traits of the father (Kimmel, 2004, p.185-186). Gender schema theory explains how the environmental pressures and cognitive development work together to impact gender role development and influence both decisions and behaviours (Berk, 2010, p.276). Perry and Bussey (1984, p.279) posit that people will retain information that runs parallel to their schemas and disregard that which contrasts to these beliefs.

    • Word count: 1747
  25. Action Plan for research into the effects of playing violent video games.

    Ethical consideration: Make the research as objective as possible and not let personal bias and opinion affect the study. I have read quite few books and pieces of research about violent video games and increase of aggression in adult and children. I was not particularly interested in violent video games and aggression. However, I think this is opportunity to broaden my knowledge and get into further research. I am certain that this topic is relevant to everyone who play games as well as who do not play or used to play video games.

    • Word count: 2323

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